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5 01, 2021

PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus Model

By | January 5th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus Model

Having announced the introduction of a replica of the giant South American theropod Carnotaurus (C. sastrei), on their various social media platforms, Everything Dinosaur have dedicated a blog post to this new for 2021 PNSO dinosaur model.  This provides the UK-based Everything Dinosaur the opportunity to post up some more images of this eagerly anticipated dinosaur, a figure that will be in stock later this year, perhaps in just a few weeks.

The New for 2021 Domingo the PNSO Carnotaurus Model

The PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus dinosaur model.

PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus dinosaur model.  The colouration and detailing on this new for 2021 theropod replica are quite remarkable.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Domingo the PNSO Carnotaurus

It is appropriate that the PNSO Carnotaurus (number 36 in the PNSO prehistoric animal models that accompany your growth series), has been given a Latin name (Domingo).  Fossils of this famous abelisaurid are known from southern Argentina.  Indeed, the majority of the abelisauroids described to date herald from the southern hemisphere (the ancient landmass of Gondwana).

Domingo the Carnotaurus Makes an Appearance on the Everything Dinosaur Blog

The PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus dinosaur model.

PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus dinosaur model.  The tiny forelimbs can be seen in this view of the dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Model Measurements

The PNSO Carnotaurus figure measures around 23.5 cm in length.  The height of those prominent head crests, the helped to give this dinosaur its name (Carnotaurus means meat-eating bull), are around 11.5 cm off the ground.  Although PNSO do not declare a scale for their mid-size range of dinosaurs, Everything Dinosaur team members estimate that this new for 2021 figure is in around 1/32th scale.

The Model Measurements and a Skeletal Reconstruction of Carnotaurus sastrei

The PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus dinosaur model (model measurements).

PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus dinosaur model (model measurements).  The model is approximately 23.5 cm long and the head height is around 11.5 cm.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Dinosaur Model with an Articulated Jaw

In common with other recently announced PNSO theropod replicas (A-shu the Qianzhousaurus and the new Wilson Tyrannosaurus rex model), this new Carnotaurus has an articulated lower jaw.

Domingo the Carnotaurus (PNSO) Complete with an Articulated Lower Jaw

PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus dinosaur model (close-up view of the head).

The PNSO Domingo the Carnotaurus dinosaur model (close-up view of the head).  The close up view of the head of the new dinosaur model with its articulated lower jaw.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“The new PNSO Carnotaurus has been very carefully modelled on the fossil material and the body proportions including those reduced front limbs and that deep skull have been skilfully reproduced.  The hind legs are in the correct body proportions too.  A clear plastic support stand is provided to help stabilise the figure when on display.”

The Carnotaurus Packaging and a Diagram Showing the Chest Support for the Dinosaur Model

The PNSO Carnotaurus model (product packaging).

PNSO Carnotaurus (product packaging).  With realistic body proportions the model requires a support stand to help stabilise the figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

This remarkable model of a Late Cretaceous carnivorous dinosaur will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in 2021.

To view the huge range of PNSO prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

4 01, 2021

Early Dinosaur’s Brain Reveals New Insights into Sauropodomorpha

By | January 4th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

The Brain of Thecodontosaurus

Analysis of the brain and inner ear of the Late Triassic basal Sauropodomorpha Thecodontosaurus (T. antiquus), reveals that it may have been bipedal, able to hold a steady gaze whilst running and possibly predatory.  These are some of the conclusions drawn by researchers from the University of Bristol and the Oxford University Museum of Natural History in a new study published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

The Research Team Used CT-scans and 3-D Modelling to Construct the Brain and Inner Ear of Thecodontosaurus

CT-scans and computer modelling used to construct the brain of Thecodontosaurus.

Building up a picture of the brain and the inner ear based on the fossilised braincase of Thecodontosaurus antiquus.

Picture Credit: Antonio Ballell et al

Named in 1836 (it was only the fourth dinosaur to be scientifically described), Thecodontosaurus is regarded as a basal member of the lizard-hipped Sauropodomorpha, a clade of dinosaurs that includes Brontosaurus, Brachiosaurus, Diplodocus and Argentinosaurus.  Thecodontosaurus was much smaller than its illustrious Jurassic and Cretaceous descendants.  It was approximately two metres long, more than half its body length was made up by its long, thin tail and it was lightly built with most palaeontologists estimating that it weighed around 20-25 kilograms, about as heavy as a border collie.

As an early member of the lineage of long-necked dinosaurs, a study of the fossilised remains of Thecodontosaurus can provide palaeontologists with a better understanding of the evolutionary history of the Sauropodomorpha.

Bristol University has Researched the “Bristol Dinosaur” For Decades

Thecodontosaurus study.

Thecodontosaurus fossil block with life reconstruction in the background.  In the picture (above), from 2009, a researcher stands in front of a block of Thecodontosaurus bones with a life reconstruction of the dinosaur in the background.  Note that in 2009, Thecodontosaurus was thought to be quadrupedal, this new study suggests that it may have been bipedal.

Picture Credit: Simon Powell/University of Bristol

Three-dimensional Modelling Techniques

Research, led by the University of Bristol, used advanced imaging and 3-D modelling techniques to digitally rebuild the brain of Thecodontosaurus.  The scientists suggest that Thecodontosaurus could have eaten meat, although the substantial part of its diet was plant matter, its brain morphology indicates that this little dinosaur had a good sense of balance and that it was agile, traits that may have helped it supplement its vegetarian diet with the occasional meal of captured prey.

Lead author of the study, Antonio Ballell stated:

“Our analysis of Thecodontosaurus’ brain uncovered many fascinating features, some of which were quite surprising.  Whereas its later relatives moved around ponderously on all fours, our findings suggest this species may have walked on two legs and been occasionally carnivorous.”

The research team was able to deploy imaging software to extract new information from the fossils in a non-destructive manner.  Numerous three-dimensional models were generated from CT scans by digitally extracting the bone from the rock, identifying and classifying anatomical details about the brain and the inner ear which were previously unknown in this taxon.

PhD student Antonio explained the basis of the research:

“Even though the actual brain is long gone, the software allows us to recreate brain and inner ear shape via the dimensions of the cavities left behind.  The braincase of Thecodontosaurus is beautifully preserved so we compared it to other dinosaurs, identifying common features and some that are specific to Thecodontosaurus.  Its brain cast even showed the detail of the floccular lobes, located at the back of the brain, which are important for balance.  Their large size indicate it was bipedal.  This structure is also associated with the control of balance and eye and neck movements, suggesting Thecodontosaurus was relatively agile and could keep a stable gaze while moving fast.”

The Diet of Thecodontosaurus

The diet of Thecodontosaurus, nicknamed the “Bristol dinosaur” as a result of its association with the city, remains uncertain, although this new study suggests that it may have been omnivorous.

Antonio added:

“Our analysis showed parts of the brain associated with keeping the head stable and eyes and gaze steady during movement were well-developed.  This could also mean Thecodontosaurus could occasionally catch prey, although its tooth morphology suggests plants were the main component of its diet.  It’s possible it adopted omnivorous habits.”

The researchers were also able to reconstruct the inner ears, allowing them estimate how well it could hear compared to other dinosaurs.  Its hearing frequency was relatively high, potentially inferring some sort of social complexity, an ability to recognise varied squeaks and honks from different animals.

Comparing the Brain Cast of Thecodontosaurus to Other Dinosaurs

The changing shape of sauropod brains.

Structure, size and shape of the inner ear and brain examined in relation to the evolution of the Sauropodomorpha.

Picture Credit: Antonio Ballell et al with additional notation by Everything Dinosaur

Comparing Thecodontosaurus to Other Members of the Sauropodomorpha

The application of these technologies enabled the research team to compare the brain and inner ear of Thecodontosaurus to Saturnalia tupiniquim – an earlier basal sauropodomorph which roamed the southern hemisphere around twenty-five million years before Thecodontosaurus evolved.  Comparisons were also carried out between Plateosaurus, which is also known from the Late Triassic and the much later sauropod Spinophorosaurus (S. nigerensis) from the Middle Jurassic.

Professor Mike Benton, study co-author, said:

“It’s great to see how new technologies are allowing us to find out even more about how this little dinosaur lived more than 200 million years ago.”

The distinguished professor added:

“We began working on Thecodontosaurus in 1990, and it is the emblem of the Bristol Dinosaur Project.  We’re very fortunate to have so many well-preserved fossils of such an important dinosaur here in Bristol.  This has helped us understand many aspects of the biology of Thecodontosaurus, but there are still many questions about this species yet to be explored.”

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Bristol in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “The braincase, brain and palaeobiology of the basal sauropodomorph dinosaur Thecodontosaurus antiquus” by A. Ballell, J. L. King, J. M. Neenan, E. J. Rayfield and M. J. Benton published in the Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society.

3 01, 2021

ITOY Studio Resurrection Dilophosaurus

By | January 3rd, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases, Product Reviews|0 Comments

ITOY Studio Resurrection Dilophosaurus

The ITOY Studio Resurrection Dilophosaurus dinosaur model has certainly caused a stir with prehistoric animal fans and dinosaur model collectors since its arrival at Everything Dinosaur.  This beautiful replica, depicting what is now believed to have been one of the largest terrestrial carnivores on the planet during the Early Jurassic.  It ticks all the boxes when it comes to dinosaur replicas, with its innovative colouration, stability and stunning detail.

The ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus Dinosaur Model

ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus dinosaur model.

The ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus dinosaur model.  This dinosaur figure comes with its own beautifully detailed display base, complete with plants, logs and water.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Revising Dilophosaurus

A recent revision of Dilophosaurus fossil material (D. wetherilli) revealed that the lower jaw (dentary), was more robust than previously realised and it has been suggested that this dinosaur was a much more formidable predator, a terror of the contemporary Sarahsaurus, a member of the Sauropodomorpha.  The large crests on the ITOY figure reflect the latest thinking in terms of the crest size and the design team have given their figure crimson head crests, possibly a nod towards the idea that these crests were primarily used for display.  The inside of the mouth is particularly well painted.  The Dilophosaurus has an articulated jaw, so the figure can be posed with mouth closed, mouth open or indeed somewhere in between.

Here’s Looking At You!  A Very Formidable Dilophosaurus Model

Staring at you! The ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus dinosaur model.

Here’s looking at you!  A stare from the ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Model Measurements

The Model measures a fraction over twenty centimetres in length.  The head is some seven and a half centimetres off the ground.  Naturally, when placed on its display base the figure appears a little taller.  Team members at Everything Dinosaur have enjoyed taking photographs and videos of this replica.  There are plans to make a more detailed video in the future showcasing this model and revealing just how securely this dinosaur stands on its base.

The Fantastic Colours and Detail on the ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus Dinosaur Model

Late Jurassic Predator Dilophosaurus

ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus.  Has it gone camera shy?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Product Packaging

We have been asked to show the product packaging.  Many collectors prefer never to take their purchase out of its box.  We are only to happy too oblige and to include a picture of the front of the box with its striking artwork (below).

Standing Proud in Front of the Product Packaging

ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus and the product packaging.

The gorgeous ITOY Studio box art with the Dilophosaurus figure in front of the packaging.  Standing proud in front of its packaging.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus dinosaur model and the rest of the prehistoric animals in the ITOY range: ITOY Studio Models.

2 01, 2021

A Komodo Dragon in the Snow

By | January 2nd, 2021|Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

A Komodo Dragon in the Snow

A good artist can turn their hand to using a variety of materials and techniques to express themselves.  Take for instance, this excellent illustration of a Komodo dragon (V. komodoensis), created after a recent snowfall by Caldey.  A fine example of snow art, depicting the largest living lizard, a reptile that would have been very uncomfortable in such a cold environment, however Caldey’s Komodo dragon looks very much at home in her back garden.

A Komodo Dragon in the Snow

Komodo dragon in the snow

Creating a Komodo dragon in the snow.

Picture Credit: Caldey

Plotting Proportions and Adding Details

When working on a large project, many professional artists sketch out their design at first and use this as a blueprint for the much larger artwork. By taking this approach, the proportions can be plotted prior to the outline being made and the details added.  We are not sure how Caldey created her lizard, but she has done well to plot the proportions and scale the animal to fit the space that was available.  Our congratulations!  What a clever and innovative piece of work.

Getting Creative in the Snow – Creating a Komodo Dragon

Komodo dragon in the snow.

Getting creative in the snow.  An illustration of a Komodo dragon by Caldey.  A close-up view of the head of the Komodo dragon snow drawing.

Picture Credit: Caldey

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“With the recent snowfalls in the UK, we have seen lots of pictures of snowmen on social media, but we can’t recall ever seeing a Komodo dragon before.  Our congratulations to Caldey for her clever and innovative use of “solid precipitation”.  We suspect there are not many gardens graced with drawings of lizards.”

Sadly, given the vagaries of the British weather, the Komodo dragon will not be on view for very long.

1 01, 2021

A Trio of Rebor Oddities G-2016 Embryos

By | January 1st, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

A Trio of Rebor Oddities G-2016 Embryos

Time to start the New Year (2021) with a bang!  At midnight on the 31st December, Everything Dinosaur made the three new Rebor Oddities (Rebor Oddities Specimens: G-2016 Embryos), available for pre-order.  These innovative, science-fiction/fantasy pieces have already attracted a lot of interest from model collectors and dinosaur fans.  In a co-ordinated post with Rebor, customers of Everything Dinosaur are able to guarantee themselves one of these figures.

Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Resinite

Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Resinite

The Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Resinite.  The embryo of the fantasy creature with the code name G-2016 is entombed in resinite.  The hand-written note inscribed on the piece reads “Rebor Oddities confidential collection.”

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Rebor Oddities Specimens

The Rebor Oddities sub-brand has introduced to collectors a wide variety of innovative items.  The first to be introduced was the “Fossil Studies” Tylosaurus proriger skeleton incorporated within its own light-up display base.  This figure was swiftly followed by the beautiful “Chickenosaurus” embryo model.  Recently a trio of museum quality dinosaur fossil skulls have been introduced and followers of Everything Dinosaur on social media will know that later on this year the Compsognathus longipes preserved dissection specimens will be coming into stock.

The Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Bakelite

Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Bakelite.

The Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Bakelite.  A limited number of these fascinating figures have been made and collectors are urged to place pre-orders quickly in order to avoid disappointment.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Limited Numbers Available

In a statement put out by Rebor on social media, they have explained that pre-ordering will only be available for a few days.  Rebor went onto add that all three variants (Bakelite, Epoxide and Resinite), are extremely limited due to the high manufacturing defect rates, so a restricted number have been produced.  It is not known at this stage whether or not there will be another production run in the future.

The Stunning Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Epoxide

Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Epoxide.

The Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Epoxide.  All three variants pay homage to a famous fictional monster (Kaiju), that first appeared in a Japanese film made in 1954.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Model Measurements

Each carefully crafted figure measures approximately 18.5 cm long.  They stand a fraction over 10.5 cm tall and the block which holds the embryo model is 3 cm deep.  Each of these clever replicas helps to showcase the innovative approach taken by Rebor.  They will provide a talking point and a highlight within a collection.

Everything Dinosaur estimates that each model will be available to send out to customers in late March.

An Embryo is Outlined in Silhouette

Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Bakelite (silhouette).

The Rebor Oddities Specimen: G-2016 Embryo in Bakelite (silhouette).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view these amazing new models and to pre-order them visit: Rebor Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals.

31 12, 2020

ITOY Studio Paraceratherium Product Testing

By | December 31st, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

ITOY Studio Paraceratherium Product Testing

Everything Dinosaur promised the company’s Facebook, Twitter and other social media fans/followers an update on the amazing ITOY Studio Paraceratherium figure before the end of the year (2020).  True to our word, we have posted up a short video on the Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel.  In the video, the narrator explains about product testing for these prehistoric animal replicas and if all goes to plan, the Paraceratherium models will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur early in 2021.

ITOY Studio Paraceratherium Product Testing

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Quick YouTube Paraceratherium Preview

Before Everything Dinosaur can bring the ITOY Studio Paraceratherium models into stock, the figures have to pass product safety tests, but this doesn’t stop us giving you a quick preview of the Paraceratherium.  In the video we showcase both variants:

  • ITOY Studio Paraceratherium – Deluxe (model supplied with polystone display base)
  • ITOY Studio Paraceratherium – Elite (model supplied without polystone display base)

The Paraceratherium Model with Display Base (Deluxe)

The Deluxe ITOY Studio Paraceratherium replica (with display base).

The ITOY Paraceratherium model (Deluxe) is supplied with a polystone display base.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

What a fantastic model it is!  The detail on the figure is simple amazing!  It is incredibly life-life with beautiful skin folds and creases.  It is big too, the model measures over 40 cm long and the display base is a generous 32 cm in length and over 14 cm wide.

Works with 1:20 Scale Replicas

Although no scale is declared for this figure, based on an adult Paraceratherium being around 8 metres in length with a height at the withers (just behind the shoulders), of 4.5 metres, Everything Dinosaur team members estimate that this replica is in approximately 1:20 scale.  So, it will work well with lots of other prehistoric mammal models, which are in the same or similar scale such as Mastodons, Mammoths, Sabre-toothed cats and Hyaenodonts.

Once Product Testing Has Been Completed Everything Dinosaur Intends to Bring this Figure into Stock

The ITOY Studio Paraceratherium.

A view of the eagerly anticipated ITOY Studio Paraceratherium model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Product Testing

As the authorised European importers of the ITOY Studio range, Everything Dinosaur has commissioned product safety tests with the highly respected Eurofins (independent testing company).  Once these tests have been completed and the ITOY Studio figures certified, Everything Dinosaur intends to bring these spectacular models into stock.

A spokesperson for Everything Dinosaur stated that they hoped that the test results would be available in a few days, once certified, the Paraceratherium figures would be available early in 2021.

To view the current range of ITOY Studio figures available from Everything Dinosaur: ITOY Studio Prehistoric Animals.

To visit the YouTube channel of Everything Dinosaur: Subscribe to Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

30 12, 2020

Serrated Teeth – Mammal Lineage Got There First!

By | December 30th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Study Suggests Ziphodont Dentition Appeared First in Synapsids

If we ever get back into cinemas (the ravages of COVID-19 notwithstanding), if the latest instalment of the “Jurassic Park/Jurassic World” franchise ever gets released, then movie goers will be treated to lots of scenes of scary-looking meat-eating dinosaurs flashing their huge teeth in their cavernous mouths at their luckless human victims.  Huge theropod dinosaurs such as Acrocanthosaurus, Giganotosaurus and T. rex might be famous for their big teeth, with serrations running along the edges, after all, we have all heard and probably used the term “steak knives”  to describe the shape of tyrannosaur teeth, but new research published in Biology Letters suggest that it was those tetrapods that were eventually to lead to the mammalian lineage that evolved such specialised tearing and cutting teeth first.

Theropod Dinosaurs Are Famous for Their Teeth Adapted to Cutting and Tearing Flesh

PNSO A-shu the Qianzhousaurus dinosaur model has an articulated jaw.

The PNSO A-shu the Qianzhousaurus dinosaur model has an articulated jaw.  The tyrannosaurid Qianzhousaurus has the typical serrated and blade-like teeth of a carnivorous dinosaur (ziphodont dentition).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Ziphodont Dentition

Teeth that are laterally compressed, pointed and have serrated edges are known as ziphodont teeth (ziphodont dentition).  The teeth of Theropoda, the only clade of predominantly predatory dinosaurs, are characterised by ziphodonty, the presence of serrations (denticles) on their cutting edges (carinae).  Today, such dentition is only found in monitor lizards (varanids) but the fossil record reveals that this condition was much more pervasive in the past.

A team of researchers from Harvard University (USA), in collaboration with colleagues based at the universities of Manitoba, Alberta and Ontario (Canada), examined and compared the teeth from four types of extinct prehistoric hypercarnivore (an animal that gets at least 70% of its nutrition from the consumption of the flesh of other animals).

The teeth studied were:

  • Tyrannosaurid tooth from the Dinosaur Provincial Park (Alberta, Canada) – a Late Cretaceous tyrannosaur tooth which is approximately 75 million years old.
  • Dimetrodon grandis tooth (synapsid, pelycosaur) from the Arroyo Formation Texas, USA) which is approximately 275 million years old.
  • A tooth from the Permian gorgonopsid Lycaenops ornatus from the Upper Permian Madumabisa Mudstone Formation of Zambia.  A synapsid (Therapsida) that lived approximately 265 million years ago.
  • An upper canine tooth from Smilodon fatalis a member of the Felidae (cat family).  The tooth comes from the Talara “tar pits” of Peru.  The youngest tooth in the research circa 13,000 years old.

The scientists identified the same denticles and interdental folds forming the cutting edges in the teeth of the Permian gorgonopsid (L. ornatus), as those seen in members of the Theropoda.  The researchers conclude that these tooth features, specifically adaptations to assist with the processing of meat, first appeared in the non-mammalian synapsids.  Comparisons of tooth serrations in gorgonopsians with those of earlier synapsids and hyper carnivorous mammals reveal that some gorgonopsians acquired a complex tissue arrangement that differed from other synapsids,

Plotting the Serrations in Non-mammalian Synapsids

Plotting the serrations in gorgonopsids.

The skull of the gorgonopsid Lycaenops ornatus (a), serrations on the canine (b) and (c) serrations on the incisors in the premaxilla.

Picture Credit: Whitney et al (Biology Letters)

In 2015, Everything Dinosaur published an article on research into the Theropoda that looked specifically at the interdental folds associated with their teeth.

To read this article: Research to Get Your Teeth Into.

For an article from 2014 that looked at the ziphodont teeth of members of the Dimetrodon genus: Dimetrodon with “Steak Knife” Teeth.

Convergent Evolution

This new study demonstrates that similar types of teeth evolved in different types of hypercarnivores that were not closely related.  This is an example of convergent evolution and the ziphodont teeth of the non-mammalian synapsids represent the earliest record of this adaptation and indicate that the first iteration of this morphological feature appeared long before the Dinosauria evolved.

High Magnification Images Showing the Morphology of the Carinae (Cutting Edges)

Looking at the inter-dental folds in non-mammalian synapsids.

Thin section through distal serrations of NHCC LB334 displaying both interdental folds and denticles (d).  Dashed box indicates location of high magnification images in both plain (e) and cross polarized light (f).  Both (e) and (f) highlight features of the denticles and interdental folds including the enamel spindles that cross the enamel.

Picture Credit: Whitney et al (Biology Letters)

The scientific paper: “Convergent dental adaptations in the serrations of hypercarnivorous synapsids and dinosaurs” by M. R. Whitney, A. R. H. LeBlanc, A. R. Reynolds and K. S. Brink published in Biology Letters.

29 12, 2020

Everything Dinosaur Offers New Tracked Postal Service for EU Customers

By | December 29th, 2020|Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|3 Comments

Everything Dinosaur Offers New Tracked Postal Service for EU Customers

For the UK, the Brexit transition period comes to an end at 11pm GMT (midnight Central European Standard Time) on the 31st December (2020).  The UK has already formally left the European Union, this took place at 11pm (GMT) on the 31st January 2020 (midnight  Central European Standard Time), however, a period of eleven months was granted in order to help all parties prepare for the change.

At the end of the transition period, the rules which apply to non-EU imports will be extended to EU items.  Similarly, the European Union will treat UK imports as it does non-EU imports today.

The UK Leaves the European Union Transition Period at 11pm on 31st December

Updating customers about leaving the EU.

Everything Dinosaur updates its customers about preparations for the UK leaving the European Union.

Picture Credit: Reuters News Agency

What Does This Mean for Everything Dinosaur Customers in Europe?

Items sent in the post to customers in the European Union will be affected.  However, Everything Dinosaur has been working with the highly respected OCS Worldwide, the global courier and logistics network to minimise any potential customer inconvenience.

Now that the UK has left the European Union/customs union, firms supplying European customers can offer two types of mail order parcel delivery:

  1. The buyer pays VAT and any duties and this may include a carding fee (administration fee).  This is termed Delivery at Place (DAP), sometimes referred to as DDU.
  2. The seller ensures that the customer pays the appropriate VAT rate for their country at the point of purchase but the seller picks up any additional costs, tariffs and duties.  This is termed Delivery Duty Paid (DDP).

Everything Dinosaur Will Offer Delivery Duty Paid (DDP)

Everything Dinosaur offers DDP (Delivery Duty Paid).

Everything Dinosaur will be offering customers a hassle-free, delivery duty paid mail order service.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Offering a Variety of Postage Services

For the vast majority of EU member states, Everything Dinosaur is able to make use of a special airmail service for small items, but customers will also be able select a fully tracked, rapid delivery service which places the emphasis on Everything Dinosaur (the seller), to take care of customs duties and any customs clearance fees.

Depending on the country of destination, Everything Dinosaur customers will have a range of postage options available to them:

  • Special Airmail below £20 incl. shipping (3-5 Working Days) Duty Exempt
  • Special Airmail below £20 incl. shipping (4-7 Working Days) Duty Exempt
  • Tracked (3-5 Working Days) Delivered Duty Paid (DDP)
  • Tracked (4-7 Working Days) Delivered Duty Paid (DDP)

Other companies, whether based in Europe or in the UK may not offer such a high quality service.  They may be relying on import VAT, customs duties and any customs clearance fees to be collected by the receiving designated operator using the Delivery Duties Unpaid (DDU) process prior to delivery.  Ultimately, before a customer can receive their parcel they may be asked to pay extra duties plus a hefty administration fee.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“It is our intention to make it easy for buyers, with Everything Dinosaur taking responsibility for the import costs and duties.  By offering a Delivery Duty Paid service, our customers can be confident that their orders will be received without any nasty surprises.  We have done all we can to help our customers and to make shopping with Everything Dinosaur easier than ever.”

The new Delivery Duty Paid (DDP) postage option offers terrific value for customers as well as peace of mind.  This new delivery option is typical of the high standards expected of Everything Dinosaur customer service.

28 12, 2020

Favourite Blog Posts of 2020 (Part 2)

By | December 28th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos, Photos/Pictures of Fossils, Press Releases|0 Comments

Favourite Blog Posts of 2020 (Part 2)

Everything Dinosaur team members conclude their review of their favourite blog articles of 2020 by looking at articles and news stories that were posted up between July and December.  With the best part of 180 posts to choose from selecting our favourite six for this period was quite tricky.  The ones we have selected demonstrate the broad range of topics we cover on the Everything Dinosaur weblog.

To view our earlier article about our favourite posts in the first half of the year: Favourite Blog Posts of 2020 (Part 1).

July – “Lizard Born of Fire”

We might have been in the middle of a global pandemic but Everything Dinosaur team members kept up their blogging reporting upon tiny theropod eggs from Japan, a revision of Dilophosaurus and a number of new dinosaurs.  Our favourite post of the month concerned the scientific description of Aratasaurus museunacionali, a basal member of the Coelurosauria from Brazil.  The genus name translates as “lizard born of fire”, a reference to the terrible fire that ripped through the National Museum of Brazil where the fossil specimen was kept.

A Life Reconstruction of the Basal Member of the Coelurosauria Aratasaurus museunacionali

Aratasaurus museonacionali illustration.

Aratasaurus museonacionali life reconstruction.

Picture Credit: Museu Nacional

To read more about A. museunacionaliAratasaurus museunacionali A Lizard Born of Fire.

August – Oculudentavis khaungraae Not a Stem Bird

The controversy over the naming of the smallest dinosaur based on a skull preserved in amber from northern Myanmar rumbled on.  In August, a paper was published that refuted claims that the tiny skull of the animal named Oculudentavis khaungraae was that of an archosaur.  A month earlier (July 2020), the original scientific paper describing this remarkable fossil was retracted.

The Tiny Fossil Skull Preserved in Amber from Myanmar – But is it a Dinosaur?

Oculudentavis khaungraae skull in amber.

Tiny fossil skull preserved in amber (Oculudentavis khaungraae).

 

Picture Credit: Lida Xing et al (Nature)

To read more about O. khaungraaeSmallest Dinosaur Preserved in Amber a Lizard.

September: Doctor Who Meets a Trilobite

The Oxford University Museum of Natural History celebrated its 160th birthday, the Monsters of the Deep exhibition opened in the midst of the chaos caused by COVID-19 and Euparkeria got a makeover. Our favourite post of September concerned a new species of trilobite (Gravicalymene bakeri) from Tasmanian that was named after Doctor Who actor Tom Baker.

A Photograph of a Gravicalymene bakeri Trilobite Fossil with Line Drawing

Gravicalymene bakeri trilobite fossil.

Gravicalymene bakeri trilobite fossil with line drawing.

Picture Credit: Australian Museum

To read more about “Doctor Who and the Trilobites”: Newly Described Species of Trilobite Named after Doctor Who Actor.

October – It’s a Dog’s Life

In October we reported on the mapping of the genome of the Scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium latidens, discussed a new species of mosasaur from Morocco and the diet of pterosaurs, but our favourite article concerned the research into ancient dog DNA.  The study suggested that the diversity observed between dogs in different parts of the world today originated when all of mankind were hunters and gatherers.

Mapping Ancient Doggy DNA

Mapping ancient dog DNA.

Mesolithic dog skull (left) compared to wolf skull (right).

Picture Credit: E. E. Antipina (Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences)

To read the article: DNA Study Highlights Ancient Relationship Between Humans and Dogs.

November – Dinosaurs from the Emerald Isle

In November, Everything Dinosaur celebrated publishing its 5,000 blog post, discussed Kholumolumo a dinosaur from an African rubbish dump, looked at seal evolution and got to grips with the earliest Paranthropus robustus skull described to date.

Our favourite post concerned the first dinosaur remains reported from Ireland, not just one dinosaur but two!

First Evidence of Dinosaurs from Ireland

Dr Mike Simms holds the two precious fossils.

Dr Mike Simms (National Museums Northern Ireland) holds the theropod tibia on the left and the thyreophoran femur on the right.

Picture Credit: The University of Portsmouth

To learn more about the Irish dinosaurs: The First Dinosaur Remains from Ireland.

December – Thalassodraco etchesi Swims into View

As the year closed, in the final month of 2020 we looked at how interactive “I-books” were helping to explain archaeology, examined a very flashy new dinosaur (U. jubatus), the first sauropod dinosaur from Switzerland (Amanzia greppini) and studied Parasaurolophus pathology.

Our favourite post concerned the establishment of a new species of Late Jurassic ichthyosaur after the discovery of fossil bones by the wonderful Dr Steve Etches MBE, the founder of the amazing Etches Collection museum in Dorset.

A Life Reconstruction of the Newly Described Thalassodraco etchesi

Thalassodraco etchesi life reconstruction.

A life reconstruction of the newly described Late Jurassic ichthyosaur Thalassodraco etchesi.

Picture Credit: Megan Jacobs/University of Portsmouth

To read more about Thalassodraco etchesi: A New Taxon of Late Jurassic Ichthyosaur is Described.

This concludes our review of the blog posts that we have researched and written up over the last twelve months.  Which one is your favourite?

27 12, 2020

Favourite Blog Posts of 2020 (Part 1)

By | December 27th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos, Photos/Pictures of Fossils, Press Releases|0 Comments

Favourite Blog Posts of 2020 (Part 1)

At Everything Dinosaur, we try and post up an article on this blog site every single day.  This can be quite a challenge considering all our other activities and projects.  However, as a result of our work on this weblog we have managed to compile a huge amount of information, articles and features chronicling (for the most part), advances in the Earth sciences and new fossil discoveries along with research into the Dinosauria.

This year, Everything Dinosaur’s blog has passed the 5,000 articles benchmark.  Here is a selection of our own favourite news stories that we have covered in the first six months of 2020 (January to June).

January – A New Allosaurus Taxon

In January, a new species of North American Allosaurus was added to the pantheon of dinosaurs known from the famous Morrison Formation of the western United States.  Allosaurus jimmadseni honours the sadly departed James H. Madsen Jr. Utah’s inaugural state palaeontologist.  The famous Allosaurus specimen MOR 693 “Big Al” was reassigned to this new species.

A Pack of Allosaurus (A. jimmadseni) Attack a Luckless Juvenile Sauropod

Allosaurus jimmadseni a new Allosaurus taxon is described.

A pack of allosaurs (A. jimmadseni) attacking a juvenile sauropod.

Picture Credit: Todd Marshall

The January Allosaurus article: A New Species of Allosaurus.

February – The “Father of Argentinian Palaeontology” – José Bonaparte

On the 18th February José Bonaparte, regarded by many as the most influential vertebrate palaeontologist of the 20th Century passed away.  Respected and admired, José helped to develop and train a whole new generation of Earth scientists.  He was also responsible for naming and describing a large number of new dinosaurs including Abelisaurus, hence our illustration of that South American theropod (below).

José Bonaparte and a Drawing of One of the Many Dinosaurs He Named and Described (Abelisaurus comahuensis)

Lamenting the death of José Bonaparte (February 2020).

José Bonaparte (inset) and a drawing of one of the dinosaurs he named in his long and distinguished career Abelisaurus (A. comahuensis).

Picture Credit: Télam/Everything Dinosaur

To read more about José Bonaparte: José Bonaparte – The Founding Father of Palaeontology in Argentina.

March – Telling the Time Back in the Cretaceous

As the COVID-19 pandemic took hold, team members at Everything Dinosaur were distracted by some remarkable research undertaken by scientists from the University of Ghent and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

A study of the growth rings preserved on the fossilised shells of Cretaceous bivalves permitted the researchers to calculate that 70 million years ago, the day length was approximately thirty minutes shorter and a year on Earth was around a week longer than it is today.

To read this article: Telling the Time Back in the Cretaceous.

April – Homo erectus at Home in Africa

The remarkable Drimolen fossil hominin site in South Africa, provided palaeoanthropologists with likely confirmation that the hominin H. erectus did indeed evolve in Africa and not Asia.  A carefully and painstakingly reconstructed fossil skull (DNH 134), found in this area – regarded as the “Cradle of Humankind”, suggests that Homo erectus existed some 100,000 to 200,000 years earlier than previously realised.

We still have a lot to learn about our own evolution.

Homo erectus Evolved in Africa

Partial H. erectus cranium from the Drimolen Fossil Hominin site.

The partial H. erectus cranium from the Drimolen Fossil Hominin site.

Picture Credit: La Trobe University (Australia)

To learn more about the origins of Homo erectusH. erectus Originated in Africa.

May – Lots of Pterosaurs

A jawbone found on the Isle of Wight was identified as a new species of tapejarid pterosaur.  The flying reptile, named Wightia declivirostris which translates as “slanting beak from the Isle of Wight” was one of several new pterosaur species described in 2020.

A Life Reconstruction of the Early Cretaceous Pterosaur Wightia declivirostris

Wightia declivirostris from the Isle of Wight

A life reconstruction of the newly described tapejarid from the Lower Cretaceous of the Isle of Wight (Wightia declivirostris).

Picture Credit: Megan Jacobs (University of Portsmouth)

To read more about Wightia declivirostrisA New Terrific Tapejarid.

We have a lot more to learn about the Pterosauria too.

June – Fossilised Stick – Provides a Surprise

A fossil discovered more than fifty years ago and regarded as little more than a “fossilised stick” has proved to be a new species of Late Devonian plant and it will help scientists to better understand the flora of the ancient landmass of Gondwana.

The specimen was found by amateur geologist John Irving whilst exploring the banks of the Manilla River in Barraba (New South Wales, Australia).  A study in the open-access journal PeerJ identifies the newly named Keraphyton mawsoniae and proposes that it has a similar structure to primitive horsetails and ferns.  The fossil which looks so unremarkable on the outside, once studied in cross-section, has provided a unique window into the plant life on Earth around 360 million years ago.

Not Much to Look at on the Outside but Inside a Treasure Trove of Information for Palaeobotanists

Keraphyton mawsoniae fossil.

The newly described Keraphyton mawsoniae a fern-like land plant from the Late Devonian of Australia.

Picture Credit: Champreux et al (PeerJ)

To read more about K. mawsoniaeFossil Stick Proves to be New Species of Ancient Plant.

This selection represents some of our favourite blog posts from the first six months of 2020, which one is your favourite post?

We will conclude this review of the news stories we have covered on this blog in part 2.

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