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22 02, 2019

Fleet-footed Tyrannosaur Leaps 70-million-year Gap

By | February 22nd, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

The Diminutive Tyrannosaur Moros intrepidus

A small, but speedy dinosaur is the newest member of the Superfamily Tyrannosauroidea, a distant relative of the most famous dinosaur of all Tyrannosaurus rexT. rex et al might have a reputation for being giant, bone-crunching apex predators, but for much of their evolutionary history, the Tyrannosaurs have been rather over-shadowed by other super-sized dinosaur carnivores.  Indeed, it was only in the last few million years of the Cretaceous that these types of Theropod emerged as the apex predators of northern latitudes.  The new dinosaur, named Moros intrepidus, at approximately 78 kilograms (data range 53 to 85 kilograms), around the same bodyweight as a South American Jaguar (Panthera onca), is about ninety times lighter than its famous top-of-the-food-chain relative.

Ironically, contrary to public opinion, M. intrepidus might just be more typical of the Tyrannosauroidea bauplan than its more famous relatives – Gorgosaurus, Albertosaurus and T. rex.

The Newly Described Moros intrepidus from the Late Cretaceous of Central Utah

Life reconstruction Moros intrepidus.

Moros intrepidus from the Late Cretaceous of central Utah.

Picture Credit: Jorge Gonzalez

Teeth and a Hind Limb from a New Theropod

The fossilised remains of a partial right leg consisting of a femur, a tibia, metatarsal bones and some toe bones from the fourth toe were discovered in sediments representing the lower Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation located in Emery County (Utah).  These fossils, in conjunction with isolated teeth from the front portion of the upper jaw (premaxilla) found nearby provide the basis for this new taxon.  The deposits represent a terrestrial environment, a large delta and they date from approximately 96 million years ago (Cenomanian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous).

Moros intrepidus represents the oldest known Cretaceous-aged tyrannosauroid discovered to date in North America. It extends the definitive fossil record for these types of dinosaurs by around 15 million years.

The Temporal Relationships and Phylogeny of the Tyrannosauroidea

Moros intrepidus fills a 15-million-year evolutionary gap.

Phylogenetic and temporal relationships between tyrannosauroids and an examination of faunal turnover.  The Allosaurs/Megaraptor apex predator niche was gradually taken over by Tyrannosaurs.

Picture Credit: Nature Communications Biology

In the diagram (above), the section on the left (a), shows the fossil record gap between Late Jurassic tyrannosauroids and much larger Late Cretaceous members of the Tyrannosauridae family such as Lythronax (L. argestes).  Section (b) demonstrates the temporal range of these Theropods and the change in bauplan, whilst (c) demonstrates key evolutionary anatomical changes.  The blue and pink coloured shapes in (d) reflect the transition from Allosaur/Megaraptoran dominated ecosystems to Tyrannosaur dominated palaeoenvironments.

A Changing of the Guard When it Comes to Apex Predators

Palaeontologists know that the Tyrannosaur lineage dates back a long way.  For example, basal tyrannosaurids such as Stokesosaurus (S. clevelandi) are known from Upper Jurassic deposits of Utah.  By the Late Cretaceous (Campanian faunal stage), Tyrannosaurs were large and had become the iconic apex predators beloved by dinosaur fans and film directors.  The fossil record for North American Tyrannosaurs was essentially blank, giving palaeontologists a T. rex skull-sized headache when it came to piecing together how these Theropods changed over time.

The discovery of Moros helps to narrow a 70-million-year-gap in the fossil record of tyrant lizards in North America.

Lead-author of the study, published in “Nature Communications” Lindsay Zanno of the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences explained:

“When and how quickly Tyrannosaurs went from wallflower to prom king has been vexing palaeontologists for a long time.  The only way to attack this problem was to get out there and find more data on these rare animals.”

A Silhouette of M. intrepidus Showing the Anatomical Position of the Known Fossil Material

Moros intrepidus silhouette showing placement of known fossil elements.

Silhouette of M. intrepidus showing known fossil elements.  Key = (g) femur, (h) tibia, (i) fourth metatarsal, (j) second metatarsal, and (k) pedal phalanges of the fourth digit.   Scale bar (c) 1 m, (g–k) 5 mm.  Note the tooth (views d-f) are not to scale.

Picture Credit: Nature Communications Biology

Living in the Shadow of Siats meekerorum

In 2013, two of the authors of the Moros intrepidus paper, Lindsay Zanno and Peter Makovicky (Field Museum, Chicago), published a study on a large allosauroid from similar-aged sediments.  The dinosaur, named Siats meekerorum is estimated to have measured around 12 metres in length, dwarfing the contemporary Moros, which had a hip height of around 1.2 metres.  The researchers conclude that within a palaeoenvironment dominated by giant, allosauroid Theropods, Tyrannosaurs such as M. intrepidus relied on their speed and small size and would have kept out of the way of the larger predators.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“During the Cenomanian, tyrannosauroids like Moros intrepidus were secondary predators within an ecosystem dominated by apex predators from a completely different part of the Theropod family tree.  For the greater part of the Tyrannosaur evolutionary history, these types of dinosaurs were marginal predators, living in the shadow of much bigger carnivorous dinosaurs.”

A Life Reconstruction of Siats meekerorum with two Tyrannosauroids shown in the Foreground

Siats meekerorum .

Siats meekerorum has nothing to fear from these two Tyrannosaurs.  Moros intrepidus may have scavenged the kills of larger Theropods but these types of tyrannosauroid were very much the secondary predators.

Picture Credit: Julio Laceardo

To read Everything Dinosaur’s article on the discovery of Siats meekerorumUnravelling the Apex Predators of the Cretaceous Before Tyrannosaurs

Phylogeny Points at Asian Ancestry

A study of the longer limb bones indicates that the individual was around six to seven years of age when it died.  It was likely to have reached its adult size.  A phylogenetic assessment indicates an affinity with Asian Tyrannosaur taxa, in essence, the ancestors of famous North American dinosaurs such as Gorgosaurus and Tyrannosaurus rex migrated into North America from Asia.

Assistant Research Professor Zanno stated:

“T. rex and its famous contemporaries such as Triceratops may be among our most beloved cultural icons, but we owe their existence to their intrepid ancestors who migrated here from Asia at least 30 million years prior.  Moros signals the establishment of the iconic Late Cretaceous ecosystems of North America.”

Views of the Lower Leg Bones from the Right Leg of M. intrepidus

Views of the lower leg bones of Moros intrepidus.

Right tibia (a–f) and right fourth metatarsal (g–l) of M. intrepidus (NCSM 33392).

Picture Credit: Nature Communications Biology

What’s In a Name?

The etymology of this new tyrannosauroid reflects the later faunal turnover that led to the apex predator roles in North America being dominated by Tyrannosaurs.  The genus name is from the Greek “Moros”, the embodiment of impending doom, for the descendants of this fast-running dinosaur were to evolve into some of the largest and most formidable terrestrial predators known to science.  The species name is from the Latin “intrepidus”, a reference to these intrepid dinosaurs making the migration from Asia into North America and their subsequent dispersal.

Size is Not Everything

Although around ninety times lighter than Tyrannosaurus rex, Lindsay warns against underestimating the predatory abilities of Moros.

She added:

“Moros was lightweight and exceptionally fast.  These adaptations, together with advanced sensory capabilities, are the mark of a formidable predator.  It could easily have run down prey, while avoiding confrontation with the top predators of the day.  Although the earliest Cretaceous Tyrannosaurs were small, their predatory specialisations meant that they were primed to take advantage of new opportunities when warming temperatures, rising sea-level and shrinking ranges restructured ecosystems at the beginning of the Late Cretaceous.  We now know it took them less than 15 million years to rise to power.”

The scientific paper: “Diminutive fleet-footed tyrannosauroid narrows the 70-million-year gap in the North American fossil record” by Lindsay E. Zanno, Ryan T. Tucker, Aurore Canoville, Haviv M. Avrahami, Terry A. Gates and Peter J. Makovicky published in Nature Communications Biology.

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21 02, 2019

Everything Dinosaur Receives Feefo Gold Trusted Service Award 2019

By | February 21st, 2019|Adobe CS5, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Top Marks for Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur has won the Feefo Gold Service award, an independent seal of excellence that recognises that the UK-based dinosaur company delivers exceptional customer service as well as exceptional prehistoric animal models.  Feefo product and service ratings are provided by real customers, Everything Dinosaur has over 600 customer reviews and comments posted up on its award winning website.

Everything Dinosaur’s Gold Trusted Service Award

Feefo certificate of excellence (2019).

Everything Dinosaur has won for the second year in a row, the top award from Feefo.  We even got sent a certificate to prove it.

Picture Credit: Feefo

The Gold Trusted Service Award

The accolade was created by Feefo.  Trusted Service is only awarded to those businesses that use Feefo to collect genuine reviews and comments.  Those organisations that meet this high standard, based on the number of reviews collected, and their average rating, are recognised with this award.  It is regarded as a badge of honour, this accreditation remains unique, as it is based purely on the interactions with real people who purchase from Everything Dinosaur.  As all reviews are verified as genuine, the accreditation is a true reflection of a Everything Dinosaur’s commitment to outstanding service.

To see what all the fuss is about check out Everything Dinosaur’s website: Visit Everything Dinosaur’s website

Gold Trusted Service Award to Everything Dinosaur

Gold Trusted Service Award to Everything Dinosaur.

Feefo awards top marks to Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Feefo

To win this prestigious award, a company must meet the criteria of receiving at least fifty reviews between January 2018 and December 31st 2018, with a Feefo customer service rating of between 4.5 and 5.0.  At the moment, Everything Dinosaur has six hundred reviews posted up on-line, over 98% of them are 5-stars.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We are really pleased to receive this award from Feefo.  This is the second year that we have been eligible for this honour and it is the second year in a row that we have been awarded it.  The Feefo Gold Trusted Service award.  We are committed to delivering the highest quality of customer service and these days it is vitally important for companies to listen, understand and respond to customers.  We have lots of exciting plans for our websites in 2019, we are looking forward to another successful year.”

Praise from the CEO

Matt West, the Chief Executive Officer at Feefo congratulated Everything Dinosaur and added:

“The Trusted Service award has always been about recognising those companies that excel beyond the norm.  This year we’ve seen many remarkable businesses leveraging the full potential of Feefo to provide outstanding levels of experience for their customers – and rightly being awarded our most prestigious accreditation.  I’m looking forward to the continual success of the businesses that work in partnership with us throughout 2019.”

Over the next few months, Everything Dinosaur will be introducing new prehistoric animal models from Papo, Safari Ltd, CollectA, PNSO, Rebor, Mojo Fun and a number of other organisations.  For a company that specialises in dinosaurs, there is no sign that Everything Dinosaur is heading for extinction.

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20 02, 2019

Dinosaur Trackways Saved from Floods

By | February 20th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A Unique Set of Australian Dinosaur Tracks on the Move

A series of dinosaur tracks located around ninety minutes’ drive away from the town of Winton in Queensland, representing three different types of Late Cretaceous dinosaur, are being moved in order to protect and preserve them.  The dinosaur footprints including a set of Sauropod tracks, the hind prints of some which measure more than a metre across, represent the first substantial evidence of Sauropod locomotion to be recorded from this part of Australia.  In addition, the track of a chicken-sized Theropod is preserved at this location, along with the larger, tridactyl prints of an Ornithopod.

These tracks are the first recorded evidence of substantial walking tracks for Sauropods in Australia and the first Cretaceous-aged sequence of solitary Ornithopod tracks to have been identified “down under”.

An Aerial View Showing the Exposed Dinosaur Tracksite

An aerial view of the trackway site.

An aerial view showing the extent of the Sauropod trackway.

Picture Credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum

First Tracks Exposed Nineteen Years Ago

The fossil trackways site was first exposed in the summer of 2000, when a small creek changed its course following substantial flooding across this part of central-west Queensland.   The footprints were not recognised at first and lay exposed to the elements, slowly being bleached by the extreme heat and subjected to infrequent but devastating water damage.  However, a major project to map and remove the tracks was begun in April 2018 by volunteers and staff from the Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum.

It was soon realised that the dinosaur tracks, a series of depressions (hyporelief preservation), were extensive.  The Sauropod tracks consist of at least twenty prints and run for approximately forty metres.  There is also evidence of the tracks having been made on the prints left by other Sauropods including the tracks of a smaller long-necked dinosaur, tentatively described as a sub-adult.

Exposing the Dinosaur Tracks Using an Air Blast Hose

Using an air blast hose to clean away the overburden.

Cleaning the overburden from around the Sauropod tracks using an air blast hose.

Picture Credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum

Restoration and excavation work has been undertaken to help protect the fragile sandstone prints, conserve them and to prepare them for transport to the Museum, where they will form part of a major new exhibit, safe from further erosion.

Incredibly Rare Dinosaur Trackway Assemblage

It is incredibly rare to have major Sub-orders of the Dinosauria (Theropoda, Ornithopoda and Sauropoda), represented at the same fossil trackway site, in the same bedding plane.

Dr Stephen Poropot of the Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum and the lead researcher on the project stated:

“The small Ornithopod and Theropod footprints were clearly made by very similar [if not identical] trackmakers to those preserved at Dinosaur Stampede National Monument, which is located about 100 kilometres south of this site”.

To read about the Dinosaur Stampede National Monument tracks preserved at Lark Hill Quarry: Lark Quarry Dinosaur Footprints – Scientists Re-examine the Evidence

Dr Stephen Poropot Carefully Measuring the Dinosaur Tracks

Mapping and measuring a dinosaur tracksite.

Dr Steve Poropot mapping and measuring the tracks.

Picture Credit: ABC Science/Belinda Smith

Significant Sauropod Tracks

According to Dr Poropot, the longest sequence of Sauropod tracks identified at the site can be followed continuously and the thumb claw impressions from the front feet can be clearly made out.  The Sauropod prints are being heralded as the best of their kind found to date in Australia.  The tracks were created approximately 95 million years ago (Cenomanian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous) and many of the Sauropod tracks are surrounded by concentric mud cracks that were spread through the wet sands as these giant creatures moved across the landscape.

The Three Different Types of Dinosaur Track in Close Proximity

Highlighting different types of dinosaur track.

Sauropod tracks outlined in blue, Theropod tracks (red) and the Ornithopod tracks outlined in green.  Dr Stephen Poropot’s boot in the top left corner provides scale.

Picture Credit: Swinburne University of Technology

Made by Titanosauriform Sauropods

These trace fossils cannot be assigned to any particular species of dinosaur.  However, the deposit in which the fossils were found represents the Winton Formation and three genera of Sauropods (all Titanosaurs), have been described from these sandstone sediments to date:

  • Savannasaurus elliottorum named in 2016.
  • Diamantinasaurus matildae named in 2009 (it has been speculated that the Sauropod tracks could have been made by Diamantinasaurus).
  •  Wintonotitan wattsi named in 2009.

Exposing the Titanosauriform Sauropod Tracks

Titanosauriform tracks exposed at the site.

The edge of the Titanosauriform Sauropod trample zone revealed. The tracks were made by a dinosaur estimated at around 18 metres in length. These are the best preserved Sauropod tracks at the site.

Picture Credit: Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum

David Elliott, Executive Chairman of the Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum, who has been heavily involved with this Sauropod-sized excavation and restoration project, explained that the relocation of the trackway began in September 2018 and twenty-five per cent of the total area, including all of the fragile footprints that were in danger of being destroyed, have now been removed.

He commented: “This is a very slow and painstaking process.  The total weight of the trackway is in the vicinity of 500 tonnes and we are transporting it back to the Museum, one two-tonne trailer load at a time.”

A scientific analysis of the trackways interpreting dinosaur body size, gaits and potential Sauropod herd dynamics, has been submitted for peer review by Dr Poropot and his colleagues and Mr Elliott is hoping that the attraction, named “March of the Titanosaurs”, will be open to the public from May of next year.

A Major Boost For Queensland Tourism

David Elliott added:

“Very few museums in the world can boast a multi-sequence Sauropod trackway as one of their in-house exhibitions, much less one fifty-five metres long with the footprints of all three major groups of Dinosauria represented.”

A Close-up View of the Sauropod Tracks

Sauropod tracks.

The exposed and cleaned Sauropod tracks.

Picture Credit: ABC Science/Belinda Smith

It is hoped that once opened in May 2020, “March of the Titanosaurs” will provide a major boost to tourism in this part of Queensland, especially after this area was hit by devastating floods recently.  Had the project to remove the dinosaur tracks been delayed, it is likely that many of the prints would have been destroyed in the flooding.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“This has been a tremendous conservation effort, we congratulate all those involved.  Thanks to this dedicated team, a hugely significant set of dinosaur trace fossils have been preserved.”

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19 02, 2019

“The Dinosaurs Rediscovered” – New Book About Dinosaurs

By | February 19th, 2019|Book Reviews, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Press Releases|0 Comments

“The Dinosaurs Rediscovered” – New Book About Dinosaurs

Everything Dinosaur has received an uncorrected proof of the eagerly awaited new dinosaur book by Professor Michael Benton.  Team members are looking forward to reading about how research into the Dinosauria has been revolutionised over the last two decades or so.  Professor Benton is one of the leading lights in vertebrate palaeontology and has written over fifty books covering a wide range of prehistoric animals and events from deep time.  As the head of the world-renowned Palaeobiology Research Group at the University of Bristol, Professor Benton has been involved in and led some of the most insightful and ground-breaking studies into the dinosaurs, helping to re-write scientific understanding.

“The Dinosaurs Rediscovered” – Exploring the Revolution in Dinosaur Research

A new dinosaur book "The Dinosaurs Rediscovered".

“The Dinosaurs Rediscovered” by Professor Mike Benton.

Picture Credit: Thames & Hudson/Everything Dinosaur

The Changing Story of the Dinosaurs

The book runs to 336 pages with 163 illustrations (23 in colour), it explores the changing story of the dinosaurs, highlighting how the application of 21st Century technologies have revealed new information about these remarkable reptiles, information that had been locked deep inside their fossilised bones and teeth.  Trace fossils are also explored in detail and Professor Benton demonstrates how biomechanical engineering combines with computer modelling and digital dinosaurs to calculate how fast Theropod dinosaurs could run.  The work of the famous Bristol Dinosaur Project is covered and naturally, Bristol’s very own dinosaur Thecodontosaurus (T. antiquus) is included, but Professor Benton does not just feature dinosaurs from the south-west of England, this impressive publication provides a global perspective on the Dinosauria.  This beautifully written book includes chapters on feathered dinosaurs and even explores whether dinosaur DNA could be used to resurrect the Dinosauria.

The Book includes Chapters on Feathered Dinosaurs and Explores Whether Dinosaur DNA could be Found Preserved in Amber

Feathered dinosaur illustration.

An illustration of the feathered dinosaur, about to become stuck in amber.  Professor Mike Benton introduces the reader to some amazing recent dinosaur discoveries.

Picture Credit: Cheung Chung-Tat

An Engaging Account

This is an engaging account of the evolution of the “terrible lizards” and is aimed at readers with a general interest in life in the past as well as academics and students.  Fans of prehistoric animals and dinosaur devotees don’t have to wait too long before this book is published.  The hardback is due out on April 25th (published by Thames and Hudson).

The Front Cover of Professor Benton’s New Book

"The Dinosaurs Rediscovered".

The jacket cover of the new book about dinosaurs “The Dinosaurs Rediscovered”.

Picture Credit: Thames & Hudson

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18 02, 2019

A New African Titanosaur is Announced

By | February 18th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia – Heart-shaped Tail Bones Help to Flesh Out Titanosaur Evolution

Scientists writing in the on-line, open access journal PLOS One, have published details of a new species of African Titanosaur.  It took several years to carefully remove the fossil material from a high cliff wall overlooking the Mtuka riverbed in south-western Tanzania, but the fossils, representing a not fully mature dinosaur, are providing palaeontologists with important information about how African ecosystems changed over the course of the Cretaceous.  The new Titanosaur has been named Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia (pronounced Mm-nya-ma-wah-mm-too-ka mm-oh-yo-wa-mm-key-ah).  The name is derived from Kiswahili for “animal of the Mtuka river with a heart-shaped tail”.

The heart-shaped tail element of the name refers to the strange shape of the most intact middle caudal vertebra described in the paper.  It bulges out at the sides (dorsolateral expansion of the posterior articular surface of the centrum), a unique tail bone morphology that resembles the shape of a romantic, love heart.

A Life Reconstruction of a Pair of  Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia Titanosaurs

Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia illustration

Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia life reconstruction.

Picture Credit: Mark Witton

The first evidence of the dinosaur fossils was noted in 2004 and some fossils were excavated from the cliff face, in what were quite hazardous conditions, with field team members having to be lowered over the cliff on numerous occasions to work on the exposed bones.  Annual excavations took place until 2008, it was important to keep returning to the site as the fossils were in danger of being lost to the river in seasonal floods.

A Line Drawing of the Quarry Site Showing the Extent of the Annual Excavations

Quarry map of M. moyowamkia site.

Quarry map showing the layout and excavation timeline of the M. moyowamkia fossil material.

Picture Credit: PLOS One

Around 110-100 Million Years Old

The specimen was excavated from the Mtuka Member of the Cretaceous Galula Formation, which was deposited around 110 to 100 million years ago (Aptian to Cenomanian faunal stage of the Cretaceous).  A substantial portion of the postcranial skeleton has been recovered.

Dangerous Work!  The Excavation Site in 2007

The location of the Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia fossils.

The quarry dig site above the Mtuka riverbed in south-western Tanzania.

Picture Credit: Ohio University

Commenting on the importance of this discovery, in relation to the evolution of African Titanosaurs, lead author of the paper, Dr Eric Gorscak, a recent PhD graduate of Ohio University and now an assistant professor at the Midwestern University (Illinois), stated:

“Although Titanosaurs became one of the most successful dinosaur groups before the infamous mass extinction capping the Age of Dinosaurs, their early evolutionary history remains obscure, and Mnyamawamtuka helps tell those beginnings, especially for their African-side of the story.  The wealth of information from the skeleton indicates it was distantly related to other known African Titanosaurs, except for some interesting similarities with another dinosaur, Malawisaurus, from just across the Tanzania–Malawi border.”

Adding to the Diversity of Titanosaurian Sauropods from Africa

The field team responsible for this discovery have also found the fossilised remains of two other Titanosaurs in this part of Africa.  In 2017, Everything Dinosaur reported upon the discovery of Shingopana songwensis.

To read about S. songwensisA New Species of African Titanosaur is Named

In addition, Rukwatitan bisepultus another Titanosaurian Sauropod dinosaur, was named and described in 2014: A New Species of Titanosaurian Sauropod Rukwatitan bisepultus

The researchers conclude that Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia was distantly related to both Shingopana songwensis and Rukwatitan bisepultus, fossils of which come from younger Cretaceous sediments, although it did share some anatomical characteristics with Malawisaurus dixeyi from Malawi, that might have been contemporaneous.  This new fossil discovery is helping palaeontologists to better understand the distribution of Titanosaurs between Africa and South America and their evolutionary relationships.

Heart-shaped Tail Bones

One of the middle caudal centra (tail bone from the middle portion of the tail), exhibits a unique dorsolateral expansion of the posterior articular surface of the centrum.  This unique characteristic was found to be present in the most intact middle caudal vertebra described.  This unique shape inspired the dinosaur’s name.

Heart-shaped Tail Bone Centrum (Rear View)

Heart-shaped tail bone.

A posterior view of a middle caudal vertebra showing the characteristic heart shape.  The term dle = dorsolateral expansion.

Picture Credit: PLOS One

Tail Bones of Different Titanosaurs Compared

Titanosaur tail bne comparison.

A comparison of caudal vertebrae between three Titanosaurs. Mnyamawamtuka moyowamkia (A), compared with Malawisaurus dixeyi (B) and Lohuecotitan pandafilandi of the Late Cretaceous of Spain (C). Posterior views and lateral views, scale bar = 10 cm.  The term dle = dorsolateral expansion.

Picture Credit: PLOS One

The scientific paper: “A New African Titanosaurian Sauropod Dinosaur from the Middle Cretaceous Galula Formation (Mtuka Member), Rukwa Rift Basin, Southwestern Tanzania” by Eric Gorscak and Patrick M. O’Connor published in PLOS One.

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17 02, 2019

The New for 2019 Papo Brown Running T. rex

By | February 17th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

The New for 2019 Papo Brown Running T. rex Dinosaur Model

The new for 2019 Papo brown running T. rex dinosaur model is now in stock at Everything Dinosaur.   This is the first of the 2019 prehistoric animal figures to be released by the French model and figure manufacturer.  It will be replacing the Papo running Tyrannosaurus rex (colour variant), which has now been retired, as announced in our blog post dated 15th December, 2018.  The figure is based on the same mould as the green running T. rex dinosaur model, but the colour scheme is different.

The New for 2019 Papo Brown Running T. rex Dinosaur Model

Papo brown running T. rex dinosaur figure.

The new for 2019 Papo brown running T. rex dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The green running T. rex figure was introduced into the “Les Dinosaures” range back in 2012 and Papo did make a limited edition brown running T. rex subsequently, but this was only in production for a few months.  Now the brown version of this popular figure has been included in the company’s catalogue and this figure will be more widely available.

The Brown and Green Running T. rex Dinosaur Models

The brown and green running T. rex figures from Papo.

The green (background) and the brown (foreground) running T. rex figures from Papo.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Celebrating with a Short Video

This new dinosaur model has an articulated lower jaw and it measures more than thirty centimetres long.  The head stands an impressive thirteen centimetres off the ground.  Everything Dinosaur team members have produced a short video (around 45 seconds duration), to give our blog post readers an opportunity to get a better look at this exciting new model, the first of two tyrannosaurid replicas coming from Papo this year.  A Gorgosaurus model is due to be introduced in the summer.

A Short Video Highlighting the New for 2019 Papo Brown Running T. rex Dinosaur Model

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Papo Brown Running T. rex Dinosaur Model

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Dinosaur model collectors have been lobbying Papo to bring back the brown coloured version of their popular running T. rex sculpt.  It is great to see this figure in the mainstream and available to a much wider audience than previously.  One caveat to sound though, we do not know how long this figure will be in production for, at least the model is included within the company’s model catalogue.  This catalogue is available from Everything Dinosaur free of charge, there’s just the postage to pay, collectors can see all the 2019 models, including the soon to be released Allosaurus, Stegosaurus, Pentaceratops and the eagerly awaited Gorgosaurus.”

The New for 2019 Brown Running T. rex Dinosaur Model from Papo

The Papo brown running T. rex (anterior view).

The business end of the new for 2019 Papo brown running T. rex figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To purchase the new for 2019 Papo brown running T. rex and other Papo prehistoric animals: Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals

A Close-up View of the Head and the Jaws of the Papo Running T. rex (Brown Colour Version)

The head and jaws of the new for 2019 Papo brown running T. rex dinosaur model.

A closer view of the articulated lower jaw of the new for 2019 Papo brown running T. rex dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To read about recent Papo prehistoric animal model retirements: News of Papo Prehistoric Animal Models being Retired

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16 02, 2019

Customers Notified When Products Back in Stock

By | February 16th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Back-in-Stock Notifications Added to Everything Dinosaur’s Website

Customers can now be notified automatically when a product is back in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  The award winning dinosaur and prehistoric animal merchandise retailer has further enhanced its support for website visitors by adding, simple to use back-in-stock notifications to all its products.

If a product is out of stock, then customers have the option to join a waitlist for this item, when it is back in stock, they will automatically receive an email letting them know that this item is available to purchase.

Join the Waitlist to be Automatically Notified When a Product is Back in Stock

A waitlist to keep customers notified when an item is back in stock.

Join the waitlist and be automatically emailed as soon as the item is back in stock.  Simply click the “Join waitlist” link (arrowed and underlined in this picture).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

In the picture above, the PNSO Basilosaurus (Age of Dinosaurs), is currently out of stock, some more of these popular, large prehistoric whale models are coming in soon and by clicking the “Join waitlist” link visitors to this page will be automatically emailed when the figure is available again.

Simple to Use – Simple Steps to Follow

The system works like this:

  • Customer visits a product page on the Everything Dinosaur website and discovers that it is out of stock.
  • If that customer wants to know exactly when it is going to be available again – simple click the “join waitlist” link and if requested provide a contact email address.
  • When more of these items come into Everything Dinosaur’s website, as soon as the inventory is updated, an email will be sent alerting the customer that the item is back in stock.

An Example of a Typical Notification Email

Email stating that an item is back in stock at Everything Dinosaur

When the item is back in stock at Everything Dinosaur, customers will automatically receive an email informing them.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

  • When the customer gets the email alert, all they have to do is to click the handy product link included in the email and they will be directed to the product page on the Everything Dinosaur website.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“This new system provides an easy way for customers and visitors to our website to be kept informed about product availability.  We still offer all the other customer support options such as the ability to contact a team member directly on the website via our chat facility, this new function provides additional support.  Customers can be reassured that they will receive an automatic notification and it only takes a couple of seconds for customers to join our waiting lists.”

Customers Can Easily Review and Edit Their Own Waiting Lists

Customers that have created an account at Everything Dinosaur can easily review and edit their own waitlists.  Once logged into to their personal account pages, a customer can click on the “Your Waitlists” link in the left margin of the account dashboard and simply edit the product waitlist information in just a few taps of the keyboard, or mouse clicks.

Allowing Customers to Easily Edit Their Waiting Lists

Easy waitlist management.

Easy to manage your own waitlists.  The link to the personal waitlist information is arrowed and underlined in red.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Users can manage their own waiting lists and all products that they have an interest in can be viewed on the “Your Waitlists” tab on their account page.  All products can be conveniently managed in one place.

It takes seconds for visitors to join a product waiting list and they can then relax knowing that they will be automatically emailed when the item comes back into stock.

See for yourself at: Everything Dinosaur

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15 02, 2019

JurassicCollectables Reviews the Eofauna Giganotosaurus

By | February 15th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|1 Comment

Eofauna Giganotosaurus Reviewed by JurassicCollectables

Hot on the heels of several Schleich new for 2019 model reviews, JurassicCollectables have posted up a video of the new Eofauna Scientific Research Giganotosaurus dinosaur model.  The narrator correctly surmises that this is the first dinosaur figure to be introduced by Eofauna and the Giganotosaurus is heralded as being one of the most scientific accurate dinosaur models to have been made.

JurassicCollectables Reviews the New for 2019 Eofauna Giganotosaurus Dinosaur Model (G. carolinii)

Video Credit: JurassicCollectables

Exclusive Behind the Scenes Images

As Everything Dinosaur works closely with Eofauna Scientific Research, we were able to provide the JurassicCollectables team with exclusive images showing the three-dimensional skeletal reconstructions that the designers at Eofauna created in order to help ensure the accuracy of their figure.  Osteological measurements were taken in order to build up the muscles and the skin texture.  The wrinkles on the dinosaur model reflect how this Cretaceous hypercarnivore would have actually moved.

Three-Dimensional Images Were Used to Scientifically Construct the Giganotosaurus from the Inside Out

Three dimensional Giganotosaurus figure.

A three-dimensional model of Giganotosaurus carolinii was produced to ensure a scientifically accurate dinosaur replica.

Image Credit: Eofauna Scientific Research/Everything Dinosaur

A “Boxer’s Chin” and the Correct Size Scales

In this short video (duration just under nine minutes), the narrator opens up the plastic bag containing the model and the proceeds to take the viewer on a guided tour of the figure.  The close-up views of the articulated jaws and the inside of the mouth are particularly well done.  Everything Dinosaur team members pointed out to JurassicCollectables that if the lower jaw is viewed from the side, the tip of the jaw is thicker and more robust.  We have nicknamed this characteristic of Giganotosaurus anatomy the “boxer’s chin”.  Not that this dinosaur indulged in pugilism, however, this thickened bone may have evolved to help protect the rest of the jaw from impact damage as this predator lunged and attacked its prey.

On the Turntable the Eofauna Scientific Research Giganotosaurus Dinosaur Model

The Eofauna Giganotosaurus dinosaur replica.

The Eofauna Giganotosaurus dinosaur model.  The anterior portion of the lower jaw is thickened, perhaps an adaptation to help protect the dentary from impacts.

Image Credit: JurassicCollectables

In the video review, JurassicCollectables note the care and attention taken over getting the scales on this dinosaur to look right.  In the section of the video that focuses on the ribs, viewers will note the very fine scales with just the occasional, larger rounded scale on the model picked out, these scales are most prominent on this part of the figure.  As the replica has been designed based on a 3-D simulation, Eofauna have been able to add lots of wrinkles and folds to depict movement, at the back of the femur (thigh area) for example, these are once again highly accurate based on the skeletal assessment.  Such features are skilfully highlighted in this excellent video review.

JurassicCollectables have a wonderful YouTube channel dedicated to prehistoric animals and dinosaur models.  Everything Dinosaur recommends that fans of dinosaurs subscribe: Subscribe to JurassicCollectables on YouTube

Comparing the Eofauna Giganotosaurus to Other Eofauna Figures

During the video review, the two other Eofauna figures, the Steppe Mammoth and the Straight-tusked Elephant are introduced and provide a size comparison with the Giganotosaurus.  Naturally, off-colour Alan also gets involved.

The Eofauna Giganotosaurus Model is Compared to the Eofauna Steppe Mammoth

The Eofauna Giganotosaurus and the Eofauna Steppe Mammoth.

Comparing the Eofauna Giganotosaurus with the Eofauna Steppe Mammoth.

Image Credit: JurassicCollectables

The Eofauna Giganotosaurus and the Eofauna Straight-tusked Elephant Model

Giganotosaurus from Eofauna compared to the Straight-tusked elephant model.

The Eofauna Giganotosaurus compared with the Eofauna Straight-tusked elephant.

Image Credit: JurassicCollectables

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“This is an excellent video review.  JurassicCollectables have been able to provide model collectors with detailed information not only on the figure itself, but how it was created using the fossilised material to ensure scientific accuracy.”

To purchase the Eofauna Giganotosaurus figure and the rest of the Eofauna model range: Eofauna Scientific Research Models

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14 02, 2019

Happy Valentine’s Day

By | February 14th, 2019|Uncategorized|2 Comments

Happy Valentines Day

For some parts of the world, (but not all), today is Valentine’s Day.  This is as good an excuse as any to post up some artwork that Everything Dinosaur team members commissioned when they were working on some new children’s t-shirt designs with a dinosaur theme.

Happy Valentine’s Day!

Love in the time of the dinosaurs.

I love dinosaurs!  Love in the time of the dinosaurs.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Dinosaurs Go Courting

Little is known about the courtship and mating habits of non-avian dinosaurs, after all such behaviours are difficult to interpret from the fossil record, but some insight might be gained by studying the behaviour of avian dinosaurs – the birds.  Some birds engage in very elaborate and sophisticated courtship displays.

In August 2016, Everything Dinosaur published a blog post about a remarkable piece of research, scientists from Poland, the USA, China and South Korea has studied Late Cretaceous dinosaur trace fossils and some of these impressions were interpreted as representing nest scrape displays, as seen in living birds.

To read our article: The Dance of the Dinosauria

Reproduction Might Have Been an Awkward Affair Especially for Armoured Dinosaurs

A life reconstruction of Acantholipan gonzalezi.

A model of the Mexican nodosaurid Acantholipan gonzalezi.

Picture Credit: Museo del Desierto (Mexico)

Happy Valentine’s!

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13 02, 2019

A Quick Preview of the Schleich Diabloceratops Model

By | February 13th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

A Short Video of the Schleich Diabloceratops Model

Everything Dinosaur have posted up a short video previewing the new for 2019 Schleich Diabloceratops dinosaur model.  This video is more of a teaser for fans of prehistoric animals and dinosaur model collectors.  In the video, we confirm the length of this figure (it is approximately sixteen centimetres long and those impressive horns are approximately eleven centimetres off the ground).

A Quick Preview of the New for July 2019 Schleich Diabloceratops Dinosaur Model

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

One of Four New Prehistoric Animal Models from Schleich in July 2019

The Schleich Diabloceratops will be replacing the recently retired Schleich Styracosaurus and the beautiful Pentaceratops figure.  It will be one of four new prehistoric animal models from Schleich due to arrive at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse in July (2019).  The other figures are:

  1. Schleich Dracorex – a model of the “dome-headed” dinosaur Dracorex hogwartsia.  The Schleich Dracorex measures nineteen centimetres long and the head height is around ten centimetres.
  2. Schleich juvenile Giganotosaurus – this figure has an articulated lower jaw and it measures around twenty-six centimetres in length and stands over ten centimetres high.
  3. Schleich Plesiosaurus – this marine reptile has a poseable neck and it is approximately sixteen centimetres long.

To read a brief article about the new for 2019 Schleich Plesiosaurus and to see a short video preview of this model: A Quick Look at the New for 2019 Schleich Plesiosaurus Model

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“The Schleich Diabloceratops model has certainly been getting a lot of attention.  Within the Schleich range of large dinosaur models, there is one chasmosaurine (Triceratops) and one centrosaurine which is the new Diabloceratops.  The two great tribes of Late Cretaceous horned dinosaurs are now represented by Schleich figures once again.  Diabloceratops may have been very distantly related to Triceratops, but they would never have met.  Diabloceratops lived millions of years before Triceratops evolved.”

A Closer View of the Beautifully Detailed Head of the Schleich Diabloceratops

Schleich Diabloceratops model.

The beautifully painted and very detailed head of the new for July 2017 Schleich Diabloceratops model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the current range of Schleich prehistoric animal figures, including some already released new for 2019 Schleich dinosaurs: Schleich Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models

Coming into Stock Soon at Everything Dinosaur (July 2019)

The Schleich Diabloceratops dinosaur model.

The Schleich Diabloceratops dinosaur model (available July 2019 from Everything Dinosaur).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Diabloceratops Fact Sheet

Dinosaur fans and prehistoric animal model collectors will receive a Diabloceratops (D. eatoni) fact sheet with every model purchased from Everything Dinosaur.

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