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27 09, 2020

Monsters of the Deep: Science Fact and Fiction

By | September 27th, 2020|Animal News Stories, Educational Activities, Main Page, Photos, Press Releases, Teaching|0 Comments

Monsters of the Deep: Science Fact and Fiction at the National Maritime Museum Cornwall (July to 3rd January 2022)

We might be living in a world of track and trace, where everywhere we go and who we meet can be uploaded into a gargantuan database, but there is a part of our planet that remains relatively unknown even in today’s digitally dominated environment.  The deep, dark depths of our oceans harbour some of the most bizarre and amazing creatures to have ever evolved and a recently re-opened exhibition at the National Maritime Museum (Falmouth, Cornwall), permits visitors to meet up with some of nature’s most curious creatures as well as plunging into the depths of our own imagination to explore legendary sea monsters – all without getting our feet wet.

Monsters of the Deep: Science Fact and Fiction

Monsters of the Deep exhibition.

Monsters of the Deep: Science Fact and Fiction at the National Maritime Museum (Cornwall).  Take the plunge!  Encounter myths, legends and real sea monsters. 

Picture Credit: Courtesy of the National Maritime Museum Cornwall 

Deep-sea Monsters Real and Imagined

Running until January 2022, this carefully crafted exhibition takes visitors on a voyage of discovery from Medieval folklore through cryptozoology and the modern-day monster hunters employing the very latest maritime technology used to explore those parts of planet Earth furthest from our sun.

A Collection of Ocean-dwelling Curiosities

Giant Isopods on display.

Curious crustaceans such as giant isopods with their huge compound eyes stare back at you.  The exhibition permits visitors to closely examine some of the most amazing ocean-dwelling creatures known to science.

Picture Credit: Courtesy of the National Maritime Museum Cornwall 

A Collaboration Between Leading Institutions

World class scientific collections from such august bodies as the British Museum, the National Oceanography Centre, the Science Museum, Royal Museums Greenwich and Cambridge University Library have been plundered by modern day buccaneers on a mission to inform, educate and entertain.  Rarely seen specimens, artwork and artefacts all housed under one roof including a large scale reproduction of the Carta Marina, the world’s most famous medieval map of the sea, complete with fanciful monsters and mermaids.  The exhibition highlights the myths associated with early exploration and showcases exquisite illustrations of sea monsters including the strange “mirror creatures”, denizens of the deep that haunted the nightmares of many a seafarer in the age of sail.

Early Explorers Brought Home Tales of Encounters with Fantastic Sea Creatures

Explorers and sea monsters.

Early explorers brought back fanciful tales of sea serpents, mermaids and monsters.

As Real as Elephants and Giraffes

Prior to the Age of Enlightenment which hastened a revolution in scientific thinking in the 17th century, little was known about the exotic fauna that inhabited our world.  On display at this exhibition is the Hortus sanitatis, the first ever natural history encyclopaedia.  Originally printed in 1491, the year before Christopher Columbus set out on his voyage that led to the discovery of the New World, it represents a significant landmark in our attempts to document and understand the natural world with unicorns and mermaids considered just as real as elephants and giraffes.

A Collection of Books on Cryptozoology on Display

Books about Sea Monsters on Display

A large number of books documenting our fascination with monsters of the deep are on display.

Picture Credit: Courtesy of the National Maritime Museum Cornwall 

Guest Curators and Leading Specialists

Monsters of the Deep: Science Fact and Fiction has been developed in co-operation with leading specialists and guest curators, including Viktor Wynd, the custodian of the “UnNatural History Museum”, bringing together a collection of curiosities including a mummified feegee mermaid and a skeleton of a unicorn!  This section of the exhibition is dedicated to exploring ideas about what is real and what can be falsified or faked.

A Rearing “Unicorn” on Display at the National Maritime Museum

A rearing unicorn skeleton.

An exhibit from the “UnNatural History Museum” – a rearing unicorn skeleton.

Picture Credit: Courtesy of the National Maritime Museum Cornwall 

As well as exploring the theme of sea monsters in popular culture, the exhibition provides an insight into some of the very latest cutting-edge technical developments that have allowed marine biologists rare glimpses of the natural wonders that still exist in the largely unexplored regions of our planet such as the vast abyssal plain.

Combining Myth and Fantasy with Scientific Endeavour and Research

Meet Boaty McBoatface.

The exhibition highlights state-of-the-art technology such as the latest mini submersibles that are transforming our understanding of the world’s oceans.

Picture Credit: Courtesy of the National Maritime Museum Cornwall 

To ensure the safety and wellbeing of all visitors and staff, the Museum has implemented a number of new health and safety measures, in line with the latest government advice including timed arrival slots, social distancing measures and on-line only booking.

As half-term approaches, escape your bubble and take the plunge!  Immerse yourself in a world of folklore, fun, facts and fantasy.

Monsters of the Deep: Science Fact and Fiction at the National Maritime Museum Cornwall (July to 3rd January 2022).  For further details: The National Maritime Museum.

26 09, 2020

Rebor “Bites the Dust” and New Fossil Skulls

By | September 26th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor “Bites the Dust” and Oddities Fossil Studies Skulls

Everything Dinosaur despatched a special newsletter to its subscribers earlier this month announcing the arrival of the two T. rex carcasses in the Rebor “Bites the Dust” model line.  In addition, the newsletter announced that pre-orders were being taken for the exciting Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Skulls (Wave 1).  All three, beautiful theropod skulls, Yutyrannus huali, Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus and Carnotaurus sastrei were available to pre-order from Everything Dinosaur at very special prices.

The offers don’t just stop there, the newsletter included a special offer on the duo of dead dinosaurs too!

The Rebor “Bites the Dust” Tyrannosaur Carcasses (Plain and Jungle)

Rebor T. rex carcasses "Bites the Dust" plain and jungle colour variants.

The Rebor T. rex carcasses “Bites the Dust” provide the headlines for the latest Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter.  Buy the pair at a special discounted price courtesy of Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

T. rex Didn’t Always Win!

The Rebor “Bites the Dust” figures are available in two colour schemes.  Firstly, there is a brown dominated model called “plain”, there is a second model “jungle” with more of a greenish hue.  These carefully constructed carcasses are in 1:35 scale and reflect the fact that tyrannosaurs like most predatory dinosaurs had very tough, short lives.  Most dinosaurs did not make it to adulthood and for tyrannosaurs such as T. rex, life at the top of the food chain was particularly hard.  It was a question of kill or be killed, not only did these theropods have to battle horned dinosaurs and hadrosaurs, they also had to contend with attacks from their own kind as well.  The fossil record provides evidence of tyrannosaurs biting other tyrannosaurs, for example, in 2010, a paper was published in PLOS One entitled “Cannibalism in Tyrannosaurus rex”.  The eminent authors, Longrich, Horner, Erickson and Currie identified four T. rex specimens that preserved potential T. rex bites on their bones.

The Two T. rex Bites the Dust Carcass Models (Plain and Jungle)

The two Rebor "Bites the Dust" T. rex carcasses.

The Rebor T. rex carcass plain (left) and the Rebor T. rex carcass jungle (right) two beautiful 1:35 scale replicas of a deceased Tyrannosaurus rex.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The scientists concluded that Tyrannosaurus rex routinely hunting full-grown members of its own species was unlikely, however, it is possible that intraspecific combat led to casualties, with the dead becoming a convenient source of food for the victorious T. rex.  These figures show bite marks from another very large predator, since T. rex is the only enormous terrestrial carnivore known from the latest Upper Cretaceous deposits of North America, it can be inferred that these two Rebor models show the result of an intraspecific combat.

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Skulls

The newsletter also provided subscribers with details of the forthcoming Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies skulls, a set of three amazing theropod skulls, namely, C. sastrei, Y. huali and C. dentisulcatus.  These museum quality replicas are available to pre-order from Everything Dinosaur.

The Rebor Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus and Yutyrannus huali Fossil Skulls

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Skulls (Ceratosaurus and Yutyrannus).

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Skull Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus (left) with the Rebor Oddities Fossil Skull Yutyrannus huali.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Buy All Three at a Discount!

The three fossil skulls, regarded as the first wave in an intended series of skull models are likely to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in November (2020).  Customers have the opportunity to pre-order the replicas and to take advantage of a special offer to purchase all three Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies models.

A Trio of Amazing Fossil Skulls

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies skulls.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Carnotaurus sastrei model (left) and the opportunity to pre-order all three skulls at a special discounted price (right).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Rebor “Bites the Dust” T. rex carcasses and the pre-order options for the fossil skulls can be found here: Rebor Models and Figures.

To subscribe to Everything Dinosaur’s newsletter, simply email the company and request a subscription: Email Everything Dinosaur to Subscribe to Newsletters.

25 09, 2020

New Rebor Titanoboa Models Ready to Pre-order

By | September 25th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

New Rebor Titanoboa Models Ready to Pre-order

The stunning Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Monty Resurgent and the Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Brian Diccus are available to pre-order at Everything Dinosaur.  These amazing models of a Titanoboa (T. cerrejonensis) swallowing a crocodilian are going into production in the next few months and both replicas are expected in stock at Everything Dinosaur sometime around quarter two of 2021.

The New for 2021 Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Monty Resurgent Figure

Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Monty Resurgent.

The Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Monty Resurgent.  A stunning replica of the largest snake known to science – Titanoboa cerrejonensis complete with its unfortunate crocodilian victim which is in the process of being swallowed whole.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Hot on the Heels of Monty

This year (2020), saw the release of the limited edition Rebor Titanoboa figure “Monty”, this beautiful replica of the largest snake described to date, sold out very quickly.  Aware of how popular this prehistoric animal is Rebor have plans to introduce two more Titanoboa replicas.  Each one “Monty Resurgent” and “Brian Diccus”, will have a single production run and they are going to be made in a few months’ time.  Customers of Everything Dinosaur have the chance to secure their figures early.

The New for 2021 Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Brian Diccus Replica

Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Brian Diccus.

The Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Brian Diccus.  Each model has a different colour scheme and this extends to the crocodilian prey as well with the “Monty” Titanoboa having a brown crocodilian victim, whilst Brian Diccus has a green crocodilian prey item.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Pre-order Available from Everything Dinosaur

Both colour variants are available for pre-order.  Customers can choose which figure they want and then add it to their shopping cart and go through the checkout process as per usual.  However, with Everything Dinosaur, there are no fees to pay, no upfront costs, no surcharges, no deposit required.

Customers also need to note that due to the complexity of the pre-order checkout process, an order may contain only a single pre-order Titanoboa product, and no other products, pre-order or otherwise.  If a customer adds a pre-order product to a non-empty cart, the cart will be automatically emptied and the pre-order product will be added. This means that if you want both Titanoboa colour variants, customers will have to place two pre-orders (one for each prehistoric snake figure).

The Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Brian Diccus

Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Brian Diccus.

The Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Brian Diccus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“These are two beautifully crafted figures.  Each replica shows the anterior portions of the giant snake emerging out of the water as it gulps down its unfortunate victim.  We look forward to bringing these products into our warehouse sometime around the early summer of 2021.”

Swallowed Whole the Rebor Monty Resurgent Titanoboa Makes Short Work of a Large Crocodile

Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Monty Resurgent.

The Rebor Titanoboa Museum Class Maquette Monty Resurgent.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The two Rebor Titanoboa figures can be found on this part of Everything Dinosaur’s website: Rebor Models and Figures.

24 09, 2020

“Dung and Dusted” – A Scatological Approach to Archaeology

By | September 24th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

Did Ancient Potters use Sheep Dung to Fire their Clay Pots?

A project is underway to provide “hands-on” information about how ancient Britons could have fired clay pots before the invention of kiln technology.  By undertaking practical experiments trying different sorts of fuel to fire clay vessels, archaeologists hope to find out more about the way our ancestors lived their lives.

A new study, with the catchy title “Dung and Dusted”, aims to do just that, specifically by examining whether sheep dung could have been used to fire pots before the widespread use of kilns.  Dr Michael Copper, from the School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences in the Faculty of Life Sciences (University of Bradford), hopes that these practical experiments will help researchers to gain a better understanding of how different, ancient communities were organised.

Dr Mike Copper – Part of the “Dung and Dusted” Project

Dr Mike Copper who will be part of the "Dung and Dusted" project.

Dr Mike Copper on location in Orkney.

Picture Credit: University of Bradford

Dr Copper explained:

“Despite considerable advances in our knowledge of how ancient pots were made and used, archaeologists still know remarkably little about how prehistoric pottery was fired before the introduction of the potter’s kiln, including what fuels were used.  One abundant and freely available fuel source in prehistory would have been animal dung.  Could it then have been the case that dried dung was used to fire pottery in prehistoric Britain and Ireland?”

A Six-month Project

The research project is funded by the Gerda Henkel Foundation and is planned to last around six months.  A series of firings of hand-built replica prehistoric pots using sheep dung and other fuels are planned.  The vessels and firing sites will then be analysed to see whether residues left behind can be matched to ancient pottery or can be used to help archaeologists identify dung firing evidence at archaeological digs.

Dr Copper, a specialist in prehistoric pottery and ancient ceramic technology, added:

“In terms of why it is significant, experimental projects such as this provide an important way for archaeologists to understand how prehistoric people went about tasks such as pot firing using materials and techniques with which we are no longer familiar.  Pottery is one of the most important finds made on archaeological excavations.  Its varied forms help us to date sites and analysis of burnt food residues can tell us about what the inhabitants ate.  If we find that animal dung was used to fire the pots then it could be that people were managing animals with one eye on using dung as a product.”

Dr Mike Copper Examining an Ancient Clay Pot

Dr Mike Cooper examines a prehistoric clay pot.

Dr Mike Copper, inspecting a prehistoric clay pot.

Picture Credit: University of Bradford

An Experimental Approach to Archaeology

The researchers, which include Dr Cathy Batt, an expert in magnetic studies with extensive experience of investigating ancient firing sites and Dr Gregg Griffin, a recent PhD graduate who looked at ways to identify fuels from residues discovered on archaeological excavations, hope to gain an understanding of how ancient societies were organised with pot-making and firing a central part of the community.  Variations in the use of technology, such as choice of fuel for pottery making, are passed down from one generation to another.  This can provide archaeologists with a lot of additional information about how a community organised itself.

We look forward to hearing more as this project concludes and we wonder whether the sheep will be cited in the subsequent paper as contributors…

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from the University of Bradford in the compilation of this article.

23 09, 2020

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Dinosaur Skulls

By | September 23rd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Dinosaur Skulls

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies dinosaur skulls, a set of three, amazing museum quality theropod skull models are available to pre-order from Everything Dinosaur.  The set referred to as “wave 1”, suggesting that more skull models are likely to be added to this range in the future, consists of replicas of the skulls of Carnotaurus (C. sastrei), Ceratosaurus (C. dentisulcatus) and Yutyrannus (Y. huali).  Each replica has been carefully crafted and give the impression that a complete skull has been lifted from the surrounding rock matrix.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Yutyrannus huali Skull Replica

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Y. hauli skull model.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Yutyrannus huali museum quality skull model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Tyrannosauroids, Abelisaurids and a Member of the Basal Ceratosauria Clade

Although each amazing figure represents a carnivorous theropod dinosaur, these three animals were very distantly related to each other. For example, Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus, regarded as one of the largest of the Ceratosaurus species, like all ceratosaurs, is part of a clade that diverged from the Coelurosauria Theropoda lineage that was ultimately to lead to the evolution of birds, during the Jurassic.  Carnotaurus (C. sastrei) is a Late Cretaceous representative of the Abelisauridae, a family of predatory dinosaurs mostly associated with Africa, South America, India and the island of Madagascar.  Although part of the Ceratosauria clade, Carnotaurus is both geographically and temporally very distant from Ceratosaurus.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Ceratosaurus Skull (C. dentisulcatus) Replica

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies C. dentisulcatus museum quality skull model.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus museum quality skull model.  The characteristic nasal horn associated with this genus is prominent in the Rebor figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Yutyrannus huali is known from the Liaoning Province of north-eastern China (Yixian Formation).  It lived during the Early Cretaceous, approximately 125 million years ago.  Many palaeontologists classify Yutyrannus as a member of the Proceratosauridae family and as such a member of the Tyrannosauroidea.  The proceratosaurs, despite their name, which translates as “before ceratosaurs”, are not members of the Ceratosauria.  The confusion arises due to the naming and description of Proceratosaurus bradleyi from a partial skull with a distinctive nasal horn associated with the Middle Jurassic Forest Marble Formation of Gloucestershire, England.  When Proceratosaurus was named in 1910, it was proposed that it was an ancestor of Ceratosaurus.  Research carried out some seventy years later demonstrated that this was incorrect and that Proceratosaurus is in fact a very early representative of that lineage of theropods that was to eventually lead to the evolution of the tyrannosaurs and that most famous dinosaur of all T. rex.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Carnotaurus sastrei Replica

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies C. sastrei museum quality skull model.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Carnotaurus sastrei museum quality skull model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Although these three figures represent very different theropod dinosaurs, they all reflect the same high quality standards we have come to expect from Rebor.”

Pre-order with Everything Dinosaur

All three Rebor skull models are now available for pre-order from Everything Dinosaur.

  • No prepayment fees
  • No money up front
  • No deposit required
  • No payment required until the item is available for despatch
  • Orders can be cancelled at any time prior to payment becoming due on the release date

We are expecting these figures to be in stock around week commencing 2nd of November (2020)

Everything Dinosaur is also offering the set of three skulls at a special discount (whilst stocks last).

Buy All Three Rebor Skull Replicas Together!

A special offer on a set of Rebor fossil skulls.

Buy all three Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies museum class fossil skulls (whilst stocks last).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To find the Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies skulls visit this section of Everything Dinosaur’s website: Rebor Models and Figures.

22 09, 2020

“Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved”

By | September 22nd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Book Reviews, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

“Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved”

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have been re-reading the second edition of the excellent dinosaur book “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved”.  We reviewed this publication in the early summer, but as the autumn darkness descends we have been visiting once again its chapters on the dinosaur family tree and dinosaur biology, ecology and behaviour.  This really is an excellent and most informative dinosaur book.

A Book and One Model but Two Tianyulongs

Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved and a dinosaur model.

The front cover of “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved” features an illustration of the Jurassic dinosaur Tianyulong so we included a model of a Tianyulong in our photograph.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The front cover of “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved” features an illustration of the Jurassic heterodontosaurid Tianyulong munching on some ginkgo leaves.  This illustration was created by the very talented Bob Nicholls.  As this bizarre Chinese dinosaur is featured on the cover we included a model of a Tianyulong (PNSO) in our photograph.  The authors of this wonderful dinosaur book, much updated and revised from the first edition, are to be congratulated for compiling such a well-crafted book on the Dinosauria.

“Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved” is crammed full of fascinating facts and amazing information, all presented in a writing style that makes it easy for the general reader to follow.  The myriad of drawings, charts, maps, diagrams and prehistoric animal themed artwork help to illustrate key points in the story of the Dinosauria.

This book is highly recommended and would make an excellent gift for the festive season.

Co-author Darren Naish now sells copies of his books here (subject to availability), ask him nicely and he might include a special customised dinosaur illustration for you: Contact the Co-author to Purchase the Book.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s review of “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved” by Darren Naish and Paul M. Barrett: Everything Dinosaur Reviews “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved”.

21 09, 2020

Euparkeria Steps Out

By | September 21st, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Euparkeria Study Provides Important Step in Evolution of Archosaur Posture

Fossils of the stem-archosaur Euparkeria (pronounced Yoo-park-air-ree-ah), have been studied by scientists from the University of Bristol and the Royal Veterinary College in a bid to better understand the evolution of different gaits and locomotion within archosaurs.  Three-dimensional modelling based on high resolution CT scans of the hindlimb of the small, agile Euparkeria (E. capensis), has revealed that it had a “mosaic” of functions associated with locomotion.

Euparkeria, which roamed southern Africa around 245 million years ago, is believed to be a close relative of the last common ancestor of both crocodilians and the dinosaur/bird branch of the Archosauria family tree, as such, a study of its fossil bones can provide important insights into the evolution of the archosaurs.

A Life Reconstruction of Euparkeria capensis

Euparkeria life reconstruction

A life reconstruction of the basal archosauriform Euparkeria (E. capensis).  As the hindlimbs are longer than the front legs, many researchers believe that Euparkeria was capable of adopting a bipedal stance when it wanted to (facultative biped).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

This little reptile, that was formerly named and described in 1913, has recently been at the centre of another study which examined skull fossil material originally reported upon in 1965, but with the advance of scanning technology, scientists were able to provide much more information about the structure of Euparkeria’s skull: Little Euparkeria Steps into the Spotlight.

Euparkeria Provides Insight

Birds have an upright, erect bipedal posture, whilst extant crocodilians are quadrupedal and have a sprawling gait.  The ancestor of the birds and crocodiles once shared a common mode of locomotion and Euparkeria can provide vital information helping scientists to work out how these differences came about.

Life Reconstruction of Euparkeria capensis

Euparkeria life reconstruction.

A life reconstruction of Euparkeria highlighting the hip and ankle that were the focus of the study.  Note in this illustration the archosaur has been given a more sprawling, quadrupedal posture when compared to the first illustration of Euparkeria on this post.

Picture Credit: Oliver Demuth

Writing in the academic journal “Scientific Reports”, the researchers which included John Hutchinson, Professor of Evolutionary Biomechanics at the Royal Veterinary College, explained how they reconstructed the hip structure of Euparkeria based on CT scans.  The complex and very detailed computer models these scans produced demonstrated that Euparkeria had a distinctive bony rim on the pelvis, called a supra-acetabular rim, covering the top of the hip joint.  This anatomical feature had only previously been found in later archosaurs on the crocodilian branch of the Archosauria.  As a result, a more erect posture had been inferred for these extinct crocodiles.  The supra-acetabular rim permitted the pelvis to cover the top of the femur (thigh bone) and support the body with the limbs in a more columnar arrangement – this type of joint is referred to as “pillar-erect”.

Identifying the Supra-acetabular Rim on the Hip Bone

Euparkeria hip bones.

The black arrow points to the supra-acetabular rim.  This projection of the hip bone above the hip joint permitted the tucking of the limbs under the body to support the body in a columnar arrangement.  This is so far the earliest occurrence of this structure in the archosaur family tree.

Picture Credit: Demuth et al (Scientific Reports)

Euparkeria is the oldest known reptile that possessed such a joint, this raises the intriguing question as to whether it had a more erect dinosaur/bird-like posture rather than the more sprawling posture as seen in modern crocodilians.

Testing How the Hindlimbs Could Move

Computer simulations were created to test the range of movement in the hindlimbs.  The team estimated how far the femur could have rotated until it collided with the hip bones.  The computer models also examined how the ankle joint functioned as well.  The simulations suggested that while the femur could have been held in an erect posture, the foot could not have been placed steadily on the ground due to the way the foot rotates around the ankle joint, implying a more sprawling posture.  However, the supra-acetabular rim covering the hip joint restricted the movement of the thigh bone in a way that is not seen in any living tetrapod with a sprawling gait, this indicates that Euparkeria had a more upright posture.

Examining Three-dimensional Models of the Euparkeria Ankle to Assess Function

Modelling the ankle structure of Euparkeria.

The oblique ankle joint did not allow Euparkeria to assume a fully upright posture as the foot also turns medially when the ankle joint is extended.  An ankle joint allowing a more upright posture evolved later independent from the hip structure.

Picture Credit: Demuth et al (Scientific Reports)

The researchers conclude that Euparkeria possessed a “mosaic” of locomotor functions.  It is the earliest reptile known with this peculiar hip anatomy and an ankle joint allowing a more erect posture did evolve in later Triassic archosaurs.

Professor Hutchinson stated:

“The mosaic of structures present in Euparkeria, then, can be seen as a central stepping-stone in the evolution of locomotion in archosaurs.”

The scientific paper: “3D hindlimb joint mobility of the stem-archosaur Euparkeria capensis with implications for the postural evolution within the Archosauria” by Oliver E. Demuth, Emily J. Rayfield and John R. Hutchinson published in Scientific Reports.

20 09, 2020

5-Star Feedback from Customers All Over Europe

By | September 20th, 2020|Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

5-Star Feedback from Customers All Over Europe

Things are difficult at the moment but team members at Everything Dinosaur are doing all they can to maintain the high levels of service our customers have come to expect.  Throughout this COVID-19 pandemic we have been able to maintain our 5-star customer service rating from the independent ratings company Feefo.  We understand that on-line shopping has become the mainstay for many people, others have just started out using the internet to make purchases.  With the festive season approaching and more lockdown measures likely to follow suit, Everything Dinosaur is doing all it can to ensure that parcels are despatched promptly and that our customers get the support and assistance they require.

Everything Dinosaur Maintaining the 5-star Service Rating

Everything Dinosaur 5-star Feefo rating.

5-star rating for Everything Dinosaur.  Our top service rating has been maintained throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Customers Provide Feedback to Everything Dinosaur

Feefo are an independent provider of reviews, one of the largest organisations of their kind in the world.  Feefo is committed to collecting genuine customer feedback on behalf of the businesses that they work with, such as Everything Dinosaur for example.  To stop people from leaving fake reviews, Feefo contacts customers directly following their purchasing experience and invites them to leave a review.  Everything Dinosaur has received thousands of reviews, all of them are then uploaded for all the world to see.

Visit Everything Dinosaur’s page on Feefo: Everything Dinosaur on Feefo.

Everything Dinosaur Received the Highest Customer Service Award from Feefo in 2020

Platinum Standard Service from Everything Dinosaur.

Everything Dinosaur has won the Feefo Platinum Service Award for 2020.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

As an example of what our customers think about us here are a selection of recent reviews from customers in Europe.

Edoardo from Italy provided feedback:

“Precisi, competenti e affidabili.  Avevo già acquistato da loro e sapevo che non mi sarei sbagliato.”

This translates as “precise, competent and reliable.  I had already bought from them and knew I wouldn’t be wrong.”

Grazie for your kind comments Edoardo.

Pablo from Spain wrote:

“A really great community who put a lot of effort into compiling the best collections of prehistoric creatures from brands all around the world and to make them accessible for anyone at reasonable shipping prices.  If you have any questions they are fairly quick to answer.  I also value the fact that they make educational content with up-to-date scientific information to show which figures are better depicted.  As a dinosaur and prehistoric life enthusiast, I can’t recommend this site enough!  Congratulations to all the team and staff of Everything Dinosaur from Valencia, Spain!”

Our thanks Pablo, gracias.

 

Mate from Hungary stated:

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Thank you for your kind comments Mate – Köszönöm.

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19 09, 2020

Spinosaurus – Very Much at Home in the River

By | September 19th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Spinosaurus A River Monster

An examination of more than a thousand fossil dinosaur teeth collected from an ancient Cretaceous-aged riverbed in Morocco suggests that the giant theropod Spinosaurus was very much at home in an aquatic environment.  This new study, conducted by researchers from the University of Portsmouth, lends further support to the idea that Spinosaurus spent a great deal of time in water, that this enormous theropod, arguably one of the largest of all the carnivorous dinosaurs was a “river monster”.

More Evidence Suggests that Spinosaurus was an Aquatic Animal

Swimming Spinosaurus (2020)

View of the crocodile-like snout of Spinosaurus and the new interpretation of the tail.  This new paper supports the earlier hypothesis that Spinosaurus aegyptiacus was an aquatic animal.

Picture Credit: Davide Bonadonna/National Geographic

This new study builds on a research paper published in the journal “Nature”, earlier this year, which also involved co-author Professor David Martill (University of Portsmouth).  The May (2020) paper focused on the examination of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus caudal vertebrae, it was concluded that Spinosaurus had a wide, flexible, fin-like tail, ideal for helping the dinosaur to propel itself through the water.

To read more about the Spinosaurus tail bones: Spinosaurus – The River Monster.

A Study of Fossil Teeth from the Kem Kem Formation

Writing in the academic journal “Cretaceous Research”, the scientists conclude that Spinosaurus was a water-dwelling dinosaur, a giant “river monster”.

A total of 1,200 broken teeth were collected from the site of an ancient riverbed in the Kem Kem Formation of Morocco.  Each tooth was carefully analysed and documented and it was discovered that Spinosaurus teeth made up the majority of the fossil specimens.

Professor David Martill, Professor of Palaeobiology at the University of Portsmouth explained:

“From this research we are able to confirm this location as the place where this gigantic dinosaur not only lived but also died.  The results are fully consistent with the idea of a truly water-dwelling, “river monster”.”

Examples of Typical Fossils from the Kem Kem Formation (Morocco)

Fossil remains (Kem Kem beds).

Assorted vertebrate fossil remains from the Kem Kem beds of Morocco.  The elongated conical tooth (top left) and the large, slender conical tooth which is partially obscured (far left) are likely to be spinosaurid.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Around forty-five percent of all the teeth fossils were ascribed to Spinosaurus.

Professor Martill added:

“The huge number of teeth we collected in the prehistoric riverbed reveals that Spinosaurus was there in huge numbers, accounting for 45 per cent of the total dental remains.  We know of no other location where such a mass of dinosaur teeth have been found in bone-bearing rock.  The enhanced abundance of Spinosaurus teeth, relative to other dinosaurs, is a reflection of their aquatic lifestyle.  An animal living much of its life in water is much more likely to contribute teeth to the river deposit than those dinosaurs that perhaps only visited the river for drinking and feeding along its banks.”

Professor Martill worked alongside two students (Aaron Quigley and Thomas Beevor), studying for the Masters Degree in Palaeontology at the university.

Thomas Beevor commented:

“The Kem Kem riverbeds are an amazing source of Spinosaurus remains.  They also preserve the remains of many other Cretaceous creatures including sawfish, coelacanths, crocodiles, flying reptiles and other land-living dinosaurs.  With such an abundance of Spinosaurus teeth, it is highly likely that this animal was living mostly within the river rather than along its banks.”

Identifying Spinosaurus Teeth

Sorting fossil teeth can be quite a challenging process.  However, enough is known about the Kem Kem biota to enable most of the teeth remains to be assigned to a genus or at least at the family level.  Numerous theropod dinosaurs are known from this geological formation, but spinosaurid teeth are distinctive.  They are conical, lack serrations and are not recurved.  Aaron Quigley explained that the teeth of Spinosaurus have a distinct surface.  They have a smooth, round cross-section which glints when held up to the light.

A Model of Spinosaurus Introduced in 2019 (Papo Spinosaurus)

Papo Limited Edition Spinosaurus Model.

The Papo Limited Edition Spinosaurus dinosaur model (2019).  Depicting Spinosaurus as an aquatic animal with deep, fin-like tail.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Sigilmassasaurus Confusion

Whilst the prevalence of spinosaurid teeth in the sample might indicate that spinosaurids spent more time in close proximity to the ancient river than other dinosaurs, this research does not represent definitive proof that Spinosaurus was aquatic.  It lends weight to the idea.  A large amount of spinosaurid teeth associated with the site, could be a result of some form of depositional bias or general taphonomy.  In addition, the paucity of Spinosaurus remains from the Kem Kem Formation has led to controversy over the classification of fossil bones.  For example, in 1996 a second genus of spinosaurid was named and described from fossilised cervical vertebrae found close to the Tafilalt Oasis in eastern Morocco.  This dinosaur was named Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Russell), but its taxonomic validity remains in doubt.  Sigilmassasaurus may be a valid genus, if it is, then it was very closely related to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus.  Other scientists think that S. brevicollis is not a valid genus and a junior synonym of Spinosaurus.  It is possible that the teeth involved in this study could represent another type of spinosaurid, other than S. aegyptiacus.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Portsmouth in the compilation of this article.

18 09, 2020

Rebor T. rex Carcass “Bites the Dust” Pair Plain and Jungle

By | September 18th, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor T. rex Carcass “Bites the Dust” Pair Plain and Jungle

The Rebor T. rex carcass “Bites the Dust” models are in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  These two figures (jungle and plain colour variants), have arrived at our warehouse and team members have been busy contacting all those customers who asked to be emailed about the latest additions to our inventory and the Rebor range.

The Rebor Tyrannosaurus rex Carcass Model Plain Colour Variant “Bites the Dust”

Rebor T. rex Carcass Bites the Dust - Plain.

The Rebor Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur model in 1:35 scale.  The Rebor T. rex carcass “Bites the Dust” – plain.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Tale of a Theropod Dinosaur that Met Its Demise

From the pathology recorded on the fossilised bones of this apex predator, palaeontologists are fairly certain that T. rex had a very tough life.  It was a question of kill or be killed and it has been suggested that tyrannosaurs were cannibalistic and that these dinosaurs had to cope with vicious intraspecific combats, essentially fights with other tyrannosaurs, possibly over hunting territories, mates or kills.  As hypercarnivores most likely specialising in the hunting of large prey animals such as hadrosaurs and ceratopsians, attacks could go wrong, with perhaps fatal consequences.  We congratulate Rebor for creating such carefully crafted figures.

The Rebor T. rex carcass is available in two colour variants, plain (see photograph above) and jungle (see below).   Each figure measures around 34 cm in length and depicts a dead Tyrannosaurus rex.  They will make really exciting additions to a dinosaur model collection and provide an opportunity for model makers to build some amazing prehistoric animal dioramas.

The Rebor Tyrannosaurus rex Carcass Model Jungle Colour Variant “Bites the Dust”

Rebor T. rex carcass - "Bites the Dust".

The Rebor T. rex carcass in the jungle colour scheme (Bites the Dust).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Queen Motif Continues

Collectors of Rebor models will notice that the rock group Queen motif continues with the introduction of these two fine figures.  In the spring of 2019, Rebor introduced a pair of T. rex replicas under the title of “Killer Queen” a possible homage to a track and later a single from the British rock band’s “Sheer Heart Attack” album from the mid-1970s.  Queen released a single entitled “Another One Bites the Dust” in 1980, it was a worldwide hit, reaching number 7 in the UK singles chart and topping the U.S. Billboard Hot 100.  We think these two fabulous fatality figures will prove to be a big hit with model collectors and fans of Rebor too.

Everything Dinosaur is Offering the Pair at a Special Discounted Price (Whilst Stocks Last)

Two Rebor replicas. Buy the pair!

Buy the Pair – purchase the Rebor T. rex carcass “Bites the Dust” colour variants plain and jungle.  Everything Dinosaur customers can purchase the pair at a special discounted price (whilst stocks last).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Rebor T. rex carcass “Bites the Dust” plain and colour variants can be found here: Rebor Models and Figures.

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