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27 04, 2022

21% of All Reptiles Threatened with Extinction

By | April 27th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Animal News Stories, Key Stage 3/4, Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

One in five species of reptile is threatened with extinction. A team of international scientists including researchers from the Zoological Society of London, the University of Witwatersrand (Johannesburg, South Africa), Monash University (Victoria, Australia) and the Biodiversity Assessment Unit, IUCN-Conservation International based in Washington DC (USA), have conducted a comprehensive extinction-risk assessment of the class Reptilia. Writing in the academic journal “Natural” the team conclude that at least 1,829 out of 10,196 species of reptile (21.1%) are threatened.

Saltwater crocodile (Estuarine crocodile).
A Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus). The researchers conclude that crocodilians and turtles are particularly vulnerable to extinction. The study suggests more than half of crocodiles and almost two thirds of turtles are threatened with extinction.

Agriculture, Logging, Urban Development and Invasive Species

A global assessment of the risk of extinction to species of reptile has been lacking, although similar studies have been undertaken for the other tetrapods such as amphibians, mammals and birds. The researchers conclude that reptiles are threatened by the same major factors that threaten other tetrapods— agriculture, logging, urban development and invasive species, although the threat posed by climate change remains uncertain. Many species of reptile live in extremely arid or desert regions, this comprehensive study reveals that it is those reptiles that live in forests that face the greatest threat.

Is the skull that of a lizard?
An Anolis lizard, reptiles that live in forested areas are the most threatened according to a comprehensive study published in the journal Nature.

The scientists discovered that birds, mammals and amphibians are unexpectedly good surrogates for the conservation of reptiles. The study revealed that efforts to conserve other threatened tetrapods (mammals, birds and amphibians) are more likely than expected to co-benefit many threatened species of reptile. Although reptiles are well known to inhabit arid habitats such as deserts and scrubland, most reptile species occur in forested habitats, where they and other vertebrate groups, suffer from threats such as logging and conversion of forest to agriculture. The study found that 30% of forest-dwelling reptiles are at risk of extinction, compared with 14% of reptiles in arid habitats.

Radiated Tortoise (Astrochelys radiata).
The Radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata), native to Madagascar is critically endangered due to habitat loss and poaching. Picture credit: IUCN/Anders G. J. Rhodin.

An Urgent Multifaceted Plan is Needed

Neil Cox, co-leader of the study and Manager of the IUCN-Conservation International Biodiversity Assessment Unit in Washington DC stated:

“The results of the Global Reptile Assessment signal the need to ramp up global efforts to conserve them. Because reptiles are so diverse, they face a wide range of threats across a variety of habitats. A multifaceted action plan is necessary to protect these species, with all the evolutionary history they represent.”

South American marked gecko (Homonota horrida).
The South American marked gecko (Homonota horrida) is found in Paraguay and Argentina. Reptile species face a significant extinction threat. Picture credit: IUCN/ Ignacio Roberto Hernández.

The report states that although some reptiles including most species of crocodiles and turtles require urgent, targeted action to prevent extinctions, efforts to protect other tetrapods, such as habitat preservation and control of trade and invasive species, will probably also benefit many reptiles.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “A global reptile assessment highlights shared conservation needs of tetrapods” by Neil Cox, Bruce E. Young, Philip Bowles, Miguel Fernandez, Julie Marin et al published in Nature.

26 04, 2022

Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium Model

By | April 26th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

The Deinotherium model produced by Eofauna Scientific Research was the third prehistoric elephant figure to be added to this scale model series and what a fantastic replica of a prehistoric proboscidean it is! Team members at Everything Dinosaur took a photo of the Eofauna Deinotherium in the company’s photographic studio (see picture below).

Eofauna Deinotherium model.
The Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium model. A fantastic prehistoric elephant replica. Introduced in 2019, the Deinotherium was the third prehistoric proboscidean to be added to the Eofauna range. The Steppe mammoth (Mammuthus trogontherii) and the Straight-tusked elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) preceded it.

Deinotherium giganteum “Gigantic Terrible Beast”

The Deinotherium genus was established in the 19th century and several species have been named and described. The species Deinotherium giganteum, the type species, was erected in 1829 by the German naturalist Johann Jakob von Kaup. The scientific name translates as “gigantic terrible beast” and with an estimated weight of 11 tonnes, Deinotherium giganteum was far larger than the largest extant elephants (Loxodonta).

Eofauna Deinotherium model.
A view of the new for 2019 Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium model. The figure is supplied with an Eofauna data card along with a fact sheet researched and written by Everything Dinosaur team members.

The Eofauna Deinotherium is approximately 20 cm in length and it stands around 13 cm tall. The figure has a declared scale of 1:35.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“The Eofauna Deinotherium model is one of our favourite prehistoric animal figures. Whilst working in the studio we took the opportunity to take some photographs of this wonderful model.”

To view the Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium and the rest of the prehistoric animals featured in this series: Eofauna Scientific Research Models.

25 04, 2022

Mesozoic Metal Monsters

By | April 25th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos, Press Releases|0 Comments

There are so many clever and creative people on the worldwide web. Take for example Joe Dolan a retired welder who spends his time creating metal prehistoric monsters in his workshop. Each hand-crafted sculpture takes dozens of hours to produce, each one is a labour of love, honed by the skills developed over a lifetime as a welder/fabricator.

Joe very kindly contacted Everything Dinosaur and sent us some pictures of his latest creations.

Metallic Tyrannosaurus rex
A completed Tyrannosaurus rex sculpture. Picture credit: Joe Dolan.

Making Figures from Metal

With over forty years experience Joe’s skilfully constructed animal figures are a great conversation starter and certainly are statement pieces. All the joints are fully welded, cleaned, deburred and polished. It is great to see Joe still using his engineering and design skills to create such novel, metallic sculptures.

Metal T. rex
An impressive T. rex metal sculpture just out of the workshop. Picture credit: Joe Dolan.

The “Detail is Everything”

Joe explains that his hobby has grown into a small business. The figures are made for indoor display as the steel used in the construction would rust if left outside. At first Joe created sculptures for friends and family but soon word of his talent for creating unusual sculptures spread and he began to attract commercial interest from farther afield.

Joe has not restricted himself to dinosaurs, he builds lots of amazing sculptures of other animals too.

He explained how his unusual business started commenting:

“I started some years back, making things for myself and family. Other people started showing interest in my work so I made more, and to me “detail is everything”, plus the figurines are robust and if cared for they will last for years and years.”

A metallic fish model.
A stunning, metallic fish sculpture. Picture credit: Joe Dolan.
metal shark figure.
A beautiful, burnished shark figure created by talented engineer Joe Dolan.

Traditional Skills Given a New Twist

Traditional skills such as metal working are under threat, the models and figures that Joe has created enable him to keep using the techniques that he has honed over a lifetime, bringing pleasure and delight to others.

Metallic crab sculpture
A cleverly constructed crab – watch out for those metal claws! Picture credit: Joe Dolan.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We are always amazed at how creative and clever people can be. Joe has turned his talents to making some amazing metallic monsters including models of dinosaurs like T. rex and Velociraptors. He also has a flair for fish models and we love the eyes on the metallic crab figure.”

A pack of metallic Velociraptors.
A pack or metallic Velociraptors on the prowl. Picture credit: Joe Dolan.

For further information about the sculptures and to contact Joe direct, we suggest you check out his Facebook page: Contact Joe Dolan on Facebook.

24 04, 2022

Prehistoric Times Spring Issue Reviewed

By | April 24th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Magazine Reviews, Main Page|0 Comments

The latest issue of “Prehistoric Times” magazine has arrived at Everything Dinosaur’s offices and team members have been admiring all the reader submitted artwork, articles and features contained therein.

The front cover illustration has been provided by British palaeoartist John Sibbick, who must hold the record for the number of “Prehistoric Times” front covers produced by a single artist. The stunning illustration depicts typical Jehol Biota members Microraptor and Jeholornis and there are plenty of feathers on show which is appropriate as inside the magazine regular contributor Tracy Lee Ford provides part three of his excellent series on integumentary coverings.

Prehistoric Times issue 141.
The front cover artwork for the next edition of “Prehistoric Times” magazine. John Sibbick has depicted some of the feathered dinosaurs associated with the famous Jehol Biota. Picture credit: Mike Fredericks.

Bajadasaurus and the Fearsome Thalattoarchon

Phil Hore provides information on the bizarre sauropod Bajadasaurus and the ferocious Triassic ichthyosaur Thalattoarchon and there are plenty of reader submitted examples of artwork to admire too. Palaeontologist Gregory S. Paul co-authored a scientific paper published recently that proposes that there were three species of Tyrannosaurus in the Late Cretaceous of North America. The magazine includes an in-depth explanation of the paper’s conclusions and reviews the evidence.

To read the article by Everything Dinosaur on the potential split of the Tyrannosaurus genus into three species: Are There Three Tyrannosaurus Species?

Randy Knol updates collectors with the latest model news and editor Mike Fredericks reviews the latest book releases and there is a comprehensive section providing details of recent fossil discoveries and research.

Burian and the Marginocephalians

John R. Lavas continues his long-running series highlighting the astonishing artwork of the Czech artist Zdeněk Burian. Issue 141 of “Prehistoric Times” sees him focusing on the Burian’s interpretation of ceratopsids and their close relatives.

Zdeněk Burian illustrates Chasmosaurus.
An illustration of Chasmosaurus by Zdeněk Burian.

Jon Noad tells the story of one of Calgary Zoo’s oldest residents Dinny the dinosaur and Sean Kotz explains how to create a model of a Pachyrhinosaurus. Brian Novak provides part two of his series on prehistoric coins, not currency from the Cretaceous, but an illustrated guide to the types of coins and currency with a prehistoric animal theme.

The spring edition of “Prehistoric Times” is highly recommended and you can subscribe to this quarterly publication here: Subscribe to “Prehistoric Times” magazine.

23 04, 2022

Rebor Saurophaganax “Volcanic Cavern” Video Showcase

By | April 23rd, 2022|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have posted up their product showcase video of the Rebor Saurophaganax maximus dinosaur model in the “Volcanic Cavern” colour scheme. This is the third video in this trilogy, with team members having produced product showcase videos of the other two colour variants “Jungle” and “Badlands”.

Everything Dinosaur has produced a short YouTube video highlighting the recently introduced Rebor Saurophaganax maximus Notorious Big dinosaur model in the “Volcanic Cavern” colour variant.

Rebor Saurophaganax maximus “Volcanic Cavern”

The striking colouration of the Rebor Saurophaganax maximus 1:35 scale replica is highlighted in the company’s short video presentation. The actual size of the model is demonstrated along with the articulated lower jaw. The packaging for this prehistoric animal model is also briefly featured.

The product showcase video provides further information, model measurements are given and the flexible tail and articulated arms are accentuated. The Rebor Saurophaganax maximus Notorious Big “Volcanic Cavern” product showcase video lasts around 45 seconds.

Rebor Saurophaganax in the "volcanic cavern" colour scheme.
The crimson coloured Rebor Saurophaganax maximus “Notorious Big” in the “volcanic cavern” colour scheme.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“This is the third Rebor Saurophaganax model we have created a product showcase video for. The videos featuring the other two colour variants “Badlands” and “Jungle” have already been posted on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel. We hope these short videos help and inform our customers.”

To view the Rebor Saurophaganax maximus in the “Volcanic Cavern” colour scheme along with the rest of the Rebor prehistoric animal models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Models, Prehistoric Animals and Dinosaurs.

The Rebor range of models and figures features a wide variety of prehistoric animals. There have been several different types of theropod dinosaur included in the Rebor portfolio, allosaurids such as Saurophaganax, but also tyrannosaurs such as Yutyrannus huali and T. rex along with ceratosaurs (Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus) and abelisaurids – Carnotaurus and Ekrixinatosaurus.

The Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel has thousands of subscribers and features hundreds of informative and helpful prehistoric animal themed videos.

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel: Subscribe to Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

22 04, 2022

Caldey Draws a Carnotaurus

By | April 22nd, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page|0 Comments

Our thanks to young dinosaur fan and artist Caldey who sent into Everything Dinosaur a wonderful illustration of the South American abelisaurid Carnotaurus (C. sastrei). Caldey’s pencil drawing captures this large predator and shows plenty of fine detailing and different sized scales on the animal’s skin. If you look carefully, one of the bony horns on top of this dinosaur’s head, from which this animal was named (meat-eating bull), has been damaged. Scientists remain uncertain as to the function of these small horns, although they may have played a role in species recognition, asserted dominance or perhaps were involved in visual communication.

Carnotaurus illustration by Caldey.
The illustration of the fearsome Carnotaurus by Caldey. The drawing was inspired by the Jurassic World Carnotaurus. Team members at Everything Dinosaur expect that the forthcoming film “Jurassic World Dominion” will inspire a new generation of palaeoartists. Picture credit: Caldey

“Jurassic World Dominion”

Caldey was inspired to produce a Carnotaurus drawing by the forthcoming film “Jurassic World Dominion”, which is thought to be the last film in the “Jurassic Park/Jurassic World” movie franchise. The COVID-19 pandemic had delayed the release date for this eagerly anticipated film, it is now scheduled for global cinema release on June 10th (2022). The trailer for the film was released eight weeks ago and has already received over fifty million views on YouTube.

When viewing the image that Caldey had sent into us, it reminded team members of the recently introduced PNSO Carnotaurus figure “Domingo”.

We compared Caldey’s excellent drawing with one of the images we have in our database for the PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus model.

Carnotaurus illustration and the PNSO Carnotaurus model.
Caldey was inspired by the Carnotaurus seen in a film, but we think the drawing is similar to the PNSO Carnotaurus model Domingo. Picture credit for the illustration: Caldey.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“It is always a pleasure to receive artwork from dinosaur fans. We have received lots of illustrations from Caldey and we are very impressed with her work and her attention to detail. Keep up the good work Caldey!”

21 04, 2022

The Oldest Mineralised Bryozoan?

By | April 21st, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Scientists from John Hopkins University (Baltimore, Maryland), Smith College (Northampton, Massachusetts) along with bryozoan expert Paul Taylor of the London Natural History Museum and another collaborator have published a paper in “Science Advances” reporting a possible earliest occurrence of palaeostomate bryozoans.

Cut slabs of bryomorph fossils from the Harkless Formation
Cut slabs of bryomorph fossils from the Harkless Formation (Gold Point, Nevada). Cross-sectional view showing round individual tubes (A). Longitudinal cut through organism showing growth form (B). Note scale equals 1,000 microns. Picture credit: Pruss et al.

Fossils from the Harkless Formation (Nevada)

Recently, Everything Dinosaur published a blog post about a scientific paper that came out late last year (October 2021), the study reported upon the identification a soft-bodied bryozoan Protomelission gatehousei from Early Cambrian strata: Early Cambrian Origin for the Bryozoa. The oldest previously accepted skeletal bryozoans occur in Lower Ordovician deposits, however, these researchers suggest that fossils found in strata from the Harkless Formation (Nevada, USA) are also bryozoans. The fossils show a radiating form preserved in limestone deposited during the Cambrian. If these fossils also represent bryozoans, they have a hard, mineralised skeleton.

Thin section images of a single bryomorph organism from the Harkless Formation (Nevada).
Thin section images of a single bryomorph organism from the Harkless Formation (Nevada). General fossil view (A). Sketches of the branching of daughter tubes from parent tubes (B). Note the formation of distinct skeletal walls from the parent during budding. Note scale bar equals 1 mm. Picture credit: Pruss et al.

All Skeletal Marine Invertebrate Phyla Appeared During the Cambrian Explosion

Previously, it had been thought that all skeletal marine invertebrate phyla appeared during the Cambrian explosion, except for Bryozoa with mineralised skeletons which were known from fossils dating from the Early Ordovician. If the small fossils identified in thin cross sections of Harkless Formation limestone are examples of bryozoans with a hard skeleton, then this evidence, in addition to the recent paper on the soft-bodied Cambrian bryozoan Protomelission (P. gatehousei), suggests an Early Cambrian origin for the Bryozoa and provides evidence to support the hypothesis that all types of skeletal marine invertebrate phyla evolved during the Cambrian.

If the Nevada fossils are confirmed as bryozoans, the appearance of a mineralised skeleton in this phylum would be pushed back by some 30 million years.

The scientific paper: “The oldest mineralized bryozoan? A possible palaeostomate in the lower Cambrian of Nevada, USA” by Sara B. Pruss, Lexie Leeser, Emily F. Smith, Andrey Yu. Zhuravlev and Paul D. Taylor published in Science Advances.

20 04, 2022

Branching Feathers and Melanosomes Identified in Pterosaur Fossil

By | April 20th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

A remarkably well-preserved cranial crest from a pterosaur has provided more evidence that pterosaurs were feathered. Furthermore, analysis of the Tupandactylus specimen (MCT.R.1884), indicates that their bodies were covered with different types of feathers, including branching feathers. The researchers report the presence of different shaped melanosomes associated with the skin and the flying reptile’s feathers. This suggests that pterosaur feathers were not just for thermoregulation, that colouration could be manipulated genetically.

In simple terms, pterosaur feathers probably played a role in visual communication and therefore, visual signalling.

New evidence of branched feathers in pterosaurs.
New evidence of branched feathers discovered in a Tupandactylus specimen suggests that feathers originated in the avemetatarsalian ancestor of pterosaurs and dinosaurs in the Early Triassic. Picture credit: Bob Nicholls.

Perhaps feathers evolved independently in the Theropoda and Pterosauria (convergent evolution), if this is not the case, then integumentary coverings originated in the avemetatarsalian ancestor of the pterosaurs and dinosaurs.

Marvellous Melanosomes

Writing in the academic journal “Nature”, the researchers that include University College Cork palaeontologists Dr Aude Cincotta, Professor Maria McNamara and Dr Pascal Godefroit from the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, conclude that pterosaurs were able to control the colour of their feathers using melanin pigments.

A partial cranium from a Tupandactylus imperator preserved on five limestone slabs from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation (Brazil), estimated to be around 115 million years old, was analysed in detail. The scientists discovered that the bottom of the spectacular head crest had a rim of fuzzy feathers, with short wiry hair-like feathers and fluffy branched feathers.

Different types of feathers in pterosaur fossil
Details of the cranial crest of a new specimen of Tupandactylus cf. imperator (MCT.R.1884) from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation, Brazil. Incomplete skull showing soft crest preserved (a). Details of the integumentary structures associated with the back of the skull (b-f). Monofilaments (b), branched feathers (c) and in close view (d). A straight branched feather (e) with close view (f). The white arrow in (e) highlights the basal calamus (hollow base of the feather that attaches to the skin). Scanning Electron Microscope images (g-i) of melanosomes in MCT.R.1884. Scale bars, 50 mm (a); 5 mm (b); 2 mm (c); 250 μm (d–f); 2 μm (g–i). Picture credit: Cincotta et al.

Pterosaur Feather Controversies

Several papers have been published examining integumentary coverings in members of the Pterosauria. It had been established (Yang et al 2018), that flying reptiles had feathery, branched feathers: Are the Feathers About to Fly in the Pterosauria? However, the debate regarding integumentary coverings in pterosaurs is not without controversy.

In 2020, a paper was published that challenged these findings casting doubt on the idea that pterosaurs had an integumentary covering of insulating protofeathers: Naked Pterosaurs – No Feathers Here (Unwin and Martill).

Scanning Electron Microscopes

Soft tissue samples from the cranial crest, simple feathers (monofilaments) and the branching feathers were taken and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. All the samples were found to contain abundant oval-shaped or elongate structures that were interpreted to represent melanosomes. Unexpectedly, the new study shows that the melanosomes in different feather types have different shapes.

Commenting on the significance of this discovery, co-author of the paper, Professor McNamara stated:

“In birds today, feather colour is strongly linked to melanosome shape. Since the pterosaur feather types had different melanosome shapes, these animals must have had the genetic machinery to control the colours of their feathers. This feature is essential for colour patterning and shows that colouration was a critical feature of even the very earliest feathers”.

Tupandactylus illustration.
A scale drawing of the tapejarid Pterosaur Tupandactylus imperator. A new study suggests that flying reptiles had a variety of feathers and that the presence of different shaped melanosomes in different types of feathers indicates that they possessed the genetic machinery to control the colours of their feathers.

Feathers Use in Visual Signalling has Deep Evolutionary Origins

The Pterosauria and the Dinosauria are members of the Avemetatarsalia, a branch of the Archosauria that includes all archosaurs more closely related to birds than to crocodilians. However, the lineage that led to the flying reptiles diverged from the dinosaurs millions of years before birds and feathered dinosaurs evolved. This study also suggests that the function of feathers in visual communication has deep evolutionary origins.

Fossil Repatriated to Brazil

It is also pleasing to note, that thanks to the efforts of the research team, the authorities and other collaborators, this amazing pterosaur fossil that had been in private ownership has been repatriated to Brazil.

Dr Pascal Godefroit (Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences), explained:

“It is so important that scientifically important fossils such as this are returned to their countries of origin and safely conserved for posterity. These fossils can then be made available to scientists for further study and can inspire future generations of scientists through public exhibitions that celebrate our natural heritage”.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from the University College Cork in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Pterosaur melanosomes support signalling functions for early feathers” by Aude Cincotta, Michaël Nicolaï, Hebert Bruno Nascimento Campos, Maria McNamara, Liliana D’Alba, Matthew D. Shawkey, Edio-Ernst Kischlat, Johan Yans, Robert Carleer, François Escuillié and Pascal Godefroit published in the journal Nature.

19 04, 2022

An Innovative Palaeontology Board Game

By | April 19th, 2022|Dinosaur Fans, Key Stage 3/4, Main Page|0 Comments

At Everything Dinosaur, we are always amazed by the variety of prehistoric animal themed products that are available to fans of prehistoric life. Take for example, a new board game in development that has been inspired by palaeontology. We were contacted by Brett, one of the developers of “Holotype”, a fast-paced, worker placement game designed for 2-5 participants. Players get the chance to role play the life and work of a vertebrate palaeontologist.

Holotype board game.
“Holotype” an American designed board game for 2-5 players. Picture credit: Brexwerx Games.

A Kickstarter Project

This innovative, light-strategy board game has its own kickstarter funding page and the project has already received hundreds of backers.

Brett very kindly provided more details to Everything Dinosaur, commenting that the object of the game was to further the field of palaeontology by collecting specimens, undertaking research and getting findings published in scientific journals. “Holotype” focuses on the major fossil formations and prehistoric animals associated with North America, but other regional variations of this game, such as a version exploring the prehistoric animals of Europe, have been proposed.

The board game Holotype contents
The contents of the North American board game “Holotype”. Picture credit: Brexwerx Games.

Throughout the gameplay, players deploy their palaeontologist, graduate student and field assistant workers to perform various actions. Players can search for fossils by rolling fossil dice on field expeditions, conduct research at the university library and access museum collections to exchange fossils and to further their ambitions.

By making discoveries and expanding scientific knowledge, players ultimately aim to have their research on holotypes published in prestigious scientific journals. Victory points are awarded as the player’s career in palaeontology advances.

As the game progresses, special milestones are unlocked to make each player’s gameplay unique. Semi-collaborative global objectives and private personal objectives ensure that every game will be different.

With a playing time estimated at around 1-2 hours, the winner is the person who has gained the most points through their research which resulted in published holotypes and the achievement of personal and global objectives.

The media release sent to Everything Dinosaur states:

“The goal of the developers was to create a game that would appeal to avid board gamers and palaeontology fans alike. The game features 60 unique dinosaurs and marine reptiles from the Mesozoic Era across North America, fossil-bearing geologic formations, and objectives referencing modern palaeontology concepts such as cladistics and taxonomy.”

The Kickstarter page for “Holotype” can be found here: Brexwerx Games “Holotype”.

18 04, 2022

Nanmu Studio Models Feature in Everything Dinosaur Newsletter

By | April 18th, 2022|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Nanmu Studio Jurassic Series prehistoric animal models feature in the latest customer newsletter despatched by Everything Dinosaur. The newsletter included details of seven, newly arrived Nanmu Studio models including the marine reptile “Lord of the Abyss”, Brachiosaurus, the sick Triceratops replica and the Calypso/Santiago Baryonyx figures. The beautiful fallen Triceratops model was given top billing.

Nanmu Studio sick Triceratops dinosaur model in the Everything Dinosaur newsletter
Sick Triceratops given top billing in the latest Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter.

Nanmu Studio Sick Triceratops

The Nanmu Studio sick Triceratops dinosaur model features a fallen Triceratops on a stunning display base. Everything Dinosaur had stocked other Nanmu Studio Triceratops figures in 2021, but this is the first time that this particular horned dinosaur figure has come into stock at the UK-based mail order company.

The Nanmu Studio Jurassic Series sick Triceratops (Heavy Lance) is a 1:35 scale replica.

Nanmu Studio Brachiosaurus models feature in customer newsletter
The two Nanmu Studio Brachiosaurus dinosaur models feature in the latest Everything Dinosaur newsletter. Watchman grey (left) and Watchman brown (right).

Brachiosaurus Comes into View

The Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter also features the recently arrived Brachiosaurus figures (Watchman Brachiosaurus). Two colour variants are offered, a grey and a brown version. These sauropod models are huge measuring over forty-two centimetres high.

Baryonyx models from Nanmu Studio feature in an Everything Dinosaur newsletter.
The two stunning Nanmu Studio standing Baryonyx models (Santiago and Calypso) feature in the latest Everything Dinosaur newsletter.

Nanmu Studio Jurassic Series Baryonyx Dinosaur Models

A shipment of Nanmu Studio figures arrived last week at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse. As well as more stock of models already sold by the company, the shipment also contained a quantity of Baryonyx figures (Santiago and Calypso standing Baryonyx models). The shipment also contained the resting Santiago Baryonyx model and the Nanmu Studio Jurassic Series “Lord of the Abyss” Mosasaurus replica.

Two Nanmu Studio models feature in an Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter.
The “Lord of the Abyss” mosasaur model (left) and the Nanmu Studio Jurassic Series resting Baryonyx (Santiago). These two prehistoric animal models are part of a shipment of Nanmu Studio replicas that arrived at Everything Dinosaur’s UK warehouse this month (April 2022).

To view the range of Nanmu Studio Jurassic Series prehistoric animal models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Nanmu Studio Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

The Everything Dinosaur newsletter is emailed to subscribers. It is a free newsletter containing information on new products, competitions, product updates and so forth. To request to be added to our database, simply send Everything Dinosaur an email: Send an Email to Everything Dinosaur.

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