All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
/Main Page
23 06, 2017

Key Stage 1 Learn About Dinosaur Geography

By | June 23rd, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Educational Activities, Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

Dinosaurs Help Children Learn About the Continents

The national curriculum in England for children in Key Stage 1 states that pupils should know the location of the seven continents and they should be able to name them along with the five oceans. A requirement of this area of the curriculum (geography), is that children should develop locational knowledge. Everything Dinosaur has developed a dinosaur based geography exercise that helps with the teaching of this topic. It uses children’s pre-knowledge about prehistoric animals and their enthusiasm for dinosaurs to help them learn and recognise the location of the different continents.

Everything Dinosaur – Using Dinosaurs to Help Children Learn about the Location of the Continents

Dinosaur geography exercise.

Key Stage 1 – dinosaurs and geography exercise.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Demonstrating Learning and Linking Subject Areas

Palaeontologists have found dinosaur fossils on all seven continents.  Dinosaurs even roamed Antarctica, although, in the past, due to higher levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and other factors, the landmass we now know as Antarctica was much warmer than it is today.  Using a child’s fascination for prehistoric animals, Everything Dinosaur has developed a dinosaur geography based lesson.  Can the children identify where in the world different dinosaurs lived?

Palaeontologists Have Found Dinosaur Fossils in Antarctica

Fossil hunting in Antarctica.

Isolated and very difficult to reach – fossil hunting in Antarctica.

Picture Credit: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History

A Dinosaur Geography Exercise

Our comprehensive lesson plan provides the teaching team with simple instructions and the only resources required are a map of the world as it is today, some round-ended scissors to cut out the various dinosaurs from the worksheets and some sticky tape to secure the dinosaur in the correct place on the map.  The Everything Dinosaur geography exercise asks children to place a total of twenty-five different dinosaurs onto the various continents where the dinosaur’s fossils have been found.  Two of the dinosaurs have to be placed on the continent of Antarctica, the armoured herbivorous dinosaur Antarctopelta and the fearsome, meat-eating dinosaur Cryolophosaurus.

To read an article about Cryolophosaurus, a dinosaur that lived in Antarctica: Twenty Years of Studying the Antarctic Dinosaur Cryolophosaurus

Twenty-five Dinosaurs – Can the Children Find the Continent Where Their Fossils Have Been Discovered?

Dinosaur geography exercise.

A selection of prehistoric animals in the dinosaur geography exercise.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Learning About Where Famous Dinosaurs Lived

The national curriculum demands that pupils should develop a knowledge about planet Earth.  Within a dinosaur topic, learning about where well-known dinosaurs lived enables the teaching team to link this subject to the aims and objectives of the geography section.  Dinosaurs can help children learn the names and location of the seven continents and the five oceans.  Introducing famous fossil hunters such as Mary Anning and Sir Richard Owen can help children locate places in the UK where fossils have been found.

Everything Dinosaur’s geography exercise challenges Key Stage 1 pupils to place on a map of the world where famous dinosaurs like Triceratops, Stegosaurus and Tyrannosaurus rex lived.

For further information about Everything Dinosaur’s dinosaur workshops in schools: Dinosaur Workshops in School

To read ratings and feedback from teachers about Everything Dinosaur’s school workshops: Feedback and Ratings from Teachers

22 06, 2017

Baru – New Information on Australia’s Ancient “Super Croc”

By | June 22nd, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

New Specimens of Extinct Crocodylian Baru Described

Australia might be home to some very unusual flora and fauna, but ever since the break-up of the ancient super-continent of Gondwana and the resulting separation of Australia from Antarctica during the Late Cretaceous, this substantial landmass has been isolated.  This isolation has enabled the development of unique ecosystems, many of which included super-sized animals much larger than those found in Australia today.

A paper published in the on-line open access journal PeerJ provides new information on one such ancient Australian resident, a genus of broad-snouted crocodile that probably specialised in ambushing large vertebrates, a formidable predator of prehistoric Australia.  The scientific paper describes new specimens of an extinct crocodylian genus Baru.  One species, Baru wickeni was previously only known from fossil material collected from the famous Riversleigh World Heritage area in Queensland.  However, the paper describes new B. wickeni fossil discoveries from a site approximately twenty-five miles south of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory.  Thus, the known range for Baru wickeni has been extended.

A Reconstruction of the Large Prehistoric Crocodile Baru wickeni

The ancient Australian crocodile Baru wickeni

A life reconstruction of the broad-snouted ancient crocodylian Baru wickeni.

Picture Credit: Paul Willis

In addition, the paper documents the species of another member of the Baru genus – Baru darrowi.  B. darrowi was previously only known from the Bullock Creek site in the Northern Territory, but fossils of this reptile have also been found in the Riversleigh World Heritage area.  Thus, the range of this species has been extended too.

Baru- Formidable Ancient Aussie Croc

Crocodiles assigned to the Baru genus were formidable, large predators equivalent in length to a fully-grown, extant Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).  The skull was much more robust, the snout was broader and the head was deeper.  Furthermore, the teeth were proportionately bigger and the jaws were powered by particularly massive muscles.  Today’s “Salties” are extremely dangerous and they do attack large vertebrates including people when the opportunity arises, but mostly these crocodiles, the largest living reptiles, subsist on prey much smaller than themselves such as fish and turtles.

The skull and jaw adaptations of Baru indicate that this crocodylian was specialised towards subsisting on large vertebrate prey (animals of similar size to itself), ambushing its victims close to water sources.  In outward appearance Baru would have resembled a modern crocodile, but the deeper head and alligator-like overbite would have been more pronounced.

The Significance of the Scientific Paper

Author, Adam Yates, (Senior Curator of Earth Sciences at the Museum of Central Australia, part of the Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory), has established that these two species (B. wickeni and B. darrowi) had much wider geographic ranges that in all likelihood encompassed the northern third to half of the continent.  These two species, however, did not compete with each other, as they were separated in geological time.  Baru wickeni lived earlier, its fossils date from the Late Oligocene Epoch (about 25 million years ago).  In contrast, Baru darrowi lived more recently, its remains are associated with Middle Miocene Epoch deposits (approximately 13 million years old).

A Skull of Baru wickeni from the Riversleigh World Heritage Site (Queensland)

B. wickeni skull.

A skull of the prehistoric crocodile Baru wickeni.

Picture Credit: Adam Yates

The picture (above) shows a new skull (dorsal view) of B. wickeni excavated from Riversleigh World Heritage area deposits.  This skull represents the most complete skull of any Baru species described to date, full details can be found in the scientific paper: PeerJ Paper

Helping to Map the Timespan of Australia’s Cenozoic Terrestrial Vertebrate Fossil Sites

The Cenozoic vertebrate fossil assemblages of Australia have proved troublesome to date accurately due to the vast distances evolved between sites and their temporal isolation.  As these species of crocodiles have broad geographical ranges but relatively constrained chronological timespans, these fossils may be helpful when it comes to determining the age of some vertebrate fossil sites in Australia where there is no radiometrically dateable material and no associated mammal fossils that would normally assist with relative dating.

Another interesting implication from this paper is the presence of Baru wickeni from south of Alice Springs in what was then (and still is now) part of the Lake Eyre drainage system.  Previously Baru was known only from coastally draining marginal areas of northern Australia, while rocks of the same age in the Lake Eyre Basin of South Australia produced a distinctly different type of extinct crocodile called Australosuchus.  It was therefore suggested that Australosuchus was a denizen of the internally draining rivers of central Australia while Baru lurked in the northern fringes in rivers that drained to the north coast.  The presence of Baru wickeni south of Alice Springs, in what is part of the Lake Eyre Basin, disproves this hypothesis.  Instead the pattern may be the result of palaeolatitude, and consequently climate, with Australosuchus potentially being more tolerant of cooler conditions and subsequently occupying the cool south and Baru in the warmer northern part of the continent.

The scientific paper: “The biochronology and palaeobiogeography of Baru (Crocodylia: Mekosuchinae) based on new specimens from the Northern Territory and Queensland, Australia” by Adam Yates, published in PeerJ.

Our thanks to Adam Yates and the Museum and Art Gallery Northern Territory for the compilation of this article.

21 06, 2017

Tyrannosaur Skull from British Columbia

By | June 21st, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Hiker Finds Part of a Tyrannosaur Skull Near Tumbler Ridge

Fossil hunter Rick Lambert was hiking in the Tumbler Ridge area of British Columbia when he spotted an unusual object partially exposed in a large rock.  It turns out the eagle-eyed chiropractor from Vancouver Island had found the maxilla bone from a Tyrannosaur skull.    The maxilla is part of the upper jaw, this fossil and the teeth/teeth sockets that it contains, can help palaeontologists to identify the type of dinosaur down to genus level.  This is the first dinosaur skull fossil material to have been found in this area and although the one-hundred-kilogram rock containing the fossil is not part of the local strata, it was probably moved to the site as part of a landscaping project, it’s discovery could help scientists to better understand the geographic distribution of a genus of Tyrannosaur from the Late Cretaceous.

The Tumbler Ridge Tyrannosaur Skull Fossil (Maxilla)

Tumbler Ridge Tyrannosaur upper jaw fossil.

A view of the Tumbler Ridge Tyrannosaur jaw fossil.

Picture Credit: The Canadian Pres/HO/Richard McCrea

A Significant Tyrannosaur Fossil Find

Large Theropod footprints have been found in the Tumbler Ridge area in the past, indeed, this location has provided the palaeontologists based at the Peace Region Palaeontology Research Centre, which was established back in 2003 to study the fossils, with hundreds of dinosaur teeth, fragmentary bones as well as the remarkable trace fossils, but this upper jaw bone could be a real game changer for the region.

The director of the Peace Region Palaeontology Research Centre, Richard McCrea commented:

“We are in a frontier in British Columbia because there’s been no research in this area.  This is quite a jump for us.”

Having studied and worked in geology, Rick Lambert knew he had found something significant, but he had no idea how important his fossil find could prove to be.  Rick was used to finding fossils in the area, but he wasn’t expecting to find a bone from the skull of a Theropod dinosaur, a skull that would have measured more than a metre in length.

Rick explained:

“I never expected to find something like that.  It’s not anything I actually kept my eye out for.  I thought at least they would have four or five of those in a drawer somewhere.”

An Illustration of a Typical Tyrannosaur Skull Showing the Location of the Maxilla Bone

Outline of skull showing location of maxilla.

A diagram of a typical Tyrannosaur showing the location of the maxilla.

Picture Credit: The Peace Region Palaeontology Research Centre

McCrea said finding this specific piece of bone is significant because it can be used to determine the type of Tyrannosaur it originated from.  Elements from the skull can be very helpful when it comes to identifying dinosaurs, however, the sandstone rock in which the fossil was found rules out a Tyrannosaurus rex.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur explained:

“The Cretaceous-aged exposures in this area, mostly date from the Upper Cretaceous but they are nowhere near young enough to permit the preservation of a T. rex or any close relative of that iconic dinosaur.  The sandstone block containing the fossil material is very similar in composition to nearby deposits that are around 74-75 million years old, many millions of  years younger than the Cenomanian/Turonian strata from this locality.  The sandstone dates from the Campanian, so the maxilla very probably comes from a member of the Tyrannosauridae family that lived during that time – something like an Albertosaurus or perhaps a large Gorgosaurus.”

From a Large Tyrannosaur

Roughly shaped like a reversed capital “C”, the fossil measures between 30 to 40 centimetres in length and is around 25 centimetres wide.  It is a sizeable bone, indicating that this belonged to a very large Tyrannosaur, something in excess of eight metres in length.  Local palaeontologists calculate that the entire skull of this Theropod, if it could be found, would measure over a metre.

The curator and collections manager at the Peace Region Palaeontology Research Centre, Dr Lisa Buckley commented:

“The exposed maxilla and teeth are eroded, but their shape is perfectly preserved, including fine details of the delicate serrations that form the cutting edge of the teeth. The specimen has twelve teeth evident, with the potential to expose more.  The tooth count and tooth shape make it likely that this is part of the skull of a tyrannosaurid like Albertosaurus, and is probably around 75 million years old.  We aim to establish the point of origin of this rock.”

A View of One of the Teeth Associated with the Jaw Fossil

Tumbler Ridge Tyrannosaur fossil tooth.

A close up of a Tyrannosaur tooth found in association with the maxilla bone at Tumbler Ridge (British Columbia).  The tooth serrations can be clearly seen.

Picture Credit: The Peace Region Palaeontology Research Centre

The forested terrain, steep gullies and lack of roads in this part of British Columbia makes prospecting for fossils quite challenging, however, field team members and volunteers can study the sandstone formation from which the block came from in the hope of finding more elements from the skull.

An Illustration of a Typical Tyrannosaurid (Albertosaurus)

Albertosaurus illustrated.

An illustration of Albertosaurus sarcophagus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To read an article about Theropod dinosaur prints found in the Tumbler Ridge area: Dinosaur Footprint Discovered in British Columbia

20 06, 2017

Year 2 Learn About Dinosaurs and Fossils

By | June 20th, 2017|Educational Activities, Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

Hedgehog, Squirrel and Deer Study Dinosaurs

Children in Hedgehog, Deer and Squirrel classes (Year 2), at Newport Infant School have been busy learning all about fossils, dinosaurs and life in the past.  A member of the Everything Dinosaur teaching team was invited into the school to conduct fossil themed workshops and to help the children explore what studying prehistoric life can tell us about animals and plants that are alive today.  How can we help animals and plants that currently share our planet with us avoid extinction?

A Stegosaurus Dinosaur Model on Display in the Classroom

Stegosaurus dinosaur model.

Stegosaurus model on display.

Picture Credit: Deer Class (Newport Infant School)

Herbivores, Carnivores and Omnivores

As part of a rich, varied and challenging curriculum, the pupils have been reading “Dinosaurs and all that rubbish”, by Michael Foreman.  The teaching team, ably assisted by their teaching assistants had skilfully interwoven ideas about habitats and the diets of different animals into a wider theme looking at conservation and environmental issues.  Recently, the school had been home to some chickens, which the children now know are closely related to dinosaurs like Tyrannosaurus rex.  Just like birds, dinosaurs laid eggs and a model of a dinosaur’s egg had been brought into school.

A Colourful Dinosaur Egg in Deer Class

Cracking fun! Dinosaur egg models.

The big crack suggests that the dinosaur egg is about to hatch!

Picture Credit: Deer Class (Newport Infant School)

Half-Term Class Projects

The Year 2 children were set some special challenges over half-term.  Could they make a three-dimensional model of a prehistoric animal?  The dinosaur and prehistoric animal replicas made a fantastic display in the classroom, what an amazing collection of dinosaurs!

Children Created Their Very Own Dinosaurs

Children in Year 2 made dinosaur models.

Year 2 children made dinosaur models.

Picture Credit: Deer Class (Newport Infant School)

Many of the children’s models had been made from recycled household items.  By recycling paper, collecting rubbish, saving water and ensuring that lights are switched off, the children are helping to protect our planet and prevent the Earth from having the problems it had in the story book written by Michael Foreman.

Extension Activities

During the course of the day, the eager, young palaeontologists learned some amazing dinosaur facts and our fossil expert set them some “pinkie palaeontologist challenges” to help support the teaching team’s lesson planning.  There was even time for some questions with one of the classes at the end of the afternoon.

19 06, 2017

Volcanic Eruptions Heralded Dawn of the Dinosaurs

By | June 19th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page|0 Comments

End-Triassic Mass Extinction Triggered by Volcanic Activity

The demise of the dinosaurs some sixty-six million years ago has been well documented.  This mass extinction event and its impact on the Dinosauria has been seared into the public’s consciousness with all the intensity of an asteroid impact, however, the domination of terrestrial ecosystems by dinosaurs may have been assisted by a period of intense, global volcanic activity some two hundred million years ago.

Much of the Diverse Terrestrial Fauna of the Late Triassic Died Out

The diverse fauna of Triassic Argentina.

Diverse fauna of north-western Argentina in the Triassic.

Picture Credit: Victor Leshyk

A team of researchers based at British universities have found that huge pulses of volcanic activity are likely to have played a major role in triggering the end-Triassic mass extinction event.  The early dinosaurs survived and with a lot of the competition removed, the scene was set for the domination of life on land by this Order of reptiles.

Scientists from the University of Exeter in collaboration with colleagues from Southampton University and the Department of Earth Science at the University of Oxford have published a paper that looks at the world-wide impact of immense gas emissions as a result of volcanism and their link to the end-Triassic extinction event.

Life on Earth at the End of the Triassic

Some fifty million years or so, after the “Great Dying” – the end-Permian extinction event that saw the demise of some 95% of all life on our planet, the end-Triassic extinction event led to wholesale changes in global ecosystems.  Numerous food webs on land and in the sea collapsed and many different types of animals and plants were affected.

The Landscape of the Triassic

Triassic landscape.

Ecosystems that had recovered from the end-Permian extinction event were to be devastated once again at the end of the Triassic.

Major Casualties of the end-Triassic Extinction Event

  • Marine molluscs (especially gastropods and cephalopods)
  • Brachiopods
  • Bivalves
  • Marine sponges
  • Conodonts
  • Marine vertebrates – fish and many types of marine reptiles (a number of Ichthyosaur genera along with the extinction of the Placodonts and the Nothosauroidea)
  • Several families of Archosaurs along with mammal-like reptiles and numerous types of amphibians
  • Large numbers of plants especially within the Lycopodiopsida (club mosses) and the Sphenopsida (horse tails)

Writing in the academic journal “The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America”, the researchers conclude that huge volumes of volcanic gas had a dramatic effect on life on Earth and slowed the recovery of ecosystems afterwards.

A Large and Abrupt Release of Carbon Dioxide

Following the discovery of volcanic rocks of approximately the same age as the extinction event, huge amounts of volcanic carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted into the atmosphere had previously been suggested as an important contributor to this mass extinction event.  Previous studies had also shown that this intense volcanism might have occurred in phases, over tens of thousands of years, but the global extent and potential impact of these volcanic episodes had remained unknown.  Extensive areas of flood basalt, a consequence of the volcanic activity, built up across much of the super-continent of Pangaea, these basalts are now found on four continents, a consequence of plate tectonics and the break-up of Pangaea.  These deposits are known as the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP).

By studying the level of mercury found within sedimentary rocks formed during the extinction phase, the scientists were able to reveal clear links in the timing of the CAMP formation and the end-Triassic extinction.  The intense volcanic activity released mercury into the environment, which spread across the planet, before being locked away in sediments.  Any rocks formed during extensive volcanism would therefore have a higher than normal mercury content.

The research team studied sedimentary deposits from six locations (Austria, Argentina, Canada, Greenland, Morocco and the UK).  The levels of mercury were analysed and five of the six records showed a sizeable increase in the mercury content at the beginning of the end-Triassic extinction horizon.  Other peaks were observed between the start of the extinction event and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, which occurred around 200,000 years later.

The Researchers Studied Sedimentary Deposits from Morocco

Late Triassic sediments (Morocco).

Late Triassic sediments (Morocco) were part of the mercury study.

Picture Credit: Jessica Whiteside

The higher levels of mercury coincided with previously established increases in atmospheric CO2 levels.  The volcanism would have produced vast amounts of carbon dioxide that would have affected the gaseous content of the atmosphere and led to periods of global warming.

One of the authors of the scientific paper, geologist Professor Stephen Hesselbo (Camborne School of Mines at Exeter University) commented:

“This volcanic activity is strongly believed to have led to one of the largest extinction events in the Earth’s history which, in turn, paved the way for the era of the dinosaurs.  By studying the sediment deposits in Europe, South America, North America and Africa, we have been able to show a large increase in levels of mercury, which shows a clear link between this volcanic activity – specifically from very large lava flows – and the mass extinction in the era.  It’s a fascinating discovery that paves the way to enhance our understanding of this and other significant climate change events.”

In a press release, lead author Lawrence Percival, a geochemistry graduate student at Oxford University stated:

“These results strongly support repeated episodes of volcanic activity at the end of the Triassic, with the onset of volcanism during the end-Triassic extinction.  This research greatly strengthens the link between the Triassic mass extinction and volcanic emissions of CO2.  This, further evidence of episodic emissions of volcanic CO2 as the likely driver of the extinction, enhances our understanding of this event, and potentially of other climate change episodes in Earth’s history.”

To read a related article on the rise of the Dinosauria: Extreme Equatorial Climates Slowed the Rise of the Dinosaurs

18 06, 2017

Everything Dinosaur Continues to Top Feedback Charts

By | June 18th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur Highly Rated on FEEFO

Customers of Everything Dinosaur, the UK-based dinosaur company staffed by real dinosaur experts continue to rate the company’s products and customer service extremely highly.  The latest set of independent reviews published by FEEFO gives Everything Dinosaur a 4.9 rating out of 5 for customer service.

Everything Dinosaur Customer Service Rating by FEEFO (4.9 out of 5)

Everything Dinosaur rated very highly by FEEFO.

FEEFO customer service rating 4.9 out of 5 stars.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/FEEFO

To read all the FEEFO published reviews about Everything Dinosaur: Everything Dinosaur on FEEFO

Everything Dinosaur has a customer service rating of 4.9 out of 5 stars and a product rating of 4.8 out of 5 stars, that’s a 98% customer service rating and a 96% product rating respectively, very high marks indeed.

Everything Dinosaur Continues to Perform Exceptionally Well

Everything Dinosaur FEEFO rating.

Everything Dinosaur FEEFO ratings (mid June 2017).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/FEEFO

What is FEEFO?

FEEFO is an organisation that collects independent, verified reviews from customers.  These represent genuine feedback about Everything Dinosaur’s customer service and the products that it supplies on the company’s website: Everything Dinosaur’s Website.  Founded in 2010, FEEFO now provides rating information on over 2,500 organisations and on-line shoppers can rely on FEEFO for their transparency and honest feedback concerning a company.

A spokesperson for Everything Dinosaur commented:

 “We are grateful for all the feedback we get from our customers.  The FEEFO ratings provide visitors to our website with independent, impartial feedback about Everything Dinosaur’s products and the way in which we look after our customers.  Such feedback, reviews and comments can give site visitors confidence that when they make a purchase at Everything Dinosaur, no matter where they are in the world, they can be confident that they are dealing with a highly respected organisation and brand.”

The FEEFO feedback module was added to Everything Dinosaur, when the new, revised and updated website was launched back in February (2017).  In the eighteen weeks or so since the new website went live, the company has received over 132 customer reviews and 243 product reviews, of which only 4 reviews give products three-stars, the rest, (over 98%), are either five-star or four-star product ratings.

In addition, Everything Dinosaur has now logged 1,629 product reviews on its own website product pages.

Shopping for Dinosaur Models and Prehistoric Animal Toys

So, when shopping for dinosaur models and prehistoric animal toys, Everything Dinosaur would be a very good place to start!  Several hundred independent product and customer reviews suggest that Everything Dinosaur is very reliable, good to do business with and offers excellent products.

Everything Dinosaur would like to express its gratitude to all our customers who have taken the time to leave feedback about our business.

Thank you.

17 06, 2017

Theropod Tracks and Ornithopod Tracks

By | June 17th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Distinguishing Theropod tracks from Ornithopod Tracks

Recently, Everything Dinosaur posted an article about a new study of the Dinosaur Stampede National Monument (Queensland, Australia), in which a three-dimensional Australovenator foot was used to assess what type of dinosaur was responsible for producing a set of eleven, large, three-toed footprints.  In this innovative research, conducted by scientists from the Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History and the University of Newcastle (New South Wales), it was concluded that the tracks could have been made by a meat-eating dinosaur.  Previous research had challenged the interpretation that the trace fossil site preserves evidence of a dinosaur stampede as a substantial group of smaller plant-eating dinosaurs evaded an attack from a big Theropod.

Other interpretations of the Dinosaur Stampede National Monument have suggested that the hundreds of tracks preserved at this location, some seventy miles south of the town of Winton in Queensland, do not represent evidence of a large, meat-eating dinosaur attacking a flock of smaller dinosaurs.  Some scientists have contradicted this analysis and proposed that the bigger, tridactyl tracks were made by a big Ornithopod, a herbivorous dinosaur, something like a Muttaburrasaurus.

Could the Larger Tracks at the Dinosaur Stampede National Monument have been made by a Herbivore?

Lark Quarry Ornithopod

The plant-eater wandering across the Lark Quarry environment

Picture Credit: Anthony Romilio, The University of Queensland

The Confusion Between Bipedal Plant-eaters and Bipedal Meat-eaters

Having published our article, we were then emailed and asked to explain how it was possible to confuse the footprints of a large bipedal, herbivorous dinosaur with those of an equally sized carnivorous dinosaur.  So, here are some pointers about the differences between the types of tracks, plus an explanation as to why it can be so hard to pin down which type of bipedal dinosaur left prints and tracks.

For those scientists that study dinosaur footprints, being able to distinguish the prints from a meat-eating Theropod from those of a large, herbivorous Ornithopod is a challenging task.  If the prints are ideally preserved with lots of detail, identification can be relatively straight-forward, if the body fossils of a dinosaur could be found close by, then there would be further evidence to support a diagnosis, but sadly, discovering exquisitely preserved dinosaur tracks – these are very rare events indeed!

An Exquisitely Preserved Dinosaur Track Assigned to the Ichnogenus Eubrontes

A three-toed dinosaur footprint from India.

The tridactyl print can be clearly made out, it has been assigned to the ichnogenus Eubrontes.

An Identification Guide

The track made by a Theropod dinosaur (the pes of a meat-eating dinosaur), if perfectly preserved, should show sizeable claw marks on the end of the toes.  The toes themselves should look quite slender and in general terms the print should look longer than it is wide.  The length of the foot when compared to the width should give the track a characteristic “v shape”.

The well-preserved track of a large Ornithopod, a plant-eater should lack distinctive claw marks.  The ends of the toes should be more blunt and rounded in appearance.  The toes tend to be quite wide and the foot proportions are different.  For example, the foot may be much wider.  The wider pes as a proportion of overall foot length gives the track a “u shape”.

Ornithopod versus Theropod Footprint – Identification Guide

Comparing different types of dinosaur footprint.

Theropod print compared to an Ornithopod print.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Identifying the Dinosaur from the Footprint – Problems

The fact that something so ephemeral as a single track or a trackway can survive for millions of years is remarkable.  However, over time these trace fossils can become distorted making identification extremely difficult.  Features, once very striking are easily masked by the effect of weathering and erosion.  Any repairs undertaken or attempts to preserve the prints could also lead to the loss of definition, causing further problems when it comes to making an assessment as to what type of animal produced the tracks.  Unauthorised attempts to make casts could also result in considerable damage to the track(s) thus further hampering identification.

It does not matter, whether the track represents a natural cast (created by sediments filling in a track), or whether it is a true track (the impression preserved in the ground made by the foot itself), determining what type of creature made the prints is an extremely difficult process.  Some of the most difficult tracks to interpret of all are undertracks.  An undertrack is formed below the sediment as surface material is compressed downwards as the organism moved across the area.  These undertracks lack many types of marks made only at the surface, scratches, scuffs, clear claw impressions or any evidence of a tail drag.

The thousands of dinosaur tracks at the Lark Quarry site (Dinosaur Stampede National Monument), are truly a remarkable record of the behaviour and activity of a group of dinosaurs.  What exactly those tracks represent is open to different interpretations – but that’s science for you.

Further articles on the Lark Quarry dinosaur tracks:

Could Australovenator have made some of the tracks at Lark Quarry?: Lark Quarry Dinosaur Footprints – Scientists Re-examine the Evidence

Lark Quarry Tracks Re-examined: A New Interpretation of the Lark Quarry Fossils

16 06, 2017

Australovenator Steps into Lark Quarry Dinosaur Debate

By | June 16th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Scientists Reconstruct Dinosaur Foot to Help Interpret Tracksite

The famous dinosaur tracks at Lark Quarry, (Dinosaur Stampede National Monument), near the town of Winton (Queensland, Australia),  have been the subject of research for decades.  Unlike dinosaur bones and teeth that can be transported a huge distance from the place where the dinosaur died, footprints and tracks preserve evidence of activity and behaviour.  The majority of trace fossils provide direct, in situ evidence of the environment at the time and location where the animal was living.

Lark Quarry Dinosaur Tracks

Lark Quarry Dinosaur Tracks

Examples of Lark Quarry dinosaur footprints.

Picture Credit: Dr Steve Salisbury

Different Interpretations of the Dinosaur Tracks

At Everything Dinosaur, we think the first, formal attempt to interpret the numerous dinosaur tracks preserved in the finely grained sandstone at the Lark Quarry site took place in 1984.  Eleven, large, three-toed prints were interpreted as having been made by a big meat-eating dinosaur that had lunged at a flock of small Ornithopods that it had cornered.  The tracks were interpreted as a “dinosaur stampede” as the smaller plant-eating dinosaurs panicked and tried to avoid the jaws of a ten-metre-long Theropod.  The ichno genus (a name given to an animal known only from trace fossils), Tyrannosauropus was erected.  Over the years, a number of other interpretations have been put forward, including the hypothesis that the big tri-dactyl prints don’t represent a predator but were made by a large Ornithopod, something akin to a Muttaburrasaurus.  Other interpretations of this famous fossil site include that the tracks were made by dinosaurs as they swam and waded across a body of water.

Swimming Dinosaurs Hypothesis: Dinosaurs Not Stampeding but Swimming

No Tyrannosauropus at Lark Quarry After All: Lark Quarry Tracks Made by a Big Plant-Eating Dinosaur

Dinosaur Foot Reconstruction – A New Analysis of the Tracks

Distinguishing between the three-toed prints of meat-eating dinosaurs and those of similar sized plant-eaters, which also walked on three toes is a tricky business.  However, in an innovative piece of research, a team of scientists from from the University of Newcastle (New South Wales) and the Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum of Natural History in Winton, set about reconstructing the foot of an Australian Theropod dinosaur Australovenator wintonensis in a bid to reproduce the tracks in similar sediment, which could then be compared to the fossil trackway.

Reconstructing the Foot of Australovenator

Foot model helping to interpret Lark Quarry tracks.

Reconstructing the left foot of Australovenator.

Picture Credit: PeerJ

The picture above shows (A) calculating the claw length of Australovenator and (B-D) the four claws associated with the left foot of the dinosaur with reconstructed sheaths.  The bones of the foot have been reconstructed (F) and using Emu feet for an anatomical comparison, (G) shows the foot reconstructed with tendons added, whilst (H) is the skin covered biologically restored foot (left pes) of Australovenator.

Australovenator wintonensis

A three-dimensional foot of Australovenator was created as fossils of this Megaraptoran Theropod are known from similar aged strata as the Lark Quarry tracks.  In addition, Australovenator is the only meat-eating dinosaur from Australia which has had its foot bones discovered.  The researchers used a variety of substrates to test the prints, scuff marks and scratches made by the large dinosaur and they concluded that their recreated impressions were reminiscent of the trace fossils.  This suggests that the eleven, large, three-toed tracks at Lake Quarry (now known as the Dinosaur Stampede National Monument), could have been made by an Australovenator-like carnivorous dinosaur.

An Illustration of Australovenator wintonensis Crossing the Lark Quarry Sediments

Australovenator footprint study.

Australovenator making tracks.

Picture Credit: Travis R. Tischler

The CollectA Australovenator Dinosaur Model

Australovenator was a member of the Allosauria clade of Theropod dinosaurs.  Fossils of this six-metre-long carnivore were discovered in 2006.  Although the fossil material was far from complete, the Australovenator genus was formally erected by Australian palaeontologist Scott Hucknull in 2009.  CollectA introduced a model of Australovenator just three years after the scientific description.  Models of Megaraptoran Theropods are quite rare, it is great to see that CollectA have added an Australovenator replica to their “Prehistoric Life” model range.

The CollectA Australovenator Dinosaur Model

The CollectA Australovenator dinosaur model.

The CollectA Australovenator replica.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the full range of CollectA dinosaur and prehistoric animal models: CollectA Prehistoric Life Models

15 06, 2017

Curious African Cynodont Turns up in Brazil

By | June 15th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Aleodon from Africa Present in Brazilian Triassic Rocks

A team of international researchers have reported the discovery of fossils attributed to the African cynodont Aleodon in Middle-early Late Triassic rocks from several locations in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil).  Prior to these fossil finds, this protomammal (a member of the Probainognathidae family), a distant ancestor of modern mammals, was only known from Africa.

A Scale Drawing of the Skeleton of Aleodon (A. cromptoni)

Aleodon scale drawing.

The known bones of Aleodon are shown in yellow.

Picture Credit: PLOS ONE

In the picture above the known bones attributed to Aleodon (A. cromptoni) are shown in yellow and a cat provides a scale comparison.

Living Alongside Dinosaur Precursors

Writing in the on-line academic journal “PLOS ONE”, the researchers, which include Agustín Martinelli (Universidade Federal of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil), conclude that fossils previously thought to represent another cynodont – Chiniquodon actually are Aleodon specimens, as such they are the first of this genus to be found outside of Africa.  The carnivorous Aleodon lived alongside basal members of the Dinosauria and other types of archosaur, as well as numerous mammal-like reptiles, including the giant herbivore Dinodontosaurus.  The fossils of Dinodontosaurus are so numerous that they are used to date the relative age of the strata in this part of southern Brazil.  All the fossils ascribed to Aleodon, including cranial material and teeth come from the Dinodontosaurus Assemblage Zone.

Aleodon Skull Material and Line Drawing (Aleodon cromptoni)

Aleodon skull and line drawing.

Skull in left lateral view with accompanying line drawing. Scale bar = 50 mm.

Picture Credit: PLOS ONE

Namibian and Tanzanian Fossils

The Aleodon genus was first erected based on fossil material discovered in Tanzania and Namibia.  The South American material was compared to the African specimens and a new species of Aleodon, a sister taxon to the African species was named.  The new Aleodon species honours Dr Alfred “Fuzz” Crompton, who established the genus in 1955 with the naming of A. brachyrhamphus.

In a reassessment of the African fossil material, a specimen form Namibia which was thought to represent a member of the related family, the Chiniquodontidae or possibly a member of the Traversodontidae may actually be an Aleodon.  The scientists also identified as Aleodon a total of seven specimens from the Rio Grande do Sul region.  Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Aleodon cromptoni may be, as suspected, a species in the Chiniquodontidae family.

Whilst the research work was hampered due to the incomplete and partial specimens, the authors note that the identification of these Late Triassic Aleodon fossils in Brazil strengthens the correlation between probainognathians from this epoch in South America and in Africa.

Part of the Upper Jaw of A. cromptoni with Line Drawing

Upper jaw fossil material (Aleodon cromptoni).

Photographs and accompanying drawings of right maxilla MPDC-501-117 in lateral (A), ventral (B), and medial views (C). Scale bar equals 10 mm

Picture Credit: PLOS ONE

14 06, 2017

Win! Win! Win with Everything Dinosaur!

By | June 14th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Win a Pair of Tickets to the Amazing Dinosaurs of China Exhibition

WIN! WIN! WIN! with Everything Dinosaur!  Win a pair of tickets to the Dinosaurs of China Exhibition in Nottingham (UK).

Everything Dinosaur has another super prize draw giveaway.   We have a pair of tickets to the amazing Dinosaurs of China Exhibition being held in Nottingham (UK) this summer.  The Dinosaurs of China exhibition features an amazing collection of dinosaurs and prehistoric animals, with many of the specimens travelling outside of Asia for the first time.  From “ground shakers to feathered flyers” – this brilliant dinosaur exhibition is not to be missed!

The main exhibition is being held at Wollaton Hall & Deer Park in Nottingham with a satellite exhibition taking place at the Nottingham Lakeside Arts Centre.  This once in a lifetime event runs from July 1st to October 29th.

Win a Pair of Tickets to the Dinosaurs of China Exhibition

Win tickets in Everything Dinosaur's Prize Draw

Win a pair of tickets to visit the Dinosaurs of China exhibition in Nottingham.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur has a pair of tickets to giveaway in our free to enter prize draw.

Win a Pair of Tickets to the Dinosaurs of China Exhibition

To enter, simply “like” the post on Everything Dinosaur’s FACEBOOK , page and leave a comment.  Or leave a comment on this blog post.  Tell us what you would like us to write about on the Everything Dinosaur blog and that’s it – you are entered into the prize draw to win a pair of tickets!

It would be great if you could also “like” our Facebook page, it’s not mandatory, but “liking” the Everything Dinosaur Facebook page would ensure that you don’t miss out on future competitions and promotions.  Feel free to share our prize draw with your friends!

Everything Dinosaur on FACEBOOK: “LIKE” our Facebook post, comment and enter the competition!

We will draw the lucky winner at random and the ticket prize draw giveaway closes at midnight (BST) on  Friday 30th June.  Good luck and we look forward to reading your comment.

To view Everything Dinosaur’s range of dinosaur toys and models including some “ground shakers and feathered flyers”: Visit Everything Dinosaur’s Website

For further information about the Dinosaurs of China exhibition: Dinosaurs of China Website

Terms and Conditions for the Everything Dinosaur Win a Pair of Tickets Prize Draw

  • Automated entries are not permitted and will be excluded from the draw
  • Only one entry per person
  • The prize (a pair of tickets for the Dinosaurs of China exhibition), is non-transferable and no cash alternative will be offered
  • Open to UK residents, 16 years and upwards (excluding employees and relatives of Everything Dinosaur staff members)
  • To enter you must leave a comment on the Everything Dinosaur Facebook promotional post at: Everything Dinosaur on Facebook and leave a comment about what you would like us to write about in our blog OR leave a comment on this blog post – one comment per person
  • The Everything Dinosaur ticket prize draw runs until midnight (BST) on Friday 30th June 2017
  • The winner will be chosen at random and they will be contacted by a reply to the comment plus a Facebook message with 7 days of the competition closing date.  The winner will need to respond within 28 days or a new winner will be selected.
  • The prize (a pair of tickets) will be despatched by the event organisers, once Everything Dinosaur has confirmed the delivery address.  The winner will have to state a preferred date and time for their visit
  • The prize does not include travelling expenses or any accommodation
  • The promoter is Everything Dinosaur
  • By entering the prize draw giveaway, participants confirm that they have read, understood and agreed the terms and conditions of the competition
  • This promotion is in no way sponsored, endorsed or administered by, or associated with, Facebook
Load More Posts