All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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28 08, 2020

Preparing for Zuniceratops

By | August 28th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Preparing for the Beasts of the Mesozoic Zuniceratops

A neoceratopsian is drawing nearer.  Everything Dinosaur will soon be receiving stock of the new Beasts of the Mesozoic ceratopsians, including the wonderful Zuniceratops figure.  This colourful creation depicts Zuniceratops christopheri, the oldest North American ceratopsian possessing prominent, well-developed brow horns, a foretaste of what was to become with the evolution of the centrosaurine and chasmosaurine lineages of horned dinosaurs.

The Beasts of the Mesozoic Zuniceratops Model

Beasts of the Mesozoic Zuniceratops dinosaur model

Beasts of the Mesozoic Zuniceratops dinosaur model (lateral view).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Preparing Fact Sheets on Horned Dinosaurs

Everything Dinosaur likes to supply a free fact sheet with sales of dinosaur models.  Over the years, the company has researched and written hundreds of fact sheets.   As a result, most of the Beasts of the Mesozoic Ceratopsidae are already covered, but Zuniceratops is one of the exceptions.  Staff are currently completing their fact sheet all about this neoceratopsian from the Middle Turonian Moreno Hill Formation of west-central New Mexico.  A scale drawing of this relatively small member of the horned dinosaurs has already been commissioned.

A Scale Drawing of the Neoceratopsian Zuniceratops (Z. christopheri)

Zuniceratops scale drawing.

Everything Dinosaur’s scale drawing of the neoceratopsian Zuniceratops christopheri.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Stocks of the new for 2020 Beasts of the Mesozoic ceratopsians are due to arrive at Everything Dinosaur’s UK warehouse in a few weeks.  In addition, new supplies of the popular Beasts of the Mesozoic Raptors will be arriving too.

To view the range of Beasts of the Mesozoic models available from Everything Dinosaur: Beasts of the Mesozoic Articulated Prehistoric Animal Models.

At Home in the Landscape Zuniceratops christopheri

The beautiful Beasts of the Mesozoic Zuniceratops dinosaur model.

Zuniceratops in the landscape.  The beautiful Beasts of the Mesozoic Zuniceratops dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Zuniceratops was formally named in 1998 (Douglas Wolfe and James Kirkland), in a preliminary description.  The publishing of the scientific paper coincided with the discovery of a substantial Zuniceratops bonebed that provided hundreds more fossil bones representing at least seven individuals (based on the number of lower jaws found).  The bones are disarticulated and represent a group of different sized animals, so calculating the maximum size for Zuniceratops is problematic, but most palaeontologists estimate that this horned dinosaur that lived around 90 million years ago (Turonian stage of the Late Cretaceous), measured between 2.2 and 3.3 metres in length.  As such, it was very much smaller than its descendants, the centrosaurine and chasmosaurine dinosaurs that were so diverse and numerous during the Campanian and Maastrichtian faunal stages of the Late Cretaceous.

The co-association of individuals of various sizes in the bonebed suggests that this dinosaur lived in herds, with adults and younger animals demonstrating communal behaviour.

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27 08, 2020

Baby Sauropods had Rhino-like Horns

By | August 27th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Horned Baby Dinosaurs But Not a Ceratopsian in Sight!

A team of international researchers have published a new scientific paper that reports on the discovery of a beautifully preserved embryo of a dinosaur.  The fossil specimen representing a titanosaur, that lived around 80 million years ago, has permitted palaeontologists to demonstrate that these herbivores had stereoscopic vision, just like most of the carnivorous dinosaurs that would have hunted them.  Furthermore, the embryonic skull has revealed that these sauropods had small horns on the front of the face, which they later lost as they grew up.

A Close-up View of the Embryonic Titanosaur Skull

A view of the embryonic skull of the titanosaur

A close-up view showing the embryonic titanosaur articulated skull preserved inside the dinosaur egg.

Picture Credit: The University of Manchester

An Amazing Fossil Discovery

The research team, which included Dr John Nudds (Manchester University), state that this is the most complete and articulate skull known from any titanosaur, a group of temporally and geographically diverse sauropods, members of which evolved into some of the largest land animals that ever existed.  The egg fossil was discovered in southern Argentina (Patagonia) and heralds from strata laid down during the Cretaceous (Campanian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous).

A Life Reconstruction of a Group of South American Titanosaurs

Titanosaurs illustrated.

An illustration of a group of Titanosaurs.  New study suggests that these herbivores had stereoscopic vision and the babies had a facial horn to help them break out of their egg.

Picture Credit: Marcos Paulo

It was imperative the egg was repatriated to Argentina however as it is illegal to permanently remove fossils from the country.

Commenting on the significance of the fossil discovery, Dr John Nudds (Manchester University) stated:

“The preservation of embryonic dinosaurs preserved inside their eggs is extremely rare.  Imagine the huge sauropods from Jurassic Park and consider that the tiny skulls of their babies, still inside their eggs, are just a couple of centimetres long.  We were able to reconstruct the embryonic skull prior to hatching.  The embryos possessed a specialised craniofacial anatomy that precedes the post-natal transformation of the skull in adult sauropods.  Part of the skull of these embryonic sauropods was extended into an elongated snout or horn, so that they possessed a peculiarly shaped face.”

Revising Opinions About Baby Dinosaur Anatomy

The analysis of the fossil specimen allowed the research team to revise opinions on how babies of these huge dinosaur might hatch and to test previously held ideas about sauropodomorph reproduction.  The elongated facial horn may have been used as an “egg tooth” to help the babies to break out of their eggs.

New Study Tests Ideas about Sauropodomorph Reproduction

Fragment of dinosaur eggshell (A) and the embryonic titanosaur skull (B).

Eggshell fragment (A) and the skull of the embryonic dinosaur (B).  Note scale bar = 2 cm.

Picture Credit: The University of Manchester

The paper has been published today in the academic journal “Current Biology”.  The fossilised bones of the embryo were revealed by dissolving the matrix using an acid preparation.  The researchers were able to perform a virtual dissection of the fossil material by bombarding the specimen with powerful X-rays to build up a three-dimensional image.   The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) at Grenoble was employed for this purpose.

Dinosaur embryology remains one of the least explored and poorly understood areas of research when it comes to the Dinosauria.   Argentina has provided palaeontologists with evidence of titanosaur nesting sites and embryos before, most famously the nest sites discovered in northern Patagonia associated with Saltasaurus loricatus that were studied by the famous Argentinian palaeontologist José Bonaparte.   Saltasaurus was named and described in 1980, the first titanosaur to be named from South America.  Since then, many more genera have been erected including Argentinosaurus, Andesaurus, Barrosasaurus, Bonatitan, Dreadnoughtus and Futalognkosaurus.

However, this is the first time a fully intact embryo has been studied.  Other fossilised eggs are also known from this site, the scientists hope to repeat their work with other specimens and are optimistic that some of the eggs might even retain the preserved remains of dinosaur skin.

The scientific paper, “Specialized Craniofacial Anatomy of a Titanosaurian Embryo from Argentina” is published in Current Biology.  The lead author on the paper is Martin Kundrat, Evolutionary Biodiversity Research Group Pavol Jozef Šafárik University.

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26 08, 2020

Stegosaurus Fossil Bone Found on Scottish Island

By | August 26th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Confirmation of Scottish Stegosaurs

The Jurassic-aged strata found on the coastline of the Isle of Skye in Scotland’s Inner Hebrides is recognised as one of the most globally significant locations in the world for dinosaur fossils from the Middle Jurassic.  Recently, the fossil sites on Skye received greater legal protection: Legal Protection for Isle of Skye Fossil Locations.  The vertebrate body and trace fossils confirm the presence of a rich biota of different dinosaurs and early mammals.  Footprints on Skye had hinted at the presence of stegosaurs in Scotland.  It is ironic therefore, that further evidence for the existence of armoured dinosaurs in the Middle Jurassic of Scotland has not come from Skye but from its island neighbour, the Isle of Eigg that lies to the south.

Stegosaur Limb Bone Found on a Beach on the Isle of Eigg

Stegosaur limb bone found on Scottish beach.

The stegosaur limb bone exposed on the beach (Isle of Eigg).

Picture Credit: Dr Elsa Panciroli (National Museums Scotland)

A Serendiptous Discovery

The contemporaneous Jurassic strata that outcrops on the small island of Eigg, it covers an area of just 30² kilometres (11² miles), has been well explored.  It is renowned for its fossils of marine fauna including ammonites, prehistoric sharks and marine reptiles.  This is the first time that a dinosaur bone has been found on the Isle of Eigg.  The 166 million-year-old limb bone (Bathonian faunal stage of the Jurassic), was discovered by chance by Dr Elsa Panciroli (National Museums Scotland).

Dr Panciroli explained:

“I was running along the shore on my way back to meet the rest of the team and I ran right over it.  It wasn’t clear exactly what kind of animal it belonged to at the time, but there was no doubt it was a dinosaur bone.”

The bone is highly eroded, it having been exposed on the face of a boulder for some time, it measures a little over fifty centimetres in length.  It represents a bone from the hind limb.

The Fossil Specimen Removed from the Boulder

Eroded stegosaur limb bone.

The eroded stegosaur limb bone is now in the collection of the National Museums of Scotland.

Picture Credit: N. Larkin

A Hugely Significant Find

The scientists comment that this single fossil bone represents a “hugely significant find”, albeit one found fortuitously thanks to a sharp-eyed field team member.  Dinosaur fossils from the Middle Jurassic are particularly rare and this fossil has a global significance for palaeontologists.

Palaeontologist Dr Steve Brusatte (University of Edinburgh), who has co-authored a paper on the fossil bone stated:

“This fossil is additional evidence that plate-backed stegosaurs used to roam Scotland, which corroborates footprints from the Isle of Skye that we identified as being made by a stegosaur”.

The bone now resides in the collections of National Museums Scotland (Edinburgh), the fieldwork on the Isle of Eigg was funded by the National Geographic Society with the permission of The Isle of Eigg Heritage Trust.

A paper on the fossil specimen will be published in the Earth And Environmental Transactions Of The Royal Society Of Edinburgh.

Mesozoic Strata Associated with Skye, Eigg and Rùm (Inner Hebrides)

Mesozoic strata on the Isle of Skye and the Isle of Eigg.

The Isle of Eigg in relation to the Isle of Skye (Inner Hebrides), the location of Mesozoic-aged strata is highlighted in dark green.

Picture Credit: Google Maps with additional annotation by Everything Dinosaur

The British Isles and Stegosaurs

The oldest fossils of a stegosaur described to date, also come from the British Isles, but from a location very much to the south and east of the Inner Hebrides.  The coast of North Yorkshire, notably the Saltwick Formation has yielded at least two stegosaur tracks, attributed to the ichnospecies Deltapodus brodricki.  These are the oldest fossils attributed to a stegosaur known to science (we think).  The Saltwick Formation was laid down around 175-171 million years ago (Aalenian faunal stage of the Middle Jurassic) and are therefore at least five million years older than the stegosaur body and trace fossils associated with the Inner Hebrides.

Natural Casts of Stegosaur Tracks (Deltapodus brodricki) from the North Yorkshire Coast

Stegosaur tracks (north Yorkshire coast).

Natural casts of stegosaur tracks Deltapodus brodricki from the Aalenian aged Saltwick Formation.

Picture Credit: Martin Whyte and Mike Romano

Isle Skye Middle Jurassic Fossils: Isle of Skye Steps into the Jurassic Spotlight.

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25 08, 2020

Rebor Swarm “Plague Variant” Assembly and Review

By | August 25th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Rebor Swarm “Plague Variant” Assembly and Review

With the arrival of the stunning Rebor X-REX xenomorph replica Swarm (plague variant), Everything Dinosaur team members have been busy putting together a short video review of this amazing alien figure.  In the company’s video, the narrator highlights this new model, the second in a quartet of xenomorph figures planned by Rebor.  In addition, the video provides collectors with hints and tips on how to assemble Swarm.  As it states in the video review – think of this as “Everything Dinosaur’s guide to assembling alien animals”.

The Rebor X-REX Swarm – Plague Variant is Assembled and Reviewed by Everything Dinosaur

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Rebor X-REX Swarm (Plague Variant)

The video provides a quick run through on how to put together the Rebor Swarm model.  It is a fantastic replica, the second in this series to be introduced in 2020, following the launch of the Broodlord (metallic variant) in January (2020).  A total of four figures are scheduled, it had been proposed to introduce one new figure each quarter, but the global COVID-19 pandemic led to some unavoidable production delays.

The New Rebor X-REX Swarm

Rebor Swarm Packaging

The new Rebor X-REX Swarm (plague variant).  The box sits on Everything Dinosaur’s turntable ready to commence filming.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Rebor Swarm and Broodlord Compared

As well as highlighting the superb Swarm, the short video review also includes the Broodlord figure and the two alien models are shown together providing viewers with an ideal opportunity to compare them.

The Video Also Shows Swarm and Broodlord Together (Comparing Rebor Figures)

A pair of Rebor figures Swarm and Broodlord.

The Rebor Swarm and Broodlord pair (plague variant and metallic variant).  The Rebor Swarm model is on the left, whilst the first of the figures in this series to be introduced Broodlord, is on the right.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of Rebor figures available from Everything Dinosaur including the alien models Swarm and Broodlord: Rebor Figures and Replicas.

The Assembled Rebor X-REX Swarm (Plague Variant)

Rebor Swarm (plague variant) assembled.

The assembled Rebor Swarm (plague variant).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Question of the Day

Team members ask viewers a “Question of the Day”, which of the two Rebor xenomorph figures (Rebor Swarm or Broodlord) do you prefer?  We ask our subscribers and video watchers to add comments.

The YouTube channel of Everything Dinosaur contains over 180 videos featuring lots of prehistoric animal models.  The company aims to post up at least one new video each week and our YouTube presence has already attracted thousands of followers and subscribers.

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel: Visit Everything Dinosaur on YouTube and Subscribe.

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24 08, 2020

Landmark Journal on Pennaraptoran Theropods Published

By | August 24th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Comprehensive Review of Dinosaur/Bird Relationship Published

The evolution of the Aves (birds), can be regarded as one of the most significant moments in tetrapod evolution.   From their Mesozoic origins, the birds have thrived and today they have a global distribution and still outnumber the Mammalia in terms of extant species.  Spectacular fossils, particularly those from northern China, demonstrate that birds are members of the Theropoda.  Numerous palaeontologists and other scientists have got together to publish a comprehensive overview of that part of the Theropoda most closely related to living birds.  The volume entitled “Pennaraptoran Theropod Dinosaurs – Past Present and New Frontiers” has been edited by Research Assistant Professor Dr. Michael Pittman of Hong Kong University and Professor Xing Xu (Chinese Academy of Sciences).

Pennaraptoran Theropod Dinosaurs – Past Progress and New Frontiers

Landmark volume on the biology and evolution of early birds and their close relatives.

A landmark volume on the biology and evolution of early birds and their close relatives.

Picture Credit: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History and Julius T Csotonyi

The Origin of Birds

The Pennaraptora are a clade that consists of the Aves, as well as the pennaceous feathered dromaeosaurids, troodontids, oviraptorosaurians and the scansoriopterygids.  It was erected relatively recently (2014), it is defined as the most recent common ancestor of Oviraptor philoceratops, the “raptor” Deinonychus antirrhopus, and Passer domesticus (the house sparrow), and all descendants.  To improve understanding about this clade the International Pennaraptoran Dinosaur Symposium (IPDS), was held at the University of Hong Kong in the spring of 2018 and as a follow-up to this event, a special volume detailing the scientific papers and research has been published in the journal “Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History”.

The symposium permitted the drafting of a comprehensive cladogram demonstrating evolutionary relationships within the Pennaraptora.

Evolutionary Tree of Pennaraptoran Theropods

Cladogram of pennaraptoran theropods.

Evolutionary tree of pennaraptoran theropods.

Picture Credit: Pittman et al

Commenting on the significance of this volume, co-editor Dr Pittman stated:

“The volume documents past progress, works toward consensus on key unresolved issues, breaks new ground in the field and identifies priority areas for future research.”

Split into Three Sections

The publication has been divided into three main sections and consists of fourteen chapters:

1).  The Fossil Record, Systematics and Biogeography – how fossils have shaped the definition of the clade.

2).  Anatomical Frontiers – with a focus on recent fossil discoveries particularly related to the manus (hand) and the skull.

3).  Early Flight Study – research into the origin and evolution of powered flight.

Incisivosaurus – A Primitive Member of the Oviraptorosauria

Incisivosaurus fossil skull.

Skull of the early-diverging oviraptorosaurian pennaraptoran Incisivosaurus.  Later-diverging oviraptorosaurians lost their teeth and evolved a beak.

Picture Credit: Xing Xu and Waisum Ma

The third part of the volume, looking at the evolution of flight examines recent efforts to identify the small pennaraptorans that first took to the skies, what their flight capabilities were and how their flight might have been acquired.  A new broader context is postulated for flight behaviour as part of a functional landscape.  Wing-assisted incline running (WAIR), a behaviour seen in modern birds that is proposed as an early stage of flight development, is argued as a later innovation based on a study of modern ostriches.

Co-editor Professor Xu commented:

“The volume involved 49 experts from more than 10 countries whose views cover much of the current discussion on pennaraptoran palaeobiology and evolution.”

One of the contributors, Dr Daniel Field (Cambridge University), added:

“This is a landmark volume that advances our understanding of pennaraptoran dinosaurs and identifies key areas to address in the years ahead.”

Sapeornis chaoyangensis – An Early Cretaceous Avialan

Short-tailed fossil bird Sapeornis.

The early short-tailed fossil bird Sapeornis.  Under Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence, the feathers and other soft tissues preserved around the fossil skeleton become clear.  This new information has been used to assess the bird’s soaring abilities.

Picture Credit: Serrano et al

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from Hong Kong University in the compilation of this article.

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23 08, 2020

Rock Fall Reveals Ancient Trackways

By | August 23rd, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Two Ancient Trackways Discovered in Arizona

A fortuitous rock fall on the Bright Angel Trail in the Grand Canyon National Park (Arizona), has revealed two ancient trace fossils that have been interpreted as the trackways created by small vertebrates as they climbed a steep sand dune.  The sandstone blocks containing the fossils from the Manakacha Formation, a sub-unit of the extensive Supai Group, are the subject of a scientific paper published in the academic, on-line, open-access journal PLOS One.  Estimated to be around 313 million years old (Moscovian Age of the Pennsylvanian Epoch – Late Carboniferous), the tracks are thought to have been made by either basal diapsid reptile or a basal synapsid and are the first tetrapod tracks reported from the Manakacha Formation and the oldest known from the Grand Canyon region.

An Artist’s Reconstruction of the Tetrapod Ascending the Sand Dune

Basal amniote moves up a sand dune.

Crossing a sand dune.  A life reconstruction of a basal amniote moving diagonally up a dune creating a trackway similar to the one described in the scientific paper.

Picture Credit: Emily Waldman

Ascending Sand Dunes

The rocks in this region are aeolian sandstones and the discovery of the two trackways document the earliest known occurrence of dunefield-dwelling amniotes.  Lead author of the scientific paper, Steve Rowland (professor emeritus of geology at the University of Nevada), commented that these fossils demonstrate that by the Late Carboniferous, the first vertebrates capable of laying eggs out of water had adapted to desert habitats.

The Main Trackway, Line Drawing, Site of Rock Fall and Counterpart Slab

Trackway evidence at the Grand Canyon.

Main trackway block adjacent to Bright Angel Trail (Grand Canyon), with tracks in concave epirelief (impressions) at (A).  Scale is calibrated in decimeters.  Sketch of main trackway surface (B).  Note occurrence of Trackway 2 (alignments of small black spots) above Trackway 1.  The rocks (C) next to the Bright Angel Trail, including at least two rocks with amniote tracks.  Counterpart block (D) with tracks in convex hyporelief (natural casts).

Picture Credit: Rowland et al (PLOS One)

Side-stepping Ascent of a Steep Dune

The rock fall occurred close to a popular hiking trail and they were first spotted during a geology field trip to the Grand Canyon in 2016.  The leader of that trip, professor Allan Krill sent a photograph of the tracks to the Department of Geology at the University of Nevada and Professor Rowland decided to investigate further.  The tracks have been interpreted as showing the ascent of a dune slope at an angle of approximately 20 degrees, thus reducing the steepness of the climb.  The second trackway, a series of small rounded depressions in the rock suggest claw marks.  It has been postulated that these marks are a deeper undertrackway, made some hours or days after the first track was produced, possibly by an animal of the same species as the first trackmaker.

Line Drawing of Main Trackway (1) with a Plotted Three-dimensional Track Interpretation

Line drawing of main trackway surface and coloured digital elevation model.

Sketch of main trackway surface (A).  Detail of a portion of the trackway, with scale (B).  Coloured digital elevation model with explanation of colours (C).  Contour interval is 1 cm.

Picture Credit: Rowland et al (PLOS One)

The scientists conclude that to traverse over the steep slope the little animal was moving, laterally one step at a time so that it always had its three other legs to support its body and to grip the surface.  The transition across the dune may not have been particularly elegant but the 28 impressions that have been preserved may help to shed further light on the evolution of early amniotes, which are scarce in the Carboniferous/Early Permian fossil record of North America.

Not everyone is convinced of the interpretation of the fossils by the research team which included Mario Caputo (Society for Sedimentary Geology) and Zachary Jensen (College of Southern Nevada).

A spokesperson representing the palaeontology programme at the Grand Canyon commented that there was a lot of disagreement amongst the scientific community when it came to interpreting fossil tracks and inferring animal behaviours from them.  During the Late Carboniferous, this part of Arizona was a coastal-plain on the western edge of the super-continent of Pangaea.  There were extensive dunefields in close proximity, the dunes being formed by the action of the wind (aeolian), occasionally exceptional tidal conditions, storms or other flooding events interrupted the aeolian deposition burying parts of the dunefield in fine mud.

The scientific paper: “Early adaptation to eolian sand dunes by basal amniotes is documented in two Pennsylvanian Grand Canyon trackways” by Stephen M. Rowland, Mario V. Caputo and Zachary A. Jensen published in the open-access, on-line journal PLOS One.

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22 08, 2020

Rebor Figures Feature in Everything Dinosaur Newsletter

By | August 22nd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor Figures Feature in Everything Dinosaur Newsletter

The new Rebor X-REX Swarm (plague variant), makes headlines in the Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter.  The arrival of this new figure has made headlines in the latest customer newsletter to be sent out by the UK-based company.  This eagerly anticipated figure from Rebor, the second in their science-fiction/dinosaur hybrid series, had been delayed in production due to the COVID-19 pandemic, however, this beautifully-crafted figure is now available.

The New Rebor X-REX Swarm (Plague Variant) Makes Headlines

Making headlines the Rebor X-REX Swarm "Plague Variant".

The Everything Dinosaur newsletter highlights the arrival of the second figure in the Rebor alien/T. rex series – the X-REX Swarm (plague variant).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To purchase the Rebor X-REX Swarm in the plague variant colouration: Rebor Scale Models and Figures including X-REX Swarm and Broodlord.

An Articulated Figure

The model has a detachable tail which is also flexible, moveable arms and an inner jaw piece.  The figure is very detailed and the skull looks incredible (see picture below).

The Very Alien Rebor X-REX Swarm Model

Swarm - plague variant.

A close view of the amazing head of the Rebor X-REX Swarm (plague variant).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Broodlord and Stegosaurus Woodland Also Make an Appearance

The newsletter also featured the first of the Rebor science fiction figures X-REX Broodlord.   This popular model came out in late January (2020) and with the introduction of Swarm, we wanted to remind collectors that we had a few of these figures available to purchase.  In addition, as well as receiving a shipment of Swarm models, we were able to obtain a number of the Rebor Stegosaurus Garden figure in the Woodland colour scheme.

The Rebor X-REX Broodlord “Metallic Variant” and the Rebor 1:35 scale Stegosaurus Garden 

Rebor figures feature in Everything Dinosaur newsletter.

The Rebor X-REX Broodlord ” metallic variant” and a Rebor “Garden” Stegosaurus in the woodland colouration.  The Stegosaurus figure is also in 1/35th scale and it is one of a series of three stegosaurs introduced by Rebor.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The latest newsletter certainly has a strong emphasis on the Rebor range.  There are lots of planned new model introductions from Rebor for quarter 3 and 4 and team members are looking forward to these new figures coming into the company’s warehouse.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We send out newsletters to our subscriber list every once in a while. We give our subscribers priority ordering and they are the first to hear of new arrivals along with other updates and information to help them with their model collecting hobby.”

To request to join the Everything Dinosaur newsletter subscribers list just send us an email: Email Everything Dinosaur.

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21 08, 2020

Lisowicia bojani – Next Everything Dinosaur Video Review

By | August 21st, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Dynamic Dicynodonts – Lisowicia bojani Video Review Planned

With the recent arrival of the remaining twelve new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animal models, team members at Everything Dinosaur have been busy sorting out all the figures on reserve and picking and despatching orders to eager customers.  However, we have received numerous requests to post up a video review of the CollectA Deluxe 1:20 scale Lisowicia bojani, we intend to post up a short video showcasing this model and the small Placerias model that we also stock in the next ten days or so.

Everything Dinosaur Intends to Produce a Video Review of the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani Model

CollectA Lisowicia video review titles.

The title page for Everything Dinosaur’s planned video review of the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani 1:20 scale replica.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

As well as showcasing the new 1:20 scale figure, team members at Everything Dinosaur intend to comment briefly on the Dicynodontia clade, explain how these synapsids are on the Mammalia part of the tetrapod family tree and to discuss suitable figures to accompany the Lisowicia replica in prehistoric dioramas.  The new for 2020 CollectA figures have already featured in several short videos that have been posted up onto Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel.

The Lisowicia Model was One of Eighteen New for 2020 Figures Introduced by CollectA

CollectA Lisowicia replica

The CollectA Lisowicia bojani model compared next to a geology ruler.  The video will also permit the scale of this figure and its measurements to be discussed.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Adding a Placerias

Dinosaur fans and model collectors have for some time relied on Everything Dinosaur to supply them with another dicynodont figure, that of Placerias.  The Placerias figure has been useful when it comes to creating Late Triassic dioramas.

A Herd of Placerias Models

A trio of Placerias models.

A trio of Placerias models.  The Placerias replica is great for creating Triassic dioramas.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Placerias Model Available from Everything Dinosaur

Placerias model.

The Placerias figure available from Everything Dinosaur whilst stocks last.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To purchase the CollectA Lisowicia bojaniCollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life Range including Lisowicia bojani.

The Placerias is part of set of dinosaur and prehistoric animal models, they can be ordered here: Placerias can be found in this section of the website, just search for the “Prehistoric Animal Models (Individual)” and then purchase a model from this set.  When passing through check-out a message box will pop up and this will allow you to state “Placerias” and a member of our packing team will ensure that this is the figure that is sent out to you.

Take a look at Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel here: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.  We recommend that you subscribe to our YouTube channel.

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20 08, 2020

Oldest Evidence of Megapredation

By | August 20th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Triassic Ichthyosaur Bit Off More than it Could Chew

An international team of researchers have reported the oldest evidence found to date of megapredation, that is, when one large predator eats another large animal.  Sadly, for the 4.8 metre ichthyosaur at the centre of this research published in the on-line, open access journal iScience, the victim, a 4-metre-long thalattosaur (another type of marine reptile), turned out to be the last meal this fish lizard ever had.

Evidence of Megapredation – Thalattosaur Torso Found in Stomach of an Ichthyosaur

Guizhouichthyosaurs evidence of megapredation.

The torso of the thalattosaur in the stomach of the ichthyosaur.  Although the thalattosaur was almost as long as the ichthyosaur it was much lighter.

Picture Credit: Jiang et al/iScience

Which Marine Reptiles were Top of the Food Chain?

When it comes to mapping Mesozoic food chains it is how big the animal was and the size and shape of the teeth that are usually used to determine position in the food web.  Large animals with big, pointed teeth are usually regarded as the apex predators.  However, there is little direct evidence in terms of stomach contents to support these assertions.  A nearly complete specimen of a Guizhouichthyosaurus has been found that contained the torso of another marine reptile, nearly as big as the ichthyosaur.  Guizhouichthyosaurus is believed to have reached a length of between 6-7 metres (most specimens are much smaller).  Their teeth are not huge and they seem adapted to grabbing slippery prey such as fish and squid.  However, the evidence is quite compelling, it seems that Guizhouichthyosaurus also fed on other large marine reptiles too.  Until this fossil discovery, Guizhouichthyosaurus had not been regarded as an apex predator.

Specimen of Guizhouichthyosaurus with Stomach Contents

The skeleton of Guizhouichthyosaurus and stomach contents.

Skeleton of Guizhouichthyosaurus and stomach contents.

Picture Credit: Jiang et al/iScience

A Surprise in the Abdominal Region

The ichthyosaur specimen, likely to represent a new species of Guizhouichthyosaurus was found in 2010 and excavated from the Ladinian (Middle Triassic) Zhuganpo Member of the Falang Formation in Xingyi, Guizhou Province, in south-western China.  During preparation, a large block of bones was identified in the stomach cavity.  It soon became clear that these bones were not from the ichthyosaur but represented a thalattosaur, identified as Xinpusaurus xingyiensis.  The seventy-four centimetre mass was classified as a bromalite, a trace fossil representing the remains of material sourced from the digestive tract of the ichthyosaur.  The lack of evidence of damage from stomach acids suggests that the unfortunate Xinpusaurus had been swallowed shortly before the Guizhouichthyosaurus itself died.  Attempting to consume such a large item of prey probably killed the ichthyosaur.

Skeletal Reconstruction of the Ichthyosaur and Thalattosaur

Demonstrating the predator/prey relationship

(A) = Skeletal reconstruction of the predator, Guizhouichthyosaurus, with (B) approximate skeletal map of the prey, Xinpusaurus xingyiensis.  Skeletal reconstruction of X. xingyiensis holotype (C) and photograph of X. xingyiensis holotype fossil (D).  A natural mould of the isolated, articulated tail of Xinpusaurus found 23 metres away from the ichthyosaur/thalattosaur specimen (E).  Scale bars 1 metre (A-C), 10 cm (D) and 25 cm for (E).

Picture Credit: Jiang et al/iScience

Scavenging a Carcase Discounted

An articulated Xinpusaurus tail was found some twenty-three metres away from the ichthyosaur/thalattosaur specimen.  Whilst it is not possible to definitively match this tail to the bromalite, the researchers suggest that the tail could have come from the prey.  The presence of limb bones in the stomach cavity indicate that the Xinpusaurus was attacked and that the ichthyosaur was not scavenging a carcase.  If the Guizhouichthyosaurus had been feeding on a rotting corpse, it is likely that the Xinpusaurus limb bones would have become detached from the body as the soft tissue eroded.

It has been proposed that the ichthyosaur attacked the slightly smaller Xinpusaurus at the water’s surface.  The predator employed a “grip and tear” strategy, as seen in extant aquatic predators such as large crocodilians and killer whales (Orcinus orca).  By grabbing the victim and thrashing its powerful body and tail, the Xinpusaurus could have been ripped to pieces by the ichthyosaur.  This might explain why the head and neck of the Xinpusaurus is missing whilst a detached tail was found nearby.

The Skull of the Guizhouichthyosaurus and a Close View of the Teeth

Guizhouichthyosaurus skull showing close-up of jaws lined with small, closely spaced teeth.

The skull of the ichthyosaur with the red rectangle highlighting the area shown in close up view.  Dotted line in (B) indicates the gumline.  The small, closely spaced teeth of Guizhouichthyosaurus do not look typically like the dentition of an apex predator.

Picture Credit: Jiang et al/iScience

The remarkable fossils most likely represent the oldest record of megafaunal predation by a marine reptile and the oldest example of megapredation.  If Guizhouichthyosaurus was capable of such carnage then it seems the many more Mesozoic reptiles, not previously considered as top predators could also have indulged in megapredatory behaviour.

The scientific paper: “Evidence Supporting Predation of 4-m Marine Reptile by Triassic Megapredator” by Da-Yong Jiang, Ryosuke Motani, Andrea Tintori, Olivier Rieppel, Cheng Ji, Min Zhou, Xue Wang, Hao Lu and Zhi-Guang Li published in iScience.

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19 08, 2020

Everything Dinosaur Maintains 5-Star Service

By | August 19th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur Maintains 5-Star Service

Things might be a little difficult for a lot of people at the moment.  The COVID-19 global pandemic continues to have a negative effect on international business and logistics, but our dedicated and enthusiastic team members continue to work around the clock to ensure that customer orders are picked, packed and despatched as quickly as possible.

Throughout this pandemic we have been able to maintain our 5-star customer service rating with Feefo the independent ratings company.  Top marks for Everything Dinosaur!

Everything Dinosaur has Managed to Maintain the Top Rating for Customer Service

Feefo award for Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur has been awarded the Platinum Trusted Service award from Feefo.  Everything Dinosaur has managed to maintain top marks for customer service during the global COVID-19 pandemic.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Feedback from Everything Dinosaur Customers

Some of the recent comments and feedback recorded by Feefo on behalf of Everything Dinosaur:

Remko provided feedback:

“I forgot to add some items to my order and they cancelled my first one so I could reorder the correct items.  Shipping was very fast as well.  Received the shipping notice on Monday, and the package was delivered on Wednesday.”

Leonardo provided a comment:

“Everything was perfect, from customer service to packaging to professionalism in general.”

Michael added:

“Fantastic range of high quality products at great prices.  Better than amazon for dinosaur products.  Have ordered several times in the last few weeks and always received products within 24 hours.”

Rafael from Alberta (Canada), exclaimed:

“As always, great service.  I love the customer service that everything dinosaur have.  Shipping was fast.  No more than 10 days all the way to Canada.  Thank you ED for all the work and logistics that you put into getting this REBOR Titanoboa in our hands.  Much appreciated!!”

Des, one of our many overseas customers sent feedback:

“Took a couple of weeks to get here but quality and size of mammoth very impressive!”

Michael from Ireland was very pleased with our speedy service and delighted to receive the free prehistoric animal fact sheet that we included in the parcel.  He stated:

“Great fast service, the fact that they also add an information sheet with the models is wonderful.”

David one of Everything Dinosaur’s many customers in Spain wrote:

“Perfecto, servicio impecable, como siempre.”  This translates as “perfect, impeccable service, as always.”

Everything Dinosaur Won the Feefo Platinum Service Award for 2020

Platinum Standard Service from Everything Dinosaur.

Everything Dinosaur has won the Feefo Platinum Service Award for 2020.  This is the highest award provided by the independent ratings company Feefo.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur thanked customers for their kind comments and feedback stating that the company had put into place a number of contingency plans to ensure that team workers could sort out and pack orders over the weekend if required and that staff had made sure that the warehouse and offices were COVID secure environments.

The company remains on track to be recognised for its excellence in customer service in 2021.

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s website: The Everything Dinosaur Website.

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