All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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6 02, 2020

Rhamphorhynchus Fed on Squid

By | February 6th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Pterosaur Tooth Discovered in Jurassic Squid Fossil

The pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus, probably fed by grabbing soft-bodied creatures such as squid as it flew close to the surface of the sea.  That is the conclusion made by a group of researchers reporting on the remarkable fossil of a squid-like animal with a pterosaur tooth embedded in its body found in Germany.  Writing in the academic journal Scientific Reports, the authors of the paper, describe the beautifully preserved remains of the octobrachian (eight-armed) cephalopod Plesioteuthis subovata which has a pterosaur tooth embedded in its left flank.

Reconstruction of the Hunting Behaviour of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri

Rhamphorhynchus hunting behaviour.

Reconstruction of the hunting behaviour of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri.

Picture Credit: C. Klug and Beat Scheffold

Discovered in 2012

The cephalopod fossil was found in 2012 and it heralds from the world-renowned Solnhofen Lagerstätte in south-eastern Germany.  The strata from which the remarkable specimen was gathered has been dated to the Upper Jurassic Altmühltal Formation (lower Tithonian faunal stage – ammonite Hybonoticeras hybonotum biozone).  The fossil is kept at the Paläontologisches Institut und Museum, Universität Zürich, Switzerland (PIMUZ 37358).

Views of the Plesioteuthis subovata Specimen Showing the Pterosaur Tooth

Pterosaur tooth embedded in the fossilised remains of Plesioteuthis.

Views of the Plesioteuthis subovata specimen in natural and UV light showing the embedded pterosaur tooth.

Picture Credit: R. Hoffmann et al (Scientific Reports)

The picture above shows (A), the 28 cm long fossil of the coleoid Plesioteuthis subovata with highlighted areas (B and D).  The pterosaur tooth measures 19 mm long and picture (C) shows the tooth viewed under ultraviolet (UV) light.  The tip of the tooth is partially covered with phosphatised mantle tissue, thus ruling out the association of the tooth during the fossilisation process.  Insert (D), shows the posterior portion of the mantle with faint imprints probably representing a terminal fin.  Under UV light analysis no evidence of fin musculature could be identified (E).

Direct Evidence of Hunting/Feeding Behaviour

Such direct evidence of hunting/feeding behaviour is rarely preserved in the fossil record.  The authors of the scientific paper, which include a researcher from the University of Leicester (UK), suggest that the adult Plesioteuthis subovata was swimming close to the surface when a pterosaur (suspected of being Rhamphorhynchus muensteri), made a grab for it.  It is not known whether the injury sustained to the squid proved fatal, or whether the animal lived for a period of time before finally dying and becoming preserved in the fine-grained sediments associated with the Solnhofen Archipelago.

The tooth most likely came from the front or middle regions of either the upper or lower jaw.  As rhamphorhynchid teeth associated with very young or juveniles tend to be much smaller and straighter, the researchers conclude that the tooth came from a mature adult pterosaur with a wingspan of at least one metre.

A Model of Rhamphorhynchus (Wild Safari Prehistoric World)

Rhamphorhynchus model

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Rhamphorhynchus figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Helping to Construct Ancient Food Webs

The coleoid/pterosaur fossil will help scientists to better understand the palaeo-ecosystem associated with the Solnhofen Lagerstätte.  Whilst it is true that many different types of predator may have fed upon Plesioteuthis subovata, the size, shape and the lack of longitudinal ridges discounts marine reptiles such as ichthyosaurs, pliosaurs and crocodyliformes.  The tooth coming from a type of predatory fish has also been discounted.

The single tooth is most likely from a mature Rhamphorhynchus in a failed hunting attempt.  This seems to be the most plausible interpretation of the fossil evidence.  Furthermore, several Rhamphorhynchus fossils are known where the pterosaur is entangled within the jaws of the predatory fish Aspidorhynchus.  It has been assumed that these types of fish hunted close to the water surface and would have grabbed pterosaurs as they swooped to feed.  These fossils indirectly corroborate the suggestion that this pterosaur-cephalopod interaction occurred near the water surface.

Sometimes the Hunter Became the Hunted (Rhamphorhynchus Entangled with the Jaws of Fish)

Rhamphorhynchus and fish fossil.

A fatal encounter between two Jurassic hunters.  The Rhamphorhynchus is entangled within the jaws of a predatory fish (Aspidorhynchus acutirostris).

Picture Credit: PLOS One

Skim-feeding had been proposed for marine pterosaurs such as Rhamphorhynchus but subsequent studies suggested that this was too energy expensive.  It is more likely that Rhamphorhynchus captured prey on the wing just above the water surface or while floating on the water surface.

The scientific paper: “Pterosaurs ate soft-bodied cephalopods (Coleoidea)” by R. Hoffmann, J. Bestwick, G. Berndt, R. Berndt, D. Fuchs and C. Klug published in Scientific Reports.

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5 02, 2020

Adding to the Ornithosuchidae – Dynamosuchus collisensis

By | February 5th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Dynamosuchus collisensis – Late Triassic Bone Crushing Scavenger

A new species of ancient reptile, a distant relative of modern crocodilians has been named and described.  The two-metre-long, terrestrial predator has been named Dynamosuchus collisensis and it is the first member of the Ornithosuchidae family of archosaurs to have been discovered in Brazil.  The fossilised remains of the fearsome Dynamosuchus were found in March 2019 in the municipality of Agudo, Rio Grande do Sol in southern Brazil.  This is only the fourth ornithosuchid to have been described, the first was found in Scotland (Ornithosuchus) and described in 1894, whilst the other two genera (Riojasuchus and Venaticosuchus), were named and described in 1969 and 1971 respectively, from fossil discoveries made in Argentina.

Dynamosuchus collisensis is the first ornithosuchid to have been found for nearly five decades.

A Life Reconstruction of the Fearsome Dynamosuchus collisensis

Dynamosuchus life reconstruction.

Life reconstruction of the fearsome ornithosuchid Dynamosuchus.

Picture Credit: Márcio L. Castro

Writing in the academic journal Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, the researchers from the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (Brazil), Museo de la Plata (Argentina) and Virginia Tech (USA), estimate that Dynamosuchus roamed Gondwana around 230 million years ago (Carnian faunal stage of the Triassic) and that it may have been a scavenger.

Members of the Ornithosuchidae are characterised by the shape of their snout.  The premaxilla tends to project forward and they have two pairs substantial, conical teeth located in the anterior portion of the lower jaw (dentary).  Like modern crocodilians these animals were covered in bony armour (osteoderms), but unlike today’s crocodiles, caiman and alligators, they were much more at home on the land than in water.  Like other ornithosuchids, Dynamosuchus probably spent most of its time on all fours, but it may have been capable of adopting a bipedal stance, perhaps when a turn of speed was required to escape from other bipedal predators such as the recently described herrerasaurid Gnathovorax (G.cabreirai).

To read about Gnathovorax: Superb Fossil Sheds Light on Triassic Terrors.

One of the Osteoderms (Bony Scales) Found at the Fossil Quarry

Dynamosuchus osteoderm.

An osteoderm (bony armour) recovered from the excavation site.

Picture Credit: Rodrigo Temp Müller (Universidade Federal de Santa Maria)

A Specialised Scavenger

Studies of the skulls of these archosaurs indicate that they had strong jaws, but a relatively slow bite speed and the projecting premaxilla was not well suited to handling struggling prey.  As a result, it is has been speculated that ornithosuchids were specialised scavengers, using their powerful jaws and their curved, serrated teeth in the upper jaw to consume carcasses.  The genus name is from the Latin meaning “powerful crocodile”, whereas the trivial name is a Latinised form of “morro” a reference to the fossil quarry located at the base of the “Morro Agudo”.

A Close-up View of the Head of Dynamosuchus collisensis 

Dynamosuchus collisensis - likely to be a specialised scavenger.

Dynamosuchus collisensis (view of the head).

Picture Credit: Márcio L. Castro

The fossil material from the Santa Maria Formation adds to the number of fossil vertebrates known from the Late Triassic of Brazil.  The terrestrial ecosystem was complex with synapsids, rauischians, rhynchosaurs, aetosaurs and numerous dinosauromorphs as well as some of the earliest types of dinosaur known.  Dynamosuchus collisensis represents the first reptile with specialised anatomical adaptations for scavenging (necrophagy), to be discovered in a single fossiliferous site along with fossil remains of dinosaurs.  The new ornithosuchid further demonstrates a link between the animals associated with the Argentinean and Brazilian basins during the Carnian stage of the Triassic.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “The first ornithosuchid from Brazil and its macroevolutionary and phylogenetic implications for Late Triassic faunas in Gondwana” by Rodrigo T. Müller, M. Belén Von Baczko, Julia B. Desojo, and Sterling J. Nesbitt published in Acta Palaeontologica Polonica.

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4 02, 2020

New for 2020 Papo Parasaurolophus (Sneak Peek)

By | February 4th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

New for 2020 Papo Parasaurolophus (New Colour Variant)

Fans of the Papo “Les Dinosaures” model collection may have a little while yet to wait for the new for 2020 prehistoric animal figures to become available.  However, this does not stop Everything Dinosaur team members from posting up pictures and further information about these eagerly anticipated replicas.  For example, recently a member of staff was able to get their hands on the new for 2020 Papo Parasaurolophus in the new “striped” colour scheme.

Plenty of pictures were taken, as our Facebook and Instagram followers will testify to, but we also shot a short video so that our customers can see the model in the “flesh” as it were.

The Papo Parasaurolophus New Colour Variant 2020 (Sneak Peek)

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Parasaurolophus

This popular dinosaur is one of five new dinosaurs to be added to the Papo portfolio this year.  Joining it will be Chilesaurus, Stygimoloch, Giganotosaurus and a new colour version of the feathered Velociraptor.  Details of these dinosaur models can be found here: Everything Dinosaur Announces New Papo Dinosaurs for 2020.

The New Papo Parasaurolophus Model is Beautifully Painted

New for 2020 Papo Parasaurolophus dinosaur model.

The new for 2020 Papo Parasaurolophus dinosaur model (with the limited edition Papo Spinosaurus in the background).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The model is the same sculpt as the original Papo Parasaurolophus, but it has been given a striking makeover and the colour scheme chosen by the design team is vibrant and carefully thought through.  For example, fossil specimens of Parasaurolophus spp. have been associated with forested environments, after all, these large herbivores fed on a variety of plant materials including conifers.  The striped markings on the flanks, legs and tail would have helped to camouflage this large animal as it moved through woodland (helping to break up its body outline).

In addition, this body pattern would also have given a degree of protection as the colour scheme can prevent a predator from selecting an individual to attack.  Note also, the brighter colours associated with that splendid crest and the head/neck region.  This is probably a nod towards the hypothesis that these social animals used colour cues to indicate maturity and social status within the herd.

Replacing the Early “Green” Papo Parasaurolophus

This new replica is replacing the original “green” Parasaurolophus figure in this range.  Although team members at Everything Dinosaur have been able to secure some stock of the original Parasaurolophus model, so collectors can still acquire this figure.

To view the original Papo Parasaurolophus and the rest of the models in the “Les Dinosaures” range: Papo Dinosaur Models and Figures.

Something “Old” Something “New” Papo Parasaurolophus Models

Papo Parasaurolophus models old and new.

The original Papo Parasaurolophus (top) is being replaced by a new colour variant (bottom) in 2020.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

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3 02, 2020

Prehistoric Times Issue 132 Reviewed

By | February 3rd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Magazine Reviews, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Prehistoric Times Issue 132 (Winter 2020) Reviewed

The winter 2020 issue of “Prehistoric Times” magazine has arrived at the Everything Dinosaur offices.  Lots for team members to do, but some handy business trips afforded us the opportunity to peruse the latest edition and to get our fill of all things prehistoric.  The striking front cover is from the talented and world-renowned British palaeoartist John Sibbick and inside it is revealed that this is John’s tenth cover art contribution.  The artwork was inspired by the fossil discoveries from the famous “Dinosaur Cove and East Gippsland” locations in Victoria, Australia.  The illustration depicts a group of big-eyed Leaellynasaura  being surprised by an allosaurid in the long, cold polar night.

The Front Cover Artwork for “Prehistoric Times” Issue 132 (Winter 2020)

Prehistoric Times magazine (issue 132).

Prehistoric Times winter 2020 edition (issue 132).  The front cover artwork was supplied by British palaeoartist John Sibbick.

Picture Credit: Mike Fredericks

A “Double O” Edition

Team members have described this latest instalment of this quarterly magazine as the “double O” edition.  Phil Hore provides profiles on both the pterosaur Ornithocheirus, confusing Cambridge Greensand fossil material included and the Asian hadrosaur Olorotitan.  Look out for an article entitled “Old School Charm” by Sean Kotz which examines the Charles R. Knight-inspired Tyrannosaurus rex that depicts this famous theropod as it was seen by the scientific community over a hundred years ago.  We are brought right up to date with the Paleonews section and the “What’s New in Review” double-page spread – Everything Dinosaur gets a mention:

“Thanks to Everything Dinosaur of England with information on upcoming prehistoric animals Everything DinosaurIt is a great store and internet site”.

Drawing Diplodocus

Concluding his article on Diplodocus, Tracy Lee Ford, looks at how the head and neck of this famous sauropod is constructed.  Cue lots of helpful information on diplodocid necks and posture.  Palaeontologist Ken Carpenter has penned a couple of contributions, look out for his article discussing the proposed revision of Amphicoelias as a huge rebbachisaurid sauropod, it seems that the Sauropoda are very well represented in issue 132.

Different Potential Feeding Strategies for Diplodocus are Highlighted in Tracy Lee Ford’s “How to Draw Dinosaurs Section”

CollectA rearing Diplodocus - grey

New for 2020 CollectA rearing Diplodocus – grey.  Lots of helpful advice on how to draw diplodocids in the winter edition of “Prehistoric Times”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Early Avians – Burian

As always there are wonderful examples of reader’s artwork throughout the magazine.  The Olorotitan versus Alioramus by J. A. Chirinos, M. Elliot Maisson’s cephalopod crunching Ornithocheirus and the three-dimensional model of Anchiornis by young Phoebe Wood, which is on display in the South Australia Museum, all deserve a special mention.  The evocative of artwork of Zdeněk Burian focuses on early avians, our thanks to John Lavas for producing such an excellent article with wonderful examples of Burian’s work.  Team members felt a very real sense of nostalgia viewing Burian’s depiction of Archaeopteryx lithographica.  These types of illustrations adorn many of the dinosaur and prehistoric animal books that our staff have on their bookshelves.  We suspect dinosaur fans have a portion of any shelving dedicated to their prehistoric animal collection.  Randy Knoll provides an instructive guide to numerous dinosaur models and places them in relation to the geological formations from whence the fossil material that inspired the models came.

Packed full of informative and beautifully illustrated articles and we did not even mention the Kathryn Abbott interview or the chat with Matt Mossbrucker.

“Prehistoric Times” magazine is a fantastic publication aimed at the discerning prehistoric animal model collector and dinosaur fan.  Further information about obtaining a subscription: “Prehistoric Times Magazine.”

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2 02, 2020

A Sunday Stegosaurus

By | February 2nd, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A Sunday Stegosaurus (Stegosaurus stenops)

“Sophie” the Stegosaurus has been on display at the London Natural History Museum since late 2014.  She stands (although palaeontologists remain uncertain as to whether “Sophie” represents a male or a female), in the Earth Hall close to the Exhibition road entrance.  The fossil specimen was discovered in the western United States in 2003 and acquired by the museum thanks to the efforts of private donors including a Hedge Fund manager.  This exhibit is the world’s most complete Stegosaur specimen, the species is Stegosaurus stenops.

“Sophie” The Stegosaurus (S. stenops) on Display

Stegosaurus specimen on display.

Right lateral View of “Sophie” the Stegosaurus (London Natural History Museum).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Named after the Daughter of the Wealthy Hedge Fund Manager

This exhibit was named after the daughter of the wealthy Hedge Fund manager who helped secure the specimen.  A total of sixty-nine private donors contributed to the funding to help bring this fossil, originally from Wyoming to London.

“Sophie” Greeting Visitors to the Museum’s Earth Hall

Sophie the Stegosaurus at the London Natural History Museum

Sophie the Stegosaurus (S. stenops), a star exhibit at the London Natural History Museum.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Not Fully Grown

At around 5.6 metres long and standing a fraction under three metres tall, this 1.6 tonne herbivore is most impressive.  However, this dinosaur was not fully when grown when it died and it would have been dwarfed by the largest members of the Stegosauridae, some of which measured more than 9 metres in length.

The Stegosaurus Specimen at the London Natural History Museum

Natural History Museum (London) - Sophie the Stegosaurus

A view of the anterior of “Sophie” the Stegosaurus stenops specimen on display at the London Natural History Museum.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

“Sophie” might be quite small by stegosaur standards but we think this specimen is beautiful and we congratulate the Natural History Museum for creating such a spectacular exhibit that always thrills us when we visit.  We even have to grudgingly acknowledge the support of a Hedge Fund manager for making it possible.

A View of the Posterior Portions of “Sophie” the Stegosaurus

"Sophie" the Stegosaurus on display.

A posterior view of the spectacular “Sophie” the Stegosaurus (S. stenops) exhibit at the London Natural History Museum.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

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1 02, 2020

Looking for Fossils in Unusual Places

By | February 1st, 2020|Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Spotting Belemnites in Stone Floor Tiles

Fossils can be found in unusual places.  A few years ago, we reported on an initiative by Liverpool John Lennon Airport to encourage passengers to explore the various fossils that could be found entombed in the stone floor and the pillars of the concourse building.  As limestone is used in many construction projects, it is surprising where fossils of ancient life forms can be spotted.  For example, whilst in Germany, an Everything Dinosaur team member spotted a beautiful belemnite guard preserved in cross-section in a floor tile.

Belemnite Fossil Found in a Stone Floor Tile

Belemnite fossil found in a stone floor tile.

A cross-sectional impression of a belemnite guard preserved in the floor of a building.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The term “belemnite” is derived from the Greek for “dart”.  Looking at the fossil preserved in the stone floor tile, it is easy to see the reason for the name of these Mesozoic cephalopods.  The guard is the internal skeleton of the belemnite, it consists of a solid piece of calcite and these fossils can be found in their hundreds in rocks dating from the Lower and Middle Jurassic.  However, they are also abundant in many Cretaceous marine clays.  The anterior portion of the guard (seen on the left of the photograph), would contain the phragmocone, the cone-shaped chambered shell that demonstrates that these nektonic animals were related to ammonites.  In many instances, the phragmocone is lost, leaving a “U” shaped hollow that can be seen in the picture (above).

Some Belemnite Fossils Collected from the “Jurassic Coast” (Dorset)

Some belemnit guard fossils, the coin shows scale.

Belemnite guard fossils from the “Jurassic Coast”.  The coin on the right of the picture shows scale.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To read Everything Dinosaur’s article about fossil hunting around John Lennon airport: Fossil Hunting at John Lennon Airport (Liverpool).

A Model of a Belemnite

A model of a belemnite.

The new for 2020 CollectA Belemnite model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Given the amount of sedimentary rock used in buildings, you never know when you might be going on a fossil hunt.

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31 01, 2020

A Whale of a Time at the London Natural History Museum

By | January 31st, 2020|Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

Saying Hello to “Hope” the Blue Whale Exhibit

Another busy week for Everything Dinosaur team members.  A member of staff was at the London Natural History Museum recently, although they had a busy itinerary there was still time to enter the main gallery (the Hintze Hall) and to say hello to “Hope”, the enormous Blue Whale exhibit that replaced “Dippy” the Diplodocus in 2017.  Suspended overhead, dominating the refurbished gallery, the Blue Whale skeleton (Balaenoptera musculus), symbolises the Museum’s focus on conservation and supporting efforts to save natural habitats and wildlife.

The Spectacular “Hope” Blue Whale Exhibit in the Hintze Hall (London Natural History Museum)

Blue Whale exhibit (London Natural History Museum).

The beautiful Blue Whale skeleton exhibit dominating the Hintze Hall at the London Natural History Museum.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The skeleton measures 25.2 metres in length, it weighs some 4.5 tonnes and consists of 221 individual bones.  Not all parts of the exhibit are real bone, some bones were missing from the right flipper and these have been replaced by 3-D printed mirror copies of the bones from the left flipper.  Seeing the Diplodocus exhibit in the main gallery was always a highlight of any visit to the Museum.  It became almost a ritual to say hello to “Dippy” on the way to a meeting or prior to visiting one of the various departments on site.

The Diplodocus exhibit was only a cast, a specimen that had been donated to the London Natural History Museum in 1905 by the Scottish-born billionaire Andrew Carnegie.  “Dippy” was installed into the Hintze Hall in 1979, but finally removed in January 2017 to be replaced by the Blue Whale exhibit.

We will have to get used to saying hello to “Hope” instead.


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30 01, 2020

A “Battle Damaged” Pachycephalosaurus

By | January 30th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus with “Battle Damage”

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus model is a little bit special.  Naturally, it is beautifully painted and an accurate depiction of a Late Cretaceous “bone-headed” dinosaur, but the design team at Safari Ltd have taken care to introduce an element of subtle “battle damage” to their figure.  It is a case of a dinosaur model demonstrating some “pachycephalosaur pathology”.

To help collectors and dinosaur fans to see what we mean, team members at Everything Dinosaur put together this short video.

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus Dinosaur Model with “Battle Damage”

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Demonstrating that Dinosaurs Had Tough Lives

In this short video, (it lasts a little over two minutes long), we show the model and provide close-up views of the brown mark on its skull.  This is not a flaw in the particular replica we use in the video, to prove it we show another figure from our stock, with exactly the same feature.  The design team at Safari Ltd have provided their Pachycephalosaurus figure with a little bit of “battle damage”, perhaps after a fight with another Pachycephalosaurus over social status in the herd, or perhaps in a dispute over food.  The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus might have damaged his headgear whilst competing for females.  After all, extant male red deer, the bucks, do damage their antlers in the autumn rut, when they are fighting to win the right to mate.

Superb Detail on the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus Dinosaur Model

The "battle damage" is located on the other side of the skull.

The beautifully detailed Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus dinosaur model.  The “battle damage” is located on the other side of the skull.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To purchase the Pachycephalosaurus figure and the rest of the prehistoric animals in this range: Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models and Figures.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Safari Ltd have gone that extra mile by thinking carefully how they could reflect inferred behaviour in their Pachycephalosaurus dinosaur model.  We congratulate the design team for their foresight and consideration.  This is a very detailed figure and it is intriguing to see the little extra details that have been incorporated into the sculpt.”

The Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel contains lots of helpful and informative videos about dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals.  Team members try to post up a new video once a week and with all these new Safari Ltd models, our script writers are going to be kept very busy.

Subscribe to Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel here: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

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29 01, 2020

Noasaurids from Down Under

By | January 29th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Australia’s Latest Theropod Dinosaur

The theropod fossil record for Australia is particularly poor.  The majority of the meat-eating dinosaur fossils found down-under come from the Albian-Cenomanian faunal stages of the Cretaceous have been predominantly referred to the Megaraptoridae.  However, a single neck bone (cervical vertebra), found in an opal mine near the town of Lightning Ridge (New South Wales), in conjunction with a fragmentary ankle bone from the Gippsland Basin in Victoria have led scientists to conclude that another type of predatory dinosaur roamed Australia – noasaurids.

A Silhouette of the Unnamed Noasaurid with a Human Figure for Scale and the Fossil Neck Bone Placed in Life Position

Fossil neck bone and silhouette showing life position.

Silhouette showing approximate size of the Australian noasaurid and the fossil material.

Picture credit: Tom Brougham (University of New England, New South Wales)

Classifying the Noasauridae

The Noasauridae are a family of small-bodied, fast-running, largely predatory dinosaurs nested within the Superfamly Abelisauroidea, although their exact taxonomic position and which genera fit within the Noasauridae remains controversial.  Essentially, these types of dinosaurs are distantly related to the abelisaurids such as Carnotaurus and Rajasaurus.  Noasaurids demonstrate a wide range of anatomical characteristics.  For example, Masiakasaurus (M. knopfleri), known from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar, had a downturned lower jaw with teeth in both jaws, whereas the adult forms of Limusaurus (L. inextricabilis) known from the Jurassic of China, had no teeth in their jaws and could have been herbivores.

A Scale Drawing of Masiakasaurus (M. knopfleri)

Masiakasaurus scale drawing.

Unusual theropod dinosaur – Masiakasaurus, the downward turned lower jaw and the dentition suggest that this predator could have specialised in catching fish (piscivore).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Noasauridae are known from the southern hemisphere and seem to have been confined to the landmass of Gondwana.

Dr Tom Brougham (University New England, New South Wales), one of the co-authors of the study, published in the journal Scientific Reports stated:

“It was assumed that noasaurids must have lived in Australia because their fossils have been found on other southern continents that, like Australia, were once part of the Gondwanan supercontinent.  These recent fossil finds demonstrate for the first time that noasaurids once roamed across Australia.  Discoveries of theropods are rare in Australia, so every little find we make reveals important details about our unique dinosaur fauna.”

To read more about Limusaurus: Limusaurus – A Dinosaur That Lost its Teeth as it Grew.

The partial cervical vertebra from the Wallangulla Sandstone Member of the Griman Formation, collected from an underground opal mine at the “Sheepyard” opal field, southwest of Lightning Ridge was found within a bonebed containing the iguanodontian Fostoria dhimbangunmal.  The bone is estimated to be around 100 million years old.  Although, the fossil (specimen number LRF 3050.AR), is badly eroded the researchers discovered that is resembled cervical vertebrae associated with the noasaurids, hence the diagnosis that this fossil indicates the presence of these types of theropod dinosaurs in Australia.

The Neck Bone from the Opal Mine Ascribed to the Noasauridae

Opal mine noasaurid neck bone.

The noasaurid cervical vertebra LRF 3050.AR in (a) ventral; (b) dorsal, (c) left lateral, (d) right lateral, (e) anterior and (f) posterior views.  Note scale bar = 50 mm.

Picture Credit: Brougham et al (Scientific Reports)

The scientists re-examined a ceratosaurian astragalocalcaneum fossil (NMV P221202) that had been found in 2012 in strata associated with the much older upper Barremian–lower Aptian San Remo Member of the upper Strzelecki group in Victoria.  It was concluded that this ankle bone also represented noasaurid fossil material.

The East Gippsland Ankle Bone Now Ascribed to the Noasauridae

East Gippsland astragalocalcaneum (NMV P221202).

The East Gippsland astragalocalcaneum (NMV P221202) in (a) anterior, (b) posterior, and (c) proximal views.  Note scale bar = 20 mm.  This fossil lends support to the idea that noasaurids were present in Australia.

Picture Credit: Brougham et al (Scientific Reports)

Oldest Known Noasaurid

Between them, the Lightning Ridge neck bone and the ankle bone from Victoria represent the first evidence of noasaurid dinosaurs found in Australia.  The astragalocalcaneum material comes from deposits that were laid down in the Early Cretaceous and could be 120 million years of age.  This would make the ankle bone the earliest known example of a noasaurid in the world described to date.  The recognition of Australian noasaurids further indicates a more widespread Gondwanan distribution of the clade outside of South America, Madagascar and India consistent with the timing of the fragmentation of the supercontinent.

The scientific paper: “Noasaurids are a component of the Australian ‘mid’-Cretaceous theropod fauna” by Tom Brougham, Elizabeth T. Smith and Phil R. Bell published in Scientific Reports.

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28 01, 2020

Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX Has Arrived

By | January 28th, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX Has Arrived

The eagerly anticipated xenomorph/dinosaur crossover from Rebor has arrived at Everything Dinosaur.  The 1:35 scale “Broodlord” X-REX is now in stock.  Model collectors have got a new branch of the Rebor replica family tree to get excited about.  This detailed model has a wet-look about it, courtesy of the metallic colour scheme, our congratulations to the design team at Rebor for coming up with such an imaginative sculpt.

The New for 2020 Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX Figure

Rebor "Broodlord" replica.

The 1:35 scale Rebor “Broodlord” replica.  A team member at Everything Dinosaur has used a geology ruler to help show the size of this new for 2020 Rebor figure.  The model measures a whopping 43 cm in length!

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the new Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX replica and the rest of the Rebor range: Rebor Replicas, Models and Figures.

Your Flexible Friend!

The tailpiece fits neatly into the slot at the back of the model.  Do not be alarmed if your figure does not balance very well when first removed from its packaging.  Once that long, flexible tail has been inserted the figure is perfectly stable.  The rotatable arms, four back extensions and the extended tongue with the jaw can be found in a small, plastic bag at the bottom of the foam protection.  Carefully remove these pieces and fit into your model.  The beautifully sculpted tail, is quite flexible and we liked to pose our figure with the tail slightly curved round (as shown in the picture above).

Carefully Insert the Pieces to Create your Rebor X-REX

A view of the Rebor "Broodlord".

The model has rotable arms, a secondary jaw/tongue and four extensions on its back.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Examine the back extensions carefully, each piece fits into its own bespoke slot on the model.  Adding the tongue/jaw element can be a bit a tricky, we suggest collectors examine the inside of the lower jaw of their model to identify the slot for this piece.  Take care when inserting the tongue, we found that to secure this part in place a cocktail stick or tweezers could be used to push the peg on the bottom of the tongue into the slot on the floor of the mouth.

A View of the Beautifully Detailed Head of the Rebor X-REX Figure

Rebor 1:35 scale X-REX model.

Charging towards you!  A view of the spectacular head of “Broodlord”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Rebor Broodlord X-REX Metallic Variant (1:35 scale) is certainly an amazing model.  There are plans to introduce three more figures by the end of 2020.  A figure is expected every three months or so for the rest of the year, pictures of the proposed figures can be found on the back of the “Broodlord” box.  Collectors have a lot to look forward to in 2020.

The Shape of Things to Come – Four Figures in Total are Planned

Four figures in this Rebor range.

The four figures intended for this range are shown on the back of the box.  The figures are named, metallic, organic, plague and radioactive.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

This is an incredible model, it is a wonderful 1:35 scale science fiction figure.

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