All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
//Key Stage 3/4

Articles that focus on teaching ideas and activities aimed at Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4.

3 04, 2021

Extra-terrestrial End-Cretaceous Impact Gave Rise to the Amazon Rainforest

By | April 3rd, 2021|Adobe CS5, Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Key Stage 3/4, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

The Amazon rainforest is an extremely important low latitude habitat with a huge diversity of animals, fungi and plant species. Described as the “lungs of the planet”, this tropical rainforest is at the very centre of many global conservation efforts. New research suggests that it was the extra-terrestrial impact event some 66 million years ago that led to the rise of this angiosperm dominated ecosystem.

Earth impact event.
Cataclysmic impact event that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs and lots of other animal life. New research suggests that the dinosaur-killing bolide also gave rise to the Amazon rainforest ecosystem. Picture credit: Don Davis (commissioned by NASA).

K/Pg Extinction Event

Approximately 66 million years ago a rock from space smashed into our planet. This triggered a sudden mass extinction event devastating around 75% of all the animal and plant terrestrial species, many of which subsequently became extinct. At this time the dinosaurs, their cousins the pterosaurs and the majority of marine reptiles died out.

The end of the non-avian dinosaurs.
An artist’s impression of the bolide about to impact with the Gulf of Mexico 66 million years ago. This devastating event wiped out a large number of animals and plants, very probably contributing to the extinction of many different families including all the non-avian dinosaurs. Picture credit: Chase Stone.

Analysis of Fossil Pollen and Study of Fossil Leaves

Writing in the journal “Science”, researchers from the Southern Methodist University (Texas) and the University of Wyoming report on the study of tens of thousands of fossil pollen specimens along with thousands of leaf fossils from Cretaceous-aged strata and deposits laid down after the K/Pg extinction event. The scientists, which include co-author Dr Ellen Currano (Department of Botany, University of Wyoming), found that the types of plant creating tropical forests were very different pre and post the extra-terrestrial impact. In the Late Cretaceous tropical forests were dominated by conifers and they were much more open than the dense, angiosperm forests that came about during the Palaeocene.

Cretaceous maniraptora.
Study suggests the floral composition of tropical rainforests changed dramatically after the extra-terrestrial impact event. During the Late Cretaceous tropical forests were dominated by conifers and forest canopies were less dense. Picture Credit: Danielle Dufault.

A Thick Forest Canopy Denying Access to Light

The scientists discovered that the fossil pollen and leaves show a marked transition in tropical forest flora. After the extra-terrestrial impact forests developed a thick canopy blocking much of the light from reaching the ground and angiosperms became more dominant.

A view of a modern tropical rainforest canopy.
An aerial view of the dense angiosperm dominated canopy of a modern rainforest. Picture credit: BBC.

How Did These Changes Come About?

As well as the documenting the turnover in flora and the transition from one tropical forest environment to a different type of rainforest in the Palaeocene, the researchers propose three possible explanations for this change:

  1. The absence of large megaherbivores, specifically dinosaurs allowed plant densities in forests to increase. The extinction of giant plant-eating dinosaurs such as the Ceratopsia, hadrosaurs, armoured dinosaurs and the titanosaurs allowed plants to grow at lower levels as they were not being trampled or consumed by herbivorous dinosaurs.
  2. Several types of fern and conifer became extinct during the K/Pg transition permitting new types of angiosperm (flowering plants) to evolve and exploit the vacated niches.
  3. Falling ash from the impact enriched soils throughout the tropics, provided an advantage to faster-growing angiosperms.
The floral composition of rainforests radically altered after the K/Pg extinction event.
The floral composition of rainforests radically altered after the K/Pg extinction event. Picture Credit: BBC.

The scientists conclude that the three hypotheses are not mutually exclusive and that a combination of factors could have led to the change in the flora as recorded in the fossil record.

A Significant Lesson for Today

Today, a rapidly changing climate, largely caused by the actions of our own species is having a dramatic effect on the world’s forests. The researchers note that the fossil record demonstrates that rainforests do not simply “bounce back”, after a catastrophe. They can take millions of years to recover and a very different type of ecosystem is likely to emerge.

The scientific paper: “The impactful origin of neotropical rainforests” by Bonnie F. Jacobs and Ellen D. Currano published in the journal Science.

30 04, 2020

“Crazy Beast” Lived Amongst the Last of the Dinosaurs

By | April 30th, 2020|General Teaching, Key Stage 1/2, Key Stage 3/4|Comments Off on “Crazy Beast” Lived Amongst the Last of the Dinosaurs

Adalatherium hui – “Crazy Beast” from Madagascar

Scientists have published a scientific paper in the academic journal “Nature” that describes a cat-sized mammal that lived alongside the dinosaurs at the very end of the Cretaceous.  The furry little creature has been named Adalatherium hui and its fossils have been found on the island of Madagascar.  Madagascar started to  break away from the super-continent of Gondwana around 88 million years ago and so animals such as Adalatherium evolved in relative isolation, separated from other populations of mammals on larger landmasses.  At around three kilograms in weight and not being fully grown when it died, it challenges the perception that all mammals were very small during the time of the dinosaurs.

A Life Reconstruction of the Late Cretaceous Mammaliaform Adalatherium hui

Late Cretaceous mammaliaform Adalatherium.

Adalatherium life reconstruction.  Although it is thought this animal lived in burrows like a modern badger, the colouration of this life reconstruction is speculative.

Picture Credit: Reuters

“Crazy Beast”

Adalatherium lived around 72 million to 66 million years ago (Late Cretaceous).  The genus name translated from the Greek and native Malagasy means “crazy beast”, as the discovery of skull and postcranial fossil material of this badger-like creature challenges a lot of scientific assumptions about the evolution of mammals during the latter stages of the Mesozoic.  The snout had a large congregation of nerves within it, making the nose of this animal extremely sensitive.  This suggests that sense of smell was very important and therefore, it has been proposed that Adalatherium lived underground, that it was a burrowing animal (fossorial – an animal adapted to digging and living in burrows).

Adalatherium shared its island home with a number of predatory dinosaurs, including abelisaurids, dromaeosaurs and noasaurids as well as at least three species of crocodilians, both ancient forms and distant relatives of today’s living crocodiles (Neosuchian crocodilians).

Perhaps living underground was a very sensible strategy when surrounded by large predators.


  • Make a list of animals alive today that live in burrows
  • What similarities do they have?  What differences can you spot?
  • Can you design a dinosaur that could live underground?  What sort of adaptations would this animal have?
6 04, 2020

Not All Dinosaurs were Feathered

By | April 6th, 2020|General Teaching, Key Stage 3/4|Comments Off on Not All Dinosaurs were Feathered

There were Feathered Dinosaurs but not all Dinosaurs were Feathered

Research conducted by palaeontologists at the London Natural History Museum suggests that whilst dinosaurs that were closely related to modern birds (Aves), were probably feathered, other types of dinosaurs such as the Late Cretaceous horned dinosaurs and the duck-billed dinosaurs probably were not covered in feathers.  A book tracing the evolution of feathers is being written and as part of the background to this forthcoming publication, Professor Paul Barrett of the Museum conducted an evolutionary analysis looking at the preserved skin fossils of the 77 dinosaur species where evidence of skin has been preserved.

A Preserved Skin Impression from a Tyrannosaurus rex

T. rex skin impression fossil.

A skin impression associated with Tyrannosaurus rex.  Dinosaurs such as tyrannosaurs may have been feathered, at least whilst they were young animals but there are no signs of feathers or an integumentary covering associated with T. rex skin impressions.

Picture Credit: Biology Letters

Evidence of Reptilian Scaly Skins

The study suggests that the first types of dinosaurs were probably covered in scaly skin and not feathered.  Professor Barrett and his colleagues found no evidence of the earliest members of the Dinosauria being feathered.  Most of the fossil evidence supports the view that a specific proportion of the Theropoda (mostly meat-eating dinosaurs), the Coelurosauria – were feathered.  No evidence for a feathery covering in long-necked, plant-eaters (Sauropodomorpha) has been identified to date.

Sinosauropteryx – The First Dinosaur with Feathers to be Described

Sinosauropteryx fossil.

Sinosauropteryx fossil – the first feathered dinosaur to be described.  This small Chinese dinosaur is a member of the Coelurosauria clade of theropods, the group of theropods most closely associated with feathers.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The First Feathered Dinosaur Fossils were Found in China

Sinosauropteryx a feathered dinosaur.

Analysis of Sinosauropteryx fossil material suggests that this little dinosaur had ginger feathers.

Picture Credit: J. Robbins

The book is due to be published later on this year, a spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented that it would add to the growing list of books aimed at the general reader that helped to explain some of the areas of research currently being conducted on the Dinosauria.

For further articles about feathered dinosaurs and research:

Tyrannosaurus rex loses its feathers: T. rex Sheds its Feathers.

The origins of feathers: Feathers came first, then Birds Evolved.

Did all Dinosaurs have feathers? Did all Dinosaurs have Feathers?

Extension Ideas

  • What evidence can you find for dinosaurs having feathers?  Can you draw up a simplified family tree of the Dinosauria identifying which types of dinosaurs were feathered?
  • What are the reasons for large animals such as the sauropods probably not having a feathery covering?  A hint, think surface to volume ratios and how large animals need to prevent overheating.
  • Create a poster/chart comparing a bird to a meat-eating dinosaur.  What are the similarities, what are the differences?
  • Why do you think some dinosaurs were feathered?  Can you come up with a theory?
28 03, 2020

Fossil Skull Reveals Origin of Modern Birds

By | March 28th, 2020|General Teaching, Key Stage 3/4|Comments Off on Fossil Skull Reveals Origin of Modern Birds

“Wonderchicken” Fossil Reveals Origin of Modern Birds

The oldest fossil of a modern bird yet found, dating from the very end of the Cretaceous, has been identified by an international team of palaeontologists led by researchers from the University of Cambridge.  Sophisticated CT scans (computerised tomography), of a limestone rock, not much bigger than a pack of cards, revealed the exquisitely preserved fossil skull.  Fragments of bone exposed on the rock’s surface suggested that there were more bones buried deep in the rock, but the scientists were not expecting to find the near perfect fossilised skull of a modern bird (neornithine), once the CT scans had been completed.

The bird has been nicknamed “wonderchicken” as its skull shows characteristics found in modern ducks and chickens.  This suggests it is close to the last common ancestor of these types of birds.

A Life Reconstruction of “Wonderchicken” – Asteriornis maastrichtensis

Life reconstruction - Asteriornis maastrichtensis .

Asteriornis maastrichtensis life reconstruction.

Picture Credit: Philip Krzeminski

The fossil comes from a limestone quarry on the Netherlands-Belgium border, making it the first modern bird from the age of dinosaurs to have been found in the northern hemisphere.

Named Asteriornis maastrichtensis, this quail-sized bird (to which it is distantly related), exhibits a previously undocumented combination of galliform-like (landfowl) and anseriform-like (waterfowl) anatomical traits.  Its presence alongside a previously reported Ichthyornis-like bird from the same quarry provides direct evidence of the co-occurrence of crown birds and avialan stem birds.

The Limestone Rock which Contains the Fossil Skull

The lump of limestone ontaining the skull of Asteriornis maastrichtensis.

The limestone containing the skull of Asteriornis maastrichtensis.

Picture Credit: Dr Daniel Field (Cambridge University)

Small Size Could Have Saved Modern Birds from Extinction

Asteriornis was quite small, certainly much smaller than the pterosaurs that it shared the skies with.  The fossil has been dated to 66.8-66.7 million years ago, a few hundred thousand years before the dinosaurs and lots of other animals including many types of bird, died out.

The authors of the scientific paper (published in the journal Nature), speculate that as it was small and it lived by the sea, this way of life, fitting a particular niche in the Late Cretaceous ecosystem, may have helped the ancestors of today’s birds to survive the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs.

12 03, 2020

Remarkable Tiny Dinosaur Discovery Coincides with British Science Week

By | March 12th, 2020|General Teaching, Key Stage 3/4|Comments Off on Remarkable Tiny Dinosaur Discovery Coincides with British Science Week

Remarkable Tiny Dinosaur Discovery Coincides with British Science Week

Everything Dinosaur marks British Science Week 2020 by reporting on the remarkable discovery of a tiny fossilised skull preserved in amber from northern Myanmar (Burma).  The fossil skull, which measures just 14 millimetres long represents a new species within the clade Dinosauria.  It has been named Oculudentavis khaungraae it probably weighed about as much as the smallest living bird, the Bee Hummingbird.  Scientists have estimated that it was around 8-10 centimetres long.  This makes Oculudentavis the smallest dinosaur known to science.

The Tiny Skull of the Newly Described Oculudentavis khaungraae Preserved in Amber from Myanmar

Tiny skull peserved in amber from northern Myanmar.

Oculudentavis skull preserved in amber.  The tiny fossil skull is on the right amongst a lot of other debris and organic material trapped in the fossilised tree resin.  The narrow jaws and the large eye can be clearly made out.

Picture Credit: Lida Xing et al

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have compared Oculudentavis to Tyrannosaurus rex (a distant relative of this tiny creature).  They estimate that an adult Tyrannosaurus rex weighed around 3.5 million times heavier.  Ironically, the tiny teeth in the jaw of Oculudentavis suggest that just like T. rex it was a predator.  It probably hunted insects.  The fossil is estimated to be around 99 million years old.

The fossil discovery represents the smallest member of the Mesozoic Dinosauria clade known to science and it demonstrates the importance of amber as a means of permitting scientists to gain an insight into the ecology of an ancient habitat thanks to the preservation of small animals and other material in fossilised tree resin.

Specimens preserved in amber are emerging as an exceptional way to study very small animals that once lived alongside the generally much larger pterosaurs and dinosaurs.

What an amazing fossil discovery, the publication of the scientific paper having coincided with British Science Week.


The conclusions of the scientific paper have been challenged, this fossil might represent the preserved remains of a lizard.


2 09, 2019

Making Preparations for KS3

By | September 2nd, 2019|Key Stage 3/4|Comments Off on Making Preparations for KS3

Making Preparations for Key Stage 3

It has been a busy end to August for our teaching team as they finalise plans for school and college visits over the autumn term (2019).  All has been put in place and prepared as the schools start back.  We have dealt with the last minute enquiries and provided what support and assistance that we can.  Everything Dinosaur team members are involved in a variety of teaching projects including some work with Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 students.  Our aim is to support the science element of the curriculum, especially those areas related to biology, chemistry and genetics.

In addition, we have been contacted with requests for careers advice.

The Practical Implications of Scientific Working

Advice on fieldwork has been provided by Everything Dinosaur.

Learning about evolution, Darwin and genetics by studying the fossil record.

The Purpose of Key Stage 3 Science

When preparing lesson plans for older students (KS3 and KS4), we keep a list on the desk which reminds of the purpose of science for these age groups.  This helps us to focus on meeting the learning needs of the class.

For example, here is the list we use when considering a KS3 class (Year 7 to Year 9).

  • Use scientific ideas, theories and models to help explain current/past events (link to evolution and to climate change).
  • Build on existing scientific knowledge from Key Stage 2 and to make connections between the different scientific disciplines.
  • Understand a range of familiar, everyday applications of science.
  • Consider the advantages and disadvantages of scientific developments in the context of their impact on the environment, humanity and the planet
  • Explore different views on topic areas and consider the reasons for these differences.
  • Emphasis the role of building empirical and experimental evidence to support findings and scientific ideas.
  • Design and conduct investigations of different types, making use of available resources and reference sources.
  • To critique and evaluate the experiments undertaken and to consider how the research could be improved/developed.
  • To consider the role of scientific communication in disseminating research findings – how does science reach a wider audience?

These lists that we have developed act as an “aide mémoire” to ensure that we remain focused on the learning needs of each class.

30 04, 2019

A Late Cretaceous Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Diorama

By | April 30th, 2019|General Teaching, Key Stage 3/4|Comments Off on A Late Cretaceous Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Diorama

Late Cretaceous Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Diorama

Our thanks to Robert who sent in to us a photograph of the dinosaur and prehistoric animal landscape that he had created.  He has built a huge prehistoric landscape, complete with authentic Mesozoic vegetation, dinosaur footprints, flying reptiles and a watering hole.  The talented model maker then created his very own Late Cretaceous prehistoric scene using his large collection of dinosaur and prehistoric animal models.

A Late Cretaceous Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Diorama

Late Cretaceous dinosaur diorama.

A fantastic Late Cretaceous diorama created by a collector of dinosaur and prehistoric animal figures.

Picture Credit: Robert.

We think you will agree the results are very impressive.

Creative and Imaginative Prehistoric Scene

A lot of care and thought has gone into making this creative and imaginative scene.  Robert has been careful to research the prehistoric animals that his model collection represents and he has only featured models of prehistoric animals that would have lived in North America during the Late Cretaceous.  The diorama features such famous dinosaurs as Tyrannosaurus rex, Triceratops, Styracosaurus and the armoured giant Ankylosaurus.

The prehistoric scene also features a large pterosaur replica.  The pterosaur (Pteranodon sternbergi), has swooped down to the watering hole to take a drink, but it had better watch out as a large predator (Albertosaurus), is stalking it.  On the ground, this flying reptile would have been vulnerable to attack from tyrannosaurids, let’s hope that it spots the danger in time and is able to take flight.

The Pteranodon is Being Stalked by an Albertosaurus

Pterosaur stalked by a tyrannosaurid.

A Pteranodon (P. sternbergi), taking a drink at a watering hole is being stalked by a predatory Albertosaurus.

Picture Credit: Robert

Our congratulations once again to Robert, for creating such a wonderful prehistoric animal diorama and that is a wonderful collection of dinosaur and prehistoric animal figures that you have got there.

17 04, 2019

Symbiosis in the Dinosauria

By | April 17th, 2019|General Teaching, Key Stage 1/2, Key Stage 3/4|Comments Off on Symbiosis in the Dinosauria

Symbiosis in the Dinosauria

Some animals alive today relay on the assistance of other animals to help them keep clean and tidy.  Tropical fish on coral reefs deliberately visit areas where “cleaner fish” congregate and they patiently wait whilst these fish clean them and remove dead skin and parasites.  In Africa, the Oxpecker (Buphagus spp.), a type of starling, regularly hitch a ride on the back of a large mammals, such as elephants and pick dead skin and parasites from their host’s hide.  These birds also catch insects disturbed as the large animals move through the scrub and bush.

It is very likely that these sorts of mutually beneficial relationships between different species occurred in the past and with dinosaurs.

A Big, Carnivorous Dinosaur Gets Her Teeth Cleaned

An example of symbiosis in the Dinosauria

Teeth cleaning in the Dinosauria.  Small Theropod dinosaurs clean the teeth of a larger carnivore.

Picture Credit: Sergey Krasovskiy

Symbiosis – Classroom Extension Ideas

Mutually beneficial activities are termed symbiotic relationships by scientists.  In the picture (above), a large Theropod dinosaur is getting its teeth cleaned by a smaller, meat-eating dinosaur.  The large dinosaur benefits from the teeth cleaning as it helps to prevent infections whilst the smaller Theropod is getting a free meal.  Symbiosis is the term used to describe an interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association to the benefit of both.

  • Can your class find examples of mutual co-operation (symbiosis) in the natural world?
  • Can the class consider ways that pupils and staff at the school co-operate together?
14 01, 2018

Giant Burrowing Bat from the Miocene

By | January 14th, 2018|General Teaching, Key Stage 3/4|Comments Off on Giant Burrowing Bat from the Miocene

Giant Burrowing Bat from New Zealand

A team of scientists from the University of South Wales, in collaboration with colleagues from Queensland University, Duke University, Canterbury Museum, and co-workers from the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa and the American Museum of Natural History, have identified a new species of giant, burrowing, Miocene bat.  Fossil bones and teeth of the extinct species, which was about three times the size of most extant non-fruit eating bats, were excavated from Miocene-aged deposits near to the town of St Bathans in central Otago (New Zealand, South Island).

An Artist’s Illustration of the New Species of Giant Burrowing Bat (Vulcanops jennyworthyae)

Vulcanops Illustated.

An illustration of the newly described, giant, burrowing bat Vulcanops.

Picture Credit: Gavin Mouldey

Writing in the academic journal “Scientific Reports”, the scientists describe the new species, named Vulcanops jennyworthyae, as a cursorial species, as although they could fly, they were very confident on the forest floor, scurrying through the leaf litter searching for insects and other invertebrates.  Today, burrowing bats are only found now in New Zealand, but they once also lived in Australia.   It is thought that a lack of terrestrial predators in more isolated parts of the antipodes allowed bats to exploit a ground-dwelling niche without having to resort to the high energy requirements of constant flight.

A Giant Bat?

Described as a giant, might make readers think of some nightmarish beast, but with an estimated weight of just forty grammes, although larger than insectivorous bats around today, Vulcanops jennyworthyae weighed less than a golf ball.  It would have posed no danger to larger animals or people had they been around some 19 to 16 million years ago when Vulcanops roamed.  It is the first new bat species to be added to the list of New Zealand’s Chiroptera (bats) for more than 150 years.

The Miocene species has been named Vulcanops jennyworthyae, after team member Jenny Worthy who found the bat fossils and in recognition of her role in helping to reveal the unique St Bathans Miocene fauna, and after Vulcan, the mythological Roman god of volcanoes and fire.

It is likely that climate change leading to a period of general cooling and drying drove the overall loss in bat diversity in New Zealand, just two bat species today comprise the entire native land mammal fauna.  All other modern land mammals in New Zealand have been introduced by people within the last 800 years.

22 08, 2017

New Steppe Mammoth Steps into View

By | August 22nd, 2017|General Teaching, Key Stage 3/4|Comments Off on New Steppe Mammoth Steps into View

Everything Dinosaur to Stock Eofauna Scientific Research Steppe Mammoth Model

Everything Dinosaur will be selling the Eofauna Scientific Research Steppe Mammoth replica.  It is a museum quality replica of a prehistoric elephant that was an ancestor of the Woolly Mammoth.  Everything Dinosaur has been granted exclusive access to this new figure for on-line sales for a British Isles-based company.  Schools teaching about the Stone Age, evolution and natural selection can use this model to help support their teaching programmes.

The Eofauna Scientific Research Steppe Mammoth (Mammuthus trogontherii) Model

Steppe Mammoth model.

The 1:40 scale Steppe Mammoth model by Eofauna Scientific Research.

Picture Credit: Eofauna Scientific Research

Eofauna Scientific Research

Formed in 2012 and based in Spain, Eofauna Scientific Research is a team formed by researchers and scientists with an in-depth knowledge of prehistoric animals and life in the past.  As specialists in vertebrate palaeontology, they share Everything Dinosaur’s aims of helping to educate and inform young people about the Earth sciences to encourage students to consider a scientific career.  This new, beautifully detailed model will help teachers, educationalists, academics and museum education teams explain about the evolution of the mammoths and the impact of climate change on species, after all, the Steppe Mammoth (Mammuthus trogontherii), had to adapt to a changing world with the onset of climate change and its descendants, the Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), were iconic animals of the Ice Age.

A 1:40 Scale Model of a Prehistoric Elephant – Mammuthus trogontherii

The Eofauna Scientific Research Steppe Mammoth replica.

The Eofauna Steppe Mammoth model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“This is a great edition to any teaching or educational pack as this amazing detailed model will help educationalists to convey the evolutionary changes that took place as large terrestrial animals adapted to climate change.  The Steppe Mammoth model can be used in comparative anatomy studies permitting students to see the differences between this genus, Woolly Mammoths and modern elephants.  In addition, this replica and our fact sheet on this prehistoric animal can be used to help reinforce learning about natural selection, the impact of climate change and evolution.”

This gorgeous Steppe Mammoth replica is due to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur next month (September 2017), just in time for the start of the academic year.

For further information about Everything Dinosaur’s teaching resources, free downloads, lesson plans and for information on the company’s work in schools and museums: Email Everything Dinosaur

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