All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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6 02, 2021

Preparing a Pteranodon Information Panel

By | February 6th, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Educational Activities, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

Preparing a Pteranodon Information Panel

As part of their on-going work with an events management company, Everything Dinosaur team members have been asked to prepare an information panel on the famous pterosaur genus Pteranodon.  The information provided will be used for a display board that accompanies a life-size Pteranodon longiceps exhibit.  The Pteranodon panel is one of a series of display boards being created by Everything Dinosaur, all the other boards that staff members have been asked to create relate to dinosaurs.

A Model of the Pterosaur Pteranodon longiceps

JurassicCollectables reviews the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon figure.

Perhaps the most famous flying reptile of all!  A model of the flying reptile known as Pteranodon (P. longiceps).  Everything Dinosaur team members have been asked to create an information board to accompany a life-size museum display of this Late Cretaceous pterosaur.

Picture Credit: JurassicCollectables

The Pteranodon Information Panel

Pteranodon might be one of the best-known and extensively studied of all the Pterosauria.  Around 1,200 fossil specimens are known, ironically most are fragmentary and squashed as flat as a pancake.

Name: Pteranodon (Pteranodon longiceps).

Means: Winged and Toothless.

Period: Late Cretaceous, 85 Million Years Ago (approximately).

Where are the majority of Pteranodon Fossils Found?  They are found in Kansas, South Dakota and Wyoming (USA).

Pteranodon is a pterosaur, a type of extinct flying reptile and not a dinosaur!  Pterosaurs were a very unusual group of reptiles that lived alongside the dinosaurs.  They were the earliest back-boned animals to evolve powered flight and take to the sky.  There are many species known (more than 120).  The smallest had a wingspan of around 25 centimetres, whereas the largest had a wingspan of about 10 – 11 metres!  They became extinct at the end of the Cretaceous, around 66 million years ago.  Pteranodon is perhaps the most famous pterosaur; the largest specimens suggest a wingspan of around 7 metres.  Over a thousand specimens, from almost complete skeletons to fragmentary bones, have been found.  Pteranodon fossils are associated with strata laid down in marine environments and it is thought that these flying reptiles fed on small fish.

Many Prehistoric Scenes Feature the Iconic Pterosaur Pteranodon

The Western Interior Seaway (Late Cretaceous)

Dramatic scene from the Western Interior Seaway painted by Burian.  Pteranodon fossils are associated with marine deposits and this explains why they are featured in prehistoric seascapes, especially those depicting the Pierre Seaway and the Western Interior Seaway.

Picture Credit: Zdeněk Burian

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5 02, 2021

Horned Dinosaurs Evolved Frills to Attract Mates

By | February 5th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Horned Dinosaurs Evolved Frills to Attract Mates

The ornate and very diverse head crests and frills of horned dinosaurs (ceratopsians) probably evolved to help them attract a mate.  That is the conclusion from a study recently published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.  Ever since the first horned dinosaurs were discovered, palaeontologists have debated why these plant-eating dinosaurs evolved such elaborate neck shields (these features are produced by elaborate extensions to the parietal and squamosal skull bones).  It had been thought that these frills provided some protection from attack from theropod dinosaurs such as the contemporaneous tyrannosaurs, or perhaps they had a role in thermoregulation.  With so many different types of large ceratopsians known from the Late Cretaceous of North America it had also been suggested that these crests and frills played a role in species recognition.  An extensive analysis of the skulls of “first horned face” – Protoceratops (P. andrewsi), suggests that they played a role in sexual selection.

A Reconstruction of the Skeleton of Protoceratops (P. andrewsi)

Protoceratops skeleton on display.

A skeleton of a Protoceratops on display.  The elaborate head crest complete with fenestrae (two large holes), probably evolved as a result of sexual selection.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Sexual Selection

Sexual selection is a method of natural selection in which members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with.  Certain characteristics in organisms are favoured by members of the opposite sex and organisms that possess the favoured feature(s) are the ones that breed.  This leads over time to these preferred characteristics becoming more intricate and elaborate.  There are plenty of examples to be found in the natural world today, most certainly amongst the closest living relatives of the Dinosauria the birds.  The elaborate but cumbersome tails of peacocks for instance, or the ornate and very beautiful plumes of the birds of paradise.

A Male Goldie’s Bird of Paradise Displays to Attract a Mate

Goldie's bird of paradise (male) displays.

A Goldie’s bird of paradise displays.  The ornate feathers on this beautiful male are an example of sexual selection.

Picture Credit: Tim Laman/National Geographic Image Collection

The researchers, which included scientists from the Natural History Museum (London) and Queen Mary University of London, used computer modelling to map how the skull of Protoceratops changed as the dinosaur grew.  Protoceratops has a rich and extensive fossil record.  Hundreds of specimens have been found ranging from embryos in unhatched eggs up to large, very old adults.  This extensive fossil record made this type of horned dinosaur an ideal candidate for this study.

The Fossilised Remains of a Young Protoceratops

A baby Protoceratops skeleton.

The fossilised remains of a young Protoceratops.  The extensive fossil record of Protoceratops made it an ideal candidate for a study into sexual selection.

Picture Credit: Gregory Erickson (Florida State University)

Sexual selection is predicted to be an important driver of evolution.  It influences adaptation and the development of new species.  There are anatomical traits and characteristics that can be identified in the fossil record that indicate sexual selection within a species is at work.   The fossilised skulls of horned dinosaurs can be studied to see if any of these traits and characteristics can be found.

Predicted characteristics of horned dinosaur skulls that indicate sexual selection having an influence include:

  • Low integration with the rest of the skull.
  • A significantly higher rate of change in size and shape as the dinosaur grows.
  • A higher morphological variance in the parietal and squamosal when compared to other bones of the skull.

The computer modelling used to assess these traits supported the theory that sexual selection was at work within Protoceratops andrewsi.

No Evidence of Sexual Dimorphism in Protoceratops

Whilst it is notoriously difficult to identify males from females using just the fossil record, the large number of Protoceratops specimens gave the researchers the opportunity to see if they could spot evidence of male Protoceratops having different skull frills compared to the females.  Although the research involved a substantial sample set, no evidence of sexual dimorphism in skull shape was found.  This suggests that either there were no differences in frill shape between the boys and the girls or that any differences between the genders was very small.

The scientific paper supports the idea that the elaborate frills of horned dinosaurs did play a role in sexual selection.  Scientists have suspected that many of these strange anatomical features found in the Dinosauria were linked to sexual selection and display.  This evidence is extremely hard to find using the fossil record alone, however, the computer modelling and in-depth analysis used here provides evidence for the presence of signalling structures linked to sexual selection in Protoceratops andrewsi.

The scientific paper: “Three-dimensional geometric morphometric analysis of the skull of Protoceratops andrewsi supports a socio-sexual signalling role for the ceratopsian frill” by A. Knapp, R. J. Knell and D. W. E. Hone published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

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4 02, 2021

Preparing Information Panels for a Dinosaur Exhibition

By | February 4th, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Educational Activities, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils, Teaching|0 Comments

Preparing Information Panels for a Dinosaur Exhibition

Everything Dinosaur team members have been asked by an events company to check some information panels about dinosaurs in preparation for a series of outdoor exhibitions planned for the UK in the summer of 2021.  Events companies are making plans to commence exhibitions and other public activities as the lockdown restrictions are likely to come to an end later on this year (hopefully).

One of the dinosaurs featured is Diplodocus.  Everything Dinosaur team members have been busy checking and amending where necessary the information panel that will accompany an exhibit featuring this famous sauropod.  It is ironic that this is one of the first dinosaurs that we work on as we look forward to the end of lockdown.  Back in March 2020 staff were working with the Natural History Museum’s “Dippy” the Diplodocus touring exhibit, but the start of the first lockdown in the third week of that March led to all our outreach work being suspended.

A Size Comparison!  Diplodocus Compared to some Animals Alive Today

How big was Diplodocus?

Diplodocus compared to animals alive today.  This super-sized sauropod will be part of a set of prehistoric animals to be used by an exhibitions company.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Information Panel

Name: Diplodocus
Means: Double Beam
Period: Late Jurassic, 154-150 Million Years Ago
Where have fossils been found: Colorado, Montana, Utah and Wyoming (USA)

Diplodocus is one of the longest dinosaurs to have ever lived.  It is also one of the best-known sauropods, as several skeletons have been discovered!  It is, at present, the longest dinosaur known from a practically complete skeleton.  Some dinosaurs were certainly larger, but they are known from less complete skeletons.  The largest specimen known is estimated to have been around 26 metres in length, about as long as three double decker buses and around 5 metres tall, from the toe to the hip.  Diplodocus weighed around approximately 10 to 15 tonnes!

The very first Diplodocus bones were discovered in a quarry in Colorado, USA, in 1877.  Diplodocus was herbivorous and possessed forward-pointing, long, peg-like teeth that were positioned at the front of its mouth; they were perfect branch-strippers.  Scientists believe that Diplodocus fed by closing its mouth around plant stems and stripping the leaves by pulling back its head – like a rake.

As our team members pointed out to the events company children are so well-informed and knowledgeable about dinosaurs, that whatever gets put on the information panel is likely to be challenged by them.  However, the panels we have helped to create we help to inform and to educate.

A Very Impressive Sauropod Femur (Diplodocid)

Professor Phil Manning and the diplodocid femur.

Professor Phil Manning (The University of Manchester) poses next to a diplodocid femur.  Huge sauropod fossils are still being found in the same area of the United States where the first Diplodocus fossils were discovered.

Picture Credit: The University of Manchester

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3 02, 2021

Teeth Provide Evidence of H. sapiens and Neanderthal Interbreeding

By | February 3rd, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Teeth Provide Evidence of H. sapiens and Neanderthal Interbreeding

Teeth estimated to be less than 48,000 years old from a site in Jersey have provided evidence of Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis interbreeding.  The collection of thirteen teeth were all found on a ledge behind a hearth at the cave site of La Cotte de St Brelade on the island of Jersey.  The teeth which were all collected between 1910 and 1911 were all thought to represent the adult teeth of Neanderthals, however, new research led by the Natural History Museum (London), the University of Wales, the University of Kent, The British Museum, the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Leipzig, Germany), Wessex Archaeology and University College London, uncovered features characteristic with modern human teeth (H. sapiens).

Views of One of the Teeth from the La Cotte de St Brelade (Jersey) Site

Views of one of the teeth from La Cotte de St Brelade.

The teeth demonstrate a mixture of Neanderthal and modern human traits.

Picture Credit: Journal of Human Evolution

Traits of Both Neanderthal and Modern Human

One of the original teeth had been lost, another was identified as nonhominin, the remainder represent the teeth from at least two adults.  The shape of the area between the crown and the root, the cervix, indicated that the teeth were from a Homo sapiens, whilst the crown and root dimensions along with the shape of the roots are consistent with H. neanderthalensis.

Field Team Members at Work on the La Cotte de St Brelade Site

Evidence of interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans on Jersey.

The site of the discovery La Cotte de St Brelade on the island of Jersey.

Picture Credit: Dr Martin Bates (University of Wales)

This combination of Neanderthal and modern human traits led the research team to conclude that the people who had these teeth had a possible shared Neanderthal and H. sapiens ancestry.

Dating the Cave Deposits

The research team were able to utilise advance sediment dating techniques to determine the approximate age of the teeth.  The age of the material three to four metres below the horizon from which the teeth came from dates to about 48,000 years ago, a time when modern human populations and Neanderthals were both present in Europe.  A fragmentary skull bone (occipital) found in association with the teeth does not exhibit any diagnostic Neanderthal features, however the teeth provide further, intriguing evidence in support of hominin interbreeding.

Dr Martin Bates, (University of Wales), a geologist on the research team stated:

“The work on the teeth show the value of going back to historic collections of material where modern work at a site provides new contexts for this historic material.  So, although the teeth were collected back in the early 20th century, modern techniques applied to both the teeth and the site now allow us to really begin to understand what the teeth represent and how old they are.”

Mapping and Excavating the La Cotte de St Brelade Site

The cave site La Cotte de St Brelade (Jersey).

La Cotte de St Brelade cave entrance where excavation work continues.

Picture Credit: Dr Martin Bates (University of Wales)

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Wales in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “The morphology of the Late Pleistocene hominin remains from the site of La Cotte de St Brelade, Jersey (Channel Islands)” by Tim Compton, Matthew M. Skinner, Louise Humphrey, Matthew Pope, Martin Bates, Thomas W. Davies, Simon A. Parfitt, William P. Plummer, Beccy Scott, Andrew Shaw and Chris Stringer published in the Journal of Human Evolution.

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2 02, 2021

Triceratops Drawing

By | February 2nd, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Educational Activities, Main Page|0 Comments

Triceratops Drawing

Our thanks to the talented artist Caldey who sent to Everything Dinosaur a drawing of one of her favourite Cretaceous dinosaurs – Triceratops (T. horridus).  We think that Caldey was inspired by the Beasts of the Mesozoic Triceratops (sub-adult) articulated model that was recently introduced.  Our thanks to Caldey for sending in her Triceratops illustration.

A Drawing of the Late Cretaceous Horned Dinosaur Triceratops (Illustration by Caldey)

An illustration of Triceratops produced by Caldey.

The beautiful Triceratops illustration produced by young artist Caldey.

Picture Credit: Caldey

For comparison, here is a picture of the Beasts of the Mesozoic Triceratops figure that we think helped to inspire young Caldey.

The Beasts of the Mesozoic Triceratops horridus Articulated Dinosaur Model (Sub-adult Version)

 Beasts of the Mesozoic sub-adult Triceratops articulated model.

The Beasts of the Mesozoic sub-adult Triceratops articulated model.  Team members at Everything Dinosaur think that this model was the inspiration behind Caldey’s Triceratops drawing.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Our thanks to Caldey for sending into us a beautiful drawing of a Triceratops.  We receive lots of illustrations and we enjoy looking at them all.  With so many amazing prehistoric animal figures and replicas around these days young artists can use these figures to help inspire their own creative efforts.”

The Beasts of the Mesozoic Triceratops (T. horridus) figure that inspired this young artist is just one of nine articulated ceratopsian figures currently in this range.  There will be more horned dinosaur models introduced in the near future (2021).  The Beasts of the Mesozoic Triceratops figure has already received several five-star customer reviews.

To purchase the Triceratops model, you can find it on this part of the Everything Dinosaur website: Beasts of the Mesozoic Models and Replicas.

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1 02, 2021

Rebor Oddities Compsognathus longipes Preserved Dissection Specimens Delayed

By | February 1st, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor Oddities Compsognathus longipes Preserved Dissection Specimens Delayed

The two eagerly awaited Rebor Oddities Compsognathus longipes preserved dissection specimens have been delayed and they are not going to arrive on the 2nd of February as earlier stated.  Both the Rebor Oddities C. longipes replicas (preserved dissection specimen and the limited edition Victorian Goth version), have been despatched and they are currently on the water heading for the UK.  However, delays and difficulties with shipping and other global logistics related matters led to hold-ups prior to them leaving the factory and they are not likely to arrive before the end of the month (February 2021) or possibly into March.

The Rebor Oddities Compsognathus longipes Dissection Specimens

The Rebor Oddities Compsognathus longipes preserved dissection specimens.

The Rebor Oddities Compsognathus longipes preserved dissection specimens (standard on the left and the limited edition Victorian Goth version is shown on the right).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“This is disappointing news but there is virtually no air freight available so these items, like many items at the moment are having to be sent by sea freight.  We apologise for this delay, but we have all the pre-orders for these two replicas safely stored on our database and the delay will only be for a few weeks.”

Available for Pre-order

These two models were originally launched and made available for pre-order in November 2020.  As Everything Dinosaur does not ask for payment upfront, there was no deposit to pay or any additional fees, those customers on the company’s pre-order lists merely have to wait a little longer for these two replicas.  There are huge delays and a lot of disruption in global distribution networks at the moment.  Everything Dinosaur notes that some companies insist on deposits or an upfront payment (sometimes even 100% of the order value), as part of the pre-order terms and conditions.  Customers may have spent or committed funds but will have longer to wait to receive their goods.  With Everything Dinosaur, this is not the case, we just ask our customers on our pre-order lists to be patient at this difficult time.

The spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur added:

“We have emailed all those customers who took up our offer of pre-ordering, informing them of the current situation.  We explained why the delay has occurred and they can rest assured that we are doing all we can to bring models and figures into stock as quickly as possible.”

Both Rebor Oddities Compsognathus longipes Preserved Dissection Specimens Featured in Everything Dinosaur’s November Newsletter

Rebor Compsognathus longipes preserved dissection specimens.

The Rebor Compsognathus longipes preserved dissection specimens featured in the Everything Dinosaur November 2020 newsletter.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Both the Rebor Oddities Compsognathus longipes preserved dissection specimens have been given a new availability date of Tuesday 2nd March.  The expected arrival date for these figures has been put back by four weeks.

Ironically, although stocks are quite low, both these figures are still available for pre-order and they can be found in this section: Rebor Models and Figures.

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31 01, 2021

PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus Video Review

By | January 31st, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus Video Review

The latest additions to the PNSO mid-size model range have really got dinosaur fans and prehistoric animal model collectors excited.  Everything Dinosaur has worked with PNSO for many years, in fact we have the longest trading relationship with this company outside of China.  Audrey the Lambeosaurus is one of fourteen new for 2020/21 prehistoric animals that have been produced.  It is a very impressive hadrosaur model with a beautiful, reticulated colour scheme.  The figure has been given a gloss coat, so it has a wet-look appearance.  As one of our favourite PNSO figures, we have produced a short video review of it for our YouTube channel.

Everything Dinosaur Highlights the PNSO Lambeosaurus (Audrey the Lambeosaurus)

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

We recommend our YouTube video channel, it is crammed full of video reviews of prehistoric animal replicas, hints and tips and it also gives collectors the opportunity to suggest new dinosaur models.  Here is a link to the Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur – YouTube.

Audrey the Lambeosaurus

In the short video review (the YouTube video lasts just over two minutes), the Lambeosaurus packaging is shown and then the dinosaur model is placed on our turntable so that viewers can see this figure from all angles.  We comment on the reticulated patterning and explain what inspired the design team at PNSO to use this colour scheme and design.  In addition, we confirm the figure’s measurements and suggest a scale (based on Lambeosaurus lambei) of around 1:30 for this dinosaur model.

In the Video We Provide Detailed Model Measurements

PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus model measurements.

In the Everything Dinosaur YouTube video we provide detailed measurements for the PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A 1/30th Scale Hadrosaur Model

Although PNSO do not declare a scale for their mid-size prehistoric animal figures, in the Everything Dinosaur video we propose a suggested scale as well as showing close-up views of the superb detail on the dinosaur model.  The clear, glossy coat that has been applied gives the hadrosaur a wet-look.  This is most noticeable around the head and that distinctive hatchet-shaped head crest.

A Close-up View of the Head and Crest of the PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus

PNSO Lambeosaurus (anterior view).

A close view of the head and hatchet-like crest on the PNSO Lambeosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur 

Audrey the PNSO Lambeosaurus is just one of a whole herd of exciting, new PNSO prehistoric animal figures available from Everything Dinosaur.  To view the range of PNSO dinosaur models and prehistoric animal replicas: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Models and Figures.

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30 01, 2021

Four-year-old Finds Dinosaur Footprint

By | January 30th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Three-toed Dinosaur Track Found in South Wales

There has been a lot of media interest in the discovery of a beautifully-preserved three-toed dinosaur footprint on a beach near the town of Barry in South Wales.  The track identified as an example of the ichnogenus Grallator was spotted by four-year-old Lily Wilder whilst out for a walk with her family.  The specimen, preserved in a loose boulder is now in the care of scientists at the National Museum of Wales.

A Superb Example of a Three-toed Dinosaur Track from the Mercia Mudstone Group at Bendrick Rock (Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales)

Grallator fossil track (South Wales).

Grallator track spotted by a 4-year-old girl at Bendrick Rock (South Wales).

Picture Credit: National Museum Wales

An Area Famed for its Dinosaur Footprints

This part of the South Wales coast is famous for its prehistoric animal tracks, which represent the oldest confirmed dinosaur trackways known from the British Isles.  The tracks are preserved in sediments associated with the Mercia Mudstone Group at Bendrick Rock and hundreds of individual prints have been found, representing at least sixty different trackways.  National Museum of Wales Palaeontology curator Cindy Howells was notified of the find and has described it as the best specimen ever found on this beach.  The print representing a small theropod dinosaur is estimated to be around 220 million years old (Late Triassic).

The print is a fraction over 10 cm long and was probably made by a light, agile, bipedal dinosaur similar in appearance to Coelophysis.

A Late Triassic Landscape Featuring a Trio of Coelophysis Dinosaurs

Burian depicts a Triassic landscape.

Beautiful and evocative artwork from Burian (Coelophysis bauri and Eupelor durus).  An illustration of a Late Triassic scene featuring the small, agile biped Coelophysis (C. bauri).

Picture Credit: Zdeněk Burian

The tracks preserved in the rocks exposed in this area not only record the movements of dinosaurs but prints associated with rauisuchian reptiles (crocodile-like contemporaries of the first dinosaurs), have also been found.

A Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

Like many similar sites in the UK, this part of the coast close to the seaside town of Barry is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI).  The landowner, the British Institute for Geological Conservation, is a charity that works to conserve natural heritage through site ownership, education and community engagement.  Natural Resources Wales (NRW) had to seek special permission in order to remove the track.  Researchers at the National Museum of Wales located in Cardiff will be studying the print in a bid to find out more about early dinosaur locomotion.

Commenting on this fantastic fossil find, Cindy Howells, the curator of palaeontology at National Museum Wales exclaimed:

“This fossilised dinosaur footprint from 220 million years ago is one of the best-preserved examples from anywhere in the UK and will really aid palaeontologists to get a better idea about how these early dinosaurs walked.  Its acquisition by the museum is mainly thanks to Lily and her family who first spotted it.  During the Covid pandemic scientists from Amgueddfa Cymru [National Museum Wales] have been highlighting the importance of nature on people’s doorstep and this is a perfect example of this.  Obviously, we don’t all have dinosaur footprints on our doorstep but there is wealth of nature local to you if you take the time to really look close enough.”

Lily’s mother Sally Wilder stated:

“It was Lily and Richard (her father) who discovered the footprint.  Lily saw it when they were walking along and said “Daddy look”.  When Richard came home and showed me the photograph, I thought it looked amazing.  Richard thought it was too good to be true. I was put in touch with experts who took it from there.  We were thrilled to find out it really was a dinosaur footprint and I am happy that it will be taken to the national museum where it can be enjoyed and studied for generations.”

Dinosaur Tracks from the Vale of Glamorgan Area (South Wales)

Vale of Glamorgan dinosaur tracks.

Dinosaur Tracks from the Late Triassic from the Vale of Glamorgan area (South Wales).

Picture Credit: Tom Sharpe (Dinosaurs of the British Isles)

To read a related article from 2012 reporting on the theft of dinosaur tracks from the Vale of Glamorgan: Dinosaur Footprints Stolen from the Vale of Glamorgan.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from National Museum Wales in the compilation of this article.

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29 01, 2021

Prehistoric Times Issue 136 Reviewed

By | January 29th, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Magazine Reviews, Main Page|0 Comments

Prehistoric Times Magazine Issue 136 (Winter 2021) Reviewed

Time to be cheered up by the arrival of the latest edition of “Prehistoric Times” magazine, the quarterly journal for fans of dinosaur models, prehistoric themed art and collectibles.  Adorning the front cover of issue 136 is a spectacular illustration of Deinonychus (D. antirrhopus) by the talented wildlife illustrator and palaeoartist Esther van Hulsen.   The close-up view of the snout of this theropod on the front cover gives the viewer the opportunity to appreciate the details that the artist adds to her illustrations.  Inside the magazine further evidence is provided with a series or artworks created by Esther van Hulsen imagining the life story of Ida the Darwinius (D. maxillae) from the Messel bituminous shales.

Can you spot the myriad of tiny creatures that are featured in the illustrations alongside this 47 million-year-old primate?

The Front Cover of “Prehistoric Times” Issue 136 – Deinonychus antirrhopus

"Prehistoric Times" magazine issue 136.

The front cover of “Prehistoric Times” magazine issue 136.

Picture Credit: Mike Fredericks

The Forgotten Dinosaur Art of Robert T. Bakker

Some of the dynamic dinosaur illustrations of Dr Robert “Bob” Bakker, who was a student of Dr John Ostrom, who named and described Deinonychus, are also featured in this magazine.  Canadian palaeontologists Darren Tanke and Jordan Mallon provide an insightful guide to these influential artworks that challenged the long held assumption that the Dinosauria were slow and sluggish animals.  Randy Knol also demonstrates how our views about dinosaurs have changed by looking at some the latest models of Spinosaurus, a theropod that has been completely revised and is now regarded as a semi-aquatic predator.

The Limited Edition Papo Spinosaurus Model from 2019 Features in the Spinosaurus Model Review

Papo Spinosaurus (limited edition) in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Everything Dinosaur stocks the limited edition Papo Spinosaurus dinosaur model.  This 2019 Papo dinosaur model is featured in an article that looks how Spinosaurus models have changed over time.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Sauropods

John Lavas continues an exploration of the work of Zdeněk Burian and focuses on his illustrations of sauropods.  The author frames the illustrations produced by the ground-breaking Czech artist by summarising the early research into these ground-shaking leviathans.  Burian painted a total of five sauropod genera and although the accepted view at the time was that these huge animals were semi-aquatic, Burian chose to depict the main subject of the artwork on terra firma.  The enabled him to reveal the shape of the dinosaur’s body more clearly.

Diplodocus carnegii by Zdeněk Burian (Depicting the Fauna and Flora of the Morrison Formation of the United States of America)

Diplodocus life reconstruction by Burian painted in 1952.

An illustration of Diplodocus (D. carnegii) by Burian.

Picture Credit: Zdeněk Burian

Phil Hore provides the lowdown on the bizarre Longisquama complete with superb reader submitted drawings by Cody Zaiser, Mike Laudry  and Jeff Slack.  He also discusses the armoured dinosaur Sauropelta and this article features lots of amazing armoured dinosaur artwork too.  We were particularly impressed with the sleeping Sauropelta image submitted by Marcus Burkhardt.  Tracey Lee Ford chimes in, continuing the Thyreophora theme by looking at how to draw Ankylosaurus and if you wanted to know what Scottish scientist and writer Dougal Dixon did in lockdown to keep himself busy, then read the double page spread that starts on page 28.

Recent news stories featuring fossil discoveries are covered in the “Paleonews” section, look out for an update on the hunting strategy of Deinonychus and a stark revision of Dilophosaurus.  As always “Prehistoric Times” is crammed full of fascinating stories, artwork and features.

To subscribe to this quarterly magazine: Subscribe to Prehistoric Times.

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28 01, 2021

Prehistoric Sharks Resurface

By | January 28th, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Safari Ltd Prehistoric Sharks Toob Back in Stock

Originally launched in 2011 but then retired in 2017, Everything Dinosaur is delighted to announce that team members have been able to secure a limited stock of the rare Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob.  This exciting set of ten prehistoric shark figures is now back in stock at the UK-based specialist prehistoric animal model and dinosaur replica company.

The Safari Ltd Prehistoric Sharks Toob is Back in Stock at Everything Dinosaur

The Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob.

The Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob.  A set of ten different prehistoric shark models demonstrating the diversity of the shark family through deep time.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Ultimate Marine Predator

Sharks have been around for more than 400 million years.  Sharks are part of the Chondrichthyes, the fish with cartilaginous skeletons.  There is some evidence to indicate that the first sharks evolved in the Late Ordovician geological period around 450 million years ago, but many palaeontologists consider that this subclass of the Chondrichthyes (the Elasmobranchii), first appeared in marine environments during the Silurian.

The Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob celebrates the diversity of these highly successful marine vertebrates.  Each of the ten different models represents an important shark genus from the fossil record ranging from the Late Devonian to the very end of the Mesozoic and possibly into the early Cenozoic too.

The Ten Different Shark Models in the Safari Ltd Prehistoric Sharks Model Toob

The shark models in the Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob.

Ten prehistoric sharks models in the Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob.  Can you identify them all?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“When first introduced ten years ago the Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob proved very popular with model makers re-creating ancient marine environments.  These shark replicas were very useful when creating prehistoric underwater scenes.  If the scene featured a Dunkleosteus for example, then one of the Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks figures could be added to help give the diorama more authenticity.  If the underwater scene focused on a pliosaur or perhaps a mosasaur, then other figures from this set representing sharks which were contemporaneous could be added.”

To view the Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob and the other figures available from Everything Dinosaur in this model range: Safari Ltd and Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models.

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