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4 06, 2020

Borealopelta was a Fussy Eater

By | June 4th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Borealopelta markmitchelli Stomach Contents Analysed

The stomach contents of a giant armoured dinosaur which was named and described in 2017, have revealed what this herbivore ate just hours before it died.  The incredibly rare fossilised stomach contents indicate that the 5.5 metre-long Borealopelta markmitchelli was a fussy eater, selecting one type of fern but ignoring others.  The charcoal preserved with the stomach remains also reveals that this dinosaur was probably picking over the fresh growth following a recent forest fire, a behaviour seen amongst many large extant herbivores.  Growth rings identified in a small twig inside the dinosaur’s body cavity suggest that this dinosaur died in the late spring/mid-summer.

Borealopelta markmitchelli Life Reconstruction – The Last Day of a Nodosaur

Borealopelta markmitchelli life reconstruction.

The last day of a nodosaur. Borealopelta markmitchelli life reconstruction.  Stomach contents reveal that the dinosaur selectively grazed ferns in an area that was recovering from a recent wildfire.

Picture Credit: Julius Csotonyi

The Cololite Reveals All

Writing on the open-access, The Royal Society publishing platform, the scientists which include Caleb Brown and Donald Henderson from the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology (Alberta), along with colleagues from Brandon University (Manitoba) and the University of Saskatchewan, provide a detailed analysis of the stomach contents of Borealopelta markmitchelli, the most comprehensive direct evidence of diet in an herbivorous Mesozoic dinosaur, helping palaeontologists to better understand the palaeoecology of armoured dinosaurs.

Direct evidence of diet in herbivorous dinosaurs is exceptionally rare in the fossil record, but with this beautifully preserved Borealopelta specimen, the presence of a cololite (fossil stomach or intestinal contents), permitted the team to conduct a forensic examination of the dinosaur’s last meal.

The small ankylosaur Kunbarrasaurus ieversi from the Early Cretaceous of Australia, which was named in 2015, is described as preserving a cololite within the abdominal cavity (specimen number QMF18101).  Whilst the Kunbarrasaurus material has proved not to be as diagnostic as the cololite associated with Borealopelta, its location in relation to the body, does help to support the idea that the football-sized mass found with Borealopelta does indeed represent stomach contents.

The Stomach Contents of Borealopelta and Kunbarrasaurus

The stomach contents (cololite location and analysis).

Borealopelta stomach contents.  Photograph (a) and line drawing (b) in dorsal view, with (c) showing location of cololite and body outline.  Photograph (d) shows a close view of the abdominal mass, whilst (e) shows comparable line drawing.  Kunbarrasaurus line drawing scaled to Borealopelta showing relative size and cololite position.  Note solid orange, observed cololite; hatched orange, inferred cololite. A, anterior; L, lateral. Scale bars in (a,b,c,f) are 1 m, and in (d,e) are 10 cm.

Picture Credit: Brown et al (Royal Society Open Science)

Analysing the Cololite

Seven thin sections of the cololite were prepared which permitted the scientists to examine the cololite at a microscopic level.

The last meal of Borealopelta consisted of 88% leaf material, with a 7% minor stem/twigs component.  Ferns dominated the leaf section and the bits of twigs showed distinct growth rings.  In one of the twigs studied, the outermost ring is incomplete, this provides evidence for the time of year when the dinosaur died.  Based on the incomplete growth ring, the researchers conclude that Borealopelta met its death in the late spring to mid-summer.

Carefully Prepared Slides Reveal the Dinosaur’s Last Meal at the Microscopic Level

Slide showing Borealopelta stomach contents.

Wide views (top and bottom panels) showing abundance of plant material found in the histology slides of the cololite sample.  In both, (a) sporangia, (b) leaf cuticle with stomata present, (c) gastroliths, (d) woody material, (e) leaf cross-sections and (f) sclerenchyma.  Top, slide 3; bottom, slide 6. Scale bars = 200 µm.

Picture Credit: Brown et al (Royal Society Open Science)

Borealopelta was a Fussy Eater

The leaf fraction of the cololite is dominated (85%) by leptosporangiate ferns (subclass Polypodiidae), the largest group of ferns alive today.  Although cycad remains were also found, they only represented 3% of the total amount.  Trace amounts of foliage associated with conifers was also discovered.  The researchers conclude that Borealopelta was selectively feeding on ferns, preferring to consume leptosporangiate ferns to the exclusion of Osmundaceae and eusporangiate ferns such as Marattiaceae with incidental consumption of cycad–cycadophyte and conifer leaves.

To gain an understanding of the ancient flora in Borealopelta’s habitat, the researchers were able to determine what food plants were available to Borealopelta by studying the fossil leaves found in the contemporaneous Gates Formation, a rock unit exposed in coal mines in the Rocky Mountain foothills.  This rock unit also preserves trackways left by armoured dinosaurs and is approximately the same age as the sediments that preserved Borealopelta.  In addition, the fossils of a small mollusc Murraia naiadiformis has been recorded from both the upper McMurray Formation (B. markmitchelli is known from the marine Wabiskaw Member of the fully marine Clearwater Formation which overlies the McMurray Formation) and the Gates Formation, supporting the idea that there is a link between these two depositional environments.

Some charcoal fragments were found as well, indicating that this nodosaur was feeding in an environment that had recently been burned.  This aligns with growing evidence that forest fires were very common in the conifer and cycad-dominated forests around the world during the Early Cretaceous.  This may also suggest the animal’s feeding ecology is linked to forest regrowth after a wildfire, such feeding behaviour is commonly observed in large herbivores alive today.

Comparison of the Cololite following Thin Section Microscopic Analysis

Composition of the Borealopelta cololite.

Composition of the cololite following microscopic analysis.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The scientists are confident that given the exceptional state of preservation of Borealopelta, the fossil will yield further information helping palaeontologists to learn more about the Early Cretaceous environment of Alberta and the behaviour of armoured dinosaurs.

To read an Everything Dinosaur blog post about countershading identified in B. markmitchelliAmazing Armoured Dinosaur Fossil Reveals Countershading.

Although, Borealopelta weighed around 1.3 tonnes, this nodosaurid was bristling with defensive armour.  It was big, but in North America 110 million years ago there must have been a super-sized dinosaur predator capable of taking down such a monster.  Scientists remain puzzled, here is an article that examines the beautifully preserved armour of Borealopelta and speculates on the theropods that shared its environment: The Armour of Borealopelta markmitchelli.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the Royal Tyrrell Museum in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Dietary palaeoecology of an Early Cretaceous armoured dinosaur (Ornithischia; Nodosauridae) based on floral analysis of stomach contents” by Caleb M. Brown, David R. Greenwood, Jessica E. Kalyniuk, Dennis R. Braman, Donald M. Henderson, Cathy L. Greenwood and James F. Basinger published by Royal Society Open Science.

3 06, 2020

Mojo Fun Brontosaurus Deluxe “Turntable Tuesday”

By | June 3rd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

The Mojo Fun Brontosaurus Dinosaur Model Goes for a Spin “Turntable Tuesday”

For this week’s “Turntable Tuesday” YouTube video feature, Everything Dinosaur selected one of the new for 2020 Mojo Fun dinosaur models to go for a spin.  It was a difficult choice as Mojo Fun has added a whopping sixteen new dinosaurs to their “Prehistoric Life” range, but in the end it was the Brontosaurus deluxe that was chosen, when compared to the new Mamenchisaurus and Brachiosaurus, you could say that Brontosaurus won by a short neck!

Going for a Spin the Mojo Fun Brontosaurus Deluxe Features on “Turntable Tuesday”

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur and “Turntable Tuesday”

The “Turntable Tuesday” video is a weekly feature on the Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel.  A prehistoric animal model is filmed at our bespoke studio on a turntable.  This permits dinosaur fans and model collectors to get a three-hundred and sixty degree view of the replica.  The objective of these short videos, all of which have to last for no more than two minutes or so, is to showcase the figure.  These videos also give Everything Dinosaur the opportunity to comment on the prehistoric animal models and provide further information.

Ready for the Turntable The New for 2020 Mojo Fun Brontosaurus Deluxe Dinosaur Model

Mojo Fun Brontosaurus dinsoaur model in the Everything Dinosaur studio.

The Mojo Fun Brontosaurus deluxe dinosaur model ready for a spin.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Brontosaurus excelsus

The model measures around twenty-two centimetres in length, but in reality the figure is much larger as the neck is turned slightly and the tail is twisted as if this sauropod was about to give an attacking theropod dinosaur a swipe.  The fact sheet that accompanies sales of this figure provides more information on the type species for this genus – Brontosaurus excelsus.  The colour scheme is muted with greys and tans predominating.  There are plenty of details to admire on the skin, especially the texture of the neck and the folds located underneath the sturdy body.  It may not be the most accurate representation of “thunder lizard” made but the model is robust and ideal for imaginative, creative play.

The Brontosaurus is one of three long-necked dinosaur models introduced by Mojo Fun this year, the other two being Mamenchisaurus and a new Brachiosaurus.

The Mojo Fun Brontosaurus Deluxe Dinosaur Model

The Mojo Fun Brontosaurus Deluxe

An attractive dinosaur model the Mojo Fun Brontosaurus deluxe figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Find Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube video channel here: Our YouTube Channel (we recommend that you subscribe to Everything Dinosaur on YouTube).

Everything Dinosaur’s Videos Give Viewers the Opportunity to View Dinosaur Models at Some Very Strange Angles

"Bottoms up with Brontosaurus"

The tail-end of the Mojo Fun Brontosaurus dinosaur model.  It’s a case of “bottoms up” for Brontosaurus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To see the Mojo Fun Brontosaurus and the rest of the new for 2020 prehistoric animals in this range: Mojo Fun Prehistoric and Extinct.

2 06, 2020

New for 2020 Mojo Fun Dinosaur Models in Stock

By | June 2nd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

New Mojo Fun Dinosaur Models in Stock at Everything Dinosaur

All sixteen of the new for 2020 Mojo Fun dinosaurs models are now in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  The models had been delayed due to COVID-19 but all of these exciting new figures are now at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse.  These new replicas represent a substantial extension to the Mojo Fun prehistoric and extinct model range.

Sixteen New for 2020 Mojo Fun Dinosaur Models are in Stock at Everything Dinosaur

Sixteen new dinosaur models from Mojo Fun.

You have to hand it to Mojo Fun, sixteen new dinosaur models for 2020.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The new models are crouching and standing Velociraptors, Allosaurus with an articulated jaw, a deluxe Baryonyx, Stegosaurus, Triceratops and Ankylosaurus.  The Sauropodomorpha is represented by Brachiosaurus, Brontosaurus and Mamenchisaurus, there is a second Baryonyx, one with an articulated jaw.  A hadrosaurid Mandschurosaurus is also new for 2020 and along with the Troodon figure, it represents a genus which could be regarded as nomen dubium.  Essentially, this means that there is some doubt as to the validity of the genera, after all, in the case of Troodon, this genus was erected based on an isolated fossil tooth from Montana (Judith River Formation).

Mojo Fun New for 2020 Spinosaurus Dinosaur Model

Mojo Fun Spinosaurus deluxe dinosaur model.

The Mojo Fun Spinosaurus deluxe model with an articulated lower jaw.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Amongst the theropod dinosaur models there is a Giganotosaurus, Spinosaurus and of course an obligatory Tyrannosaurus rex.

Designed for Robust, Imaginative Play

The Mojo Fun “Prehistoric Life” range now contains forty-three models.  The addition of sixteen new figures represents a major investment in dinosaurs by the company and the number of new introductions is much larger than in previous years.  Many of the individual figures are much bigger than their predecessors.  For example, the new for 2020 Mojo Fun Tyrannosaurus rex with an articulated jaw is approximately six centimetres longer than the Mojo Fun red hunting T. rex dinosaur model.

Mojo Fun Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models

Mojo Fun prehistoric animal models.

Mojo Fun dinosaurs and prehistoric animals.  The new for 2020 Mojo Fun Tyrannosaurus rex deluxe with an articulated jaw can be seen on the left of this picture.  A Spinosaurus (right) and the troodontid (far right) along with three Mojo Fun Tropeognathus pterosaur figures soaring overhead complete the scene.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Mojo Fun Prehistoric Life

The new for 2020 prehistoric animal figures represent a substantial development of this line of figures.  In previous years, only a handful of new models have been added,  but these figures along with the company’s plans for more replicas signal that Mojo Fun is going to have some exciting times ahead.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We hope that you enjoy the new for 2020 collection from Mojo Fun.  These figures have been designed for robust, creative play and a number of figures have articulated jaws, which always enhances play value.  It is a pleasant surprise to see some of the less well-known dinosaurs such as Mamenchisaurus, Mandschurosaurus and a troodontid represented in these recent additions to the Mojo Fun prehistoric and extinct model range.”

To view the range of Mojo Fun prehistoric animal replicas available from Everything Dinosaur: Mojo Fun Prehistoric and Extinct Animal Models.

1 06, 2020

Protoceratops was a Very Tough Dinosaur

By | June 1st, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Geology, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Protoceratops Lived in a “Stressed” Environment

Everything Dinosaur team members are currently putting together a short video review of the new Wild Past Protoceratops (P. andrewsi) dinosaur model.  Our intention in the video is to discuss the model and also to talk about the genus upon which the figure is based.  After all, Protoceratops is one of the most studied of all the dinosaur genera known to science.  However, “first horned face” can still throw up a few surprises.  For example, the size of its orbit (eye socket), suggests the Protoceratops had disproportionately large eyes compared to other ceratopsians.  Could Protoceratops have been nocturnal?

Size Comparison (Protoceratops andrewsi)

How big was Protoceratops andrewsi?

Protoceratops andrewsi was a relatively small dinosaur but it was one of the larger vertebrates associated with the Bayn Dzak (Flaming Cliffs) locality.  Could it have been nocturnal?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Protoceratops was a Tough Dinosaur!

Intriguingly, when the dinosaur fossil specimens collected by the Central Asiatic Expeditions from 1922-1925 (the expeditions led by Roy Chapman Andrews and Walter Granger of the American Museum of Natural History), from the Flaming Cliffs locality are totted up, over 90 percent of them represent Protoceratops andrewsi.  The Flaming Cliffs are the type locality for the Djadokhta Formation.  Something like 108 individual dinosaur specimens were collected by the American Museum of Natural History field teams between 1922 and 1925, all but seven of them represented Protoceratops andrewsi.  Preservational bias has been largely ruled out, it is therefore likely that Protoceratops was common in this habitat.  However, both the Djadokhta Formation and the potentially contemporaneous Bayan Mandahu Formation, where the fossils of the second Protoceratops genus were found (P. hellenikorhinus), represent arid, desert-like palaeoenvironments.

Both Protoceratops species lived in extremely harsh conditions, an idea supported by the lack of diversity and the absence of large animals from the fossil record of both Djadokhta and Bayan Mandahu.

A Lack of Diversity and Few Large-bodied Dinosaurs Associated with Bayn Dzak (Flaming Cliffs Type Locality) of the Djadokhta Formation

The dinosaur biota associated wit the Djadokhta Formation.

The biota associated with the Protoceratops dominated Djadokhta Formation.  Evidence that Protoceratops lived in a stressed environment with few resources.  We have used a picture of the Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model to indicate the presence of Protoceratops.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Comparing the Djadokhta Formation and the Nemegt Formation Dinosaur Biotas

The lack of large-bodied dinosaurs and the limited number of different types of dinosaur are highlighted when these geological formations are compared to the Nemegt Formation dinosaur biota.  The strata that forms the Nemegt Formation was formed in a much wetter more verdant environment.

Hadrosaurs, Titanosaurs, Ankylosaurids and Large Theropods Dominate the Nemegt Formation Dinosaur Biota

The Nemegt Formation contains the fossils of many dinosaurs.

The dinosaur biota associated with the Nemegt Formation.  Many different dinosaurs are reported from the Upper Cretaceous Nemegt Formation.  The presence of large herbivores such as therizinosaurs, titanosaurs and duck-billed dinosaurs is significant.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The lack of diversity and the absence of large-bodied vertebrates from the Bayn Dzak location indicates that Protoceratops inhabited a stressed environment.  Protoceratopsid fauna is associated with sediments from semi-arid, to desert regions formed from aeolian deposits in the main.  During the time that the Djadokhta and the Bayan Mandahu Formations were being formed, much of central Asia was characterised by an extensive sandy desert with little surface water.

Protoceratops may have been quite small, but it was a very tough and hardy dinosaur.

To see the article that features an early Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model video made by Everything Dinosaur: Wild Past Protoceratops Video Showcase.

To purchase the Wild Past Protoceratops figure: Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model.

31 05, 2020

Win, Win, Win with Everything Dinosaur!

By | May 31st, 2020|Adobe CS5, Book Reviews, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils, Press Releases|0 Comments

Competition Time at Everything Dinosaur!

Everything Dinosaur is offering to give away three very special signed copies of “Dinosaurs – how they lived and evolved” by Darren Naish and Paul M. Barrett, a fantastic book published by the Natural History Museum of London in our free to enter competition.

Win a Fantastic Dinosaur Book with Everything Dinosaur

The front cover of the dinosaur book.

Suggest a name for Tianyulong on the front cover to enter Everything Dinosaur’s competition.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

We have three of these marvellous books to give away and each one contains a unique, signed drawing by Darren Naish.

Each Book Contains a Unique, Signed Drawing by Darren Naish

A signed drawing of Latenivenatrix by Darren Naish.

Each book in the Everything Dinosaur competition contains a unique signed drawing.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

All you have to do is “Like” Everything Dinosaur’s FACEBOOK page, then comment on the “Dinosaurs – how they lived and evolved” picture, providing a suggested name for the Tianyulong dinosaur featured on the front cover.

Everything Dinosaur on FACEBOOK: “LIKE” our Facebook page and enter the competition!

We will draw the lucky winners at random and the “Dinosaurs – how they lived and evolved” competition closes on midnight Sunday 14th June.  Good luck, we hope you win one of these unique dinosaur books.

Terms and Conditions of the “Everything Dinosaur Dinosaurs – how they lived and evolved” Book Competition

Automated entries are not permitted and will be excluded from the draw.

Only one entry per person.

The prize is non-transferable and no cash alternative will be offered.

The “Everything Dinosaur Dinosaurs –  how they lived and evolved” competition runs until midnight Sunday 14th June 2020.

Winner will be notified by private message on Facebook.

Prize includes postage and packing.

This giveaway is in no way sponsored, endorsed, administered by or associated with Facebook.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges a complete release of Facebook by each entrant/participant.

For full terms and conditions contact: Contact Everything Dinosaur.

Beautiful Photographs of Fossils and Detailed Text

Amazing photographs and informative text.

Lots of amazing photographs of dinosaur fossils and detailed, informative text in this new dinosaur book entitled “Dinosaurs – how they lived and evolved” by Darren Naish and Paul M. Barrett.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To enter Everything Dinosaur’s book competition, all you have to do is “Like” Everything Dinosaur’s FACEBOOK page, then comment on the “Dinosaurs – how they lived and evolved” picture, providing a suggested name for the Tianyulong dinosaur featured on the front cover.

The illustration of the bizarre Jurassic heterodontosaurid Tianyulong confuciusi that features on the front cover was created by the very talented palaeoartist Bob Nicholls.

30 05, 2020

Doomsday Scenario for the Non-avian Dinosaurs

By | May 30th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page|0 Comments

Dinosaur-dooming Bolide Struck Earth at Worst Possible Angle

The extra-terrestrial object, whether it was a comet or an asteroid, that devastated our planet some sixty-six million years ago, struck Earth at the “deadliest possible” angle according to new research published this week in the journal Nature Communications.  Computer simulations created by researchers based at Imperial College London indicate that the huge object struck Earth at an angle of 45 to 60 degrees to the horizontal.  This maximised the amount of climate-changing gases that were thrust into the upper atmosphere.

An Artist’s Impression of the Moments before the Extra-terrestrial Bolide Impact

The end of the non-avian dinosaurs.

An artist’s impression of the bolide about to impact with the Gulf of Mexico 66 million years ago.

Picture Credit: Chase Stone

The Significance of the Impact Trajectory

The severity of an extra-terrestrial impact is influenced by a number of factors.  For example, the size and the mass of the bolide, the speed of the impact and the trajectory and direction of impact.  The impact direction and the angle of the collision affect the amount of ejector that is thrown up into the atmosphere.  For the non-avian dinosaurs, it was a question of a number of factors that exacerbated the mass extinction event.  Although there has been a considerable amount of research carried out on Chicxulub crater the impact trajectory remains controversial.  The use of three-dimensional computer simulations along with geophysical observations suggests that the crater was formed by a steeply-inclined impact from the northeast.  Such a strike likely unleashed billions of tonnes of sulphur.  The sulphur would have reacted with the oxygen and other elements to form acid rain which would then have fallen to Earth and further devastated the environment.  The debris in the atmosphere would have blocked out the sun and triggered a nuclear winter effect.  This catastrophe led to the extinction of 75% of life on Earth.

The simulations were performed on the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) DiRAC High Performance Computing Facility.

Plotting a Momentous Few Minutes in the History of Planet Earth

Plotting the Chicxulub Impact Event

The team used computer simulations and geophysical data to recreate the Chicxulub impact event.  The computer simulations permitted the researchers to map the entire crater formation event in unprecedented detail.

Picture Credit: Imperial College London/Nature Communications

Lead author of the scientific paper, Professor Gareth Collins of the College’s Department of Earth Science and Engineering stated:

“For the dinosaurs, the worst-case scenario is exactly what happened.  The asteroid strike unleashed an incredible amount of climate-changing gases into the atmosphere, triggering a chain of events that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs.  This was likely worsened by the fact that it struck at one of the deadliest possible angles.”

The Crater Creation

The top layers of rock around the Chicxulub crater in the Yucatan peninsula contain high amounts of water as well as porous carbonate and evaporite material.  When disturbed and greatly heated by the energy of the impact, these rocks would have been vaporised flinging huge amounts of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, sulphur and water vapour into the atmosphere.  The sulphur and other particles would have formed aerosols as well as acidifying the atmosphere.  These aerosols would have blocked out sunlight stopping photosynthesis and leading to the collapse of food chains.  The world would have been plunged into a nuclear winter.

A Geophysical Map of the Impact Crater

Gravity map of the Chicxulub crater.

A geophysical gravity map showing the outline of the Chicxulub crater and its surrounding environment.

Picture Credit: Imperial College London/Nature Communications

Working in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Freiburg (Germany) and the University of Texas at Austin the impact event was re-created in extensive detail, which will help scientists to better understand impact craters on our own planet as well as those found elsewhere within the solar system.  Crucial to determining the angle and direction of the impact was the relationship between the centre of the crater, the centre of the peak ring (a circle of mountains made of heavily fractured rock inside the crater rim) and the centre of dense, uplifted mantle rocks.

Co-author of the scientific paper, Dr Auriol Rae (University of Freiburg) added:

“Despite being buried beneath nearly a kilometre of sedimentary rocks, it is remarkable that geophysical data reveals so much about the crater structure, enough to describe the direction and angle of the impact.”

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the help and assistance of a media release from Imperial College London in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “A steeply-inclined trajectory for the Chicxulub impact” by G. S. Collins, N. Patel, T. M. Davison, A. S. P. Rae, J. V. Morgan, S. P. S. Gulick, IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 Science Party and Third-Party Scientists published in Nature Communications.

29 05, 2020

Wightia declivirostris – A Terrific Tapejarid Pterosaur

By | May 29th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Jawbone Leads to an Isle of Wight Tapejarid Pterosaur

A single, fragmentary jawbone from the upper jaw of a pterosaur found on the Isle of Wight has demonstrated just how diverse and widespread the Tapejaridae family of pterosaurs were.  The fossil bone, a partial premaxilla from the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian) Wessex Formation of Yaverland (Isle of Wight), represents a new species, the first record of a tapejarid pterosaur from the Wessex Formation and one of the oldest examples of this pterosaur family to have been found outside of China.  The flying reptile has been named Wightia declivirostris.

A Life Reconstruction of Wightia declivirostris (Wessex Formation)

Wightia declivirostris from the Isle of Wight

A life reconstruction of the newly described tapejarid from the Lower Cretaceous of the Isle of Wight (Wightia declivirostris).

Picture Credit: Megan Jacobs (University of Portsmouth)

Terrific Toothless Tapejarids

The terrific toothless tapejarids with their reputation for taking head crest development to the extreme, are known from relatively abundant fossil material associated with the Santana and Crato Formations of Brazil.  In addition, several members of the Tapejaridae family are associated with the Jiufotang Formation of China.  However, fragmentary fossils are known from elsewhere in the world such as Spain (Europejara olcadesorum) and a toothless, rather deep lower jaw tip along with other partial bones from the Kem Kem beds of Morocco suggests that these types of flying reptile may have persisted into the early Late Cretaceous.

Two of the authors associated with this scientific paper, Professor David Martill and Roy Smith (both from the University of Portsmouth), recently published a report on the discovery of a north African tapejarid which was named Afrotapejara zouhrii, one of a spate of recent Moroccan pterosaur discoveries.  To read Everything Dinosaur’s article about this: That Fourth Moroccan Pterosaur.  It seems that these fancy-crested, edentulous flying reptiles were much more geographically and temporally diverse than previously thought.

A Typical Illustration of a Tapejarid Pterosaur (Tupandactylus imperator)

Tupandactylus illustration.

A scale drawing of the tapejarid Pterosaur Tupandactylus imperator.  The Tapejaridae are thought to have all sported flamboyant head crests.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Isle of Wight Pterosaur is More Closely Related to Chinese Tapejarids

Amateur fossil hunter John Winch discovered a pterosaur snout near the cliff at Yaverland Point in Sandown Bay, in a fossil plant debris layer.  The unusual shape and thin bone walls suggested that it was from a pterosaur.  The fragment of jaw, although eroded, demonstrates the characteristic downturned tip, with numerous tiny holes (foramina), on the occulsal surface which indicate the presence of minute sensory organs for detecting food.

The Holotype Material Wightia declivirostris

premaxilla of Wightia declivirostris.

The isolated, partial premaxilla of Wightia declivirostris.

Picture Credit: University of Portsmouth

The jaw fragment was passed to palaeontology student at Portsmouth University, Megan Jacobs, who confirmed it was a rare find and definitely pterosaurian.  Analysis of the specimen suggests that Wightia is more closely related to the older and more primitive tapejarid Sinopterus from Liaoning (Jiufotang Formation), than it is to Brazilian tapejarids.  The genus name of this newly described flying reptile honours the Isle of Wight, whilst the species (trivial) name means “slanting beak”, a reference to the typically tapejarid morphology of the partial premaxilla.

Both the Wealden Formation and the geologically younger Vectis Formation on the Isle of Wight have yielded pterosaur specimens, although they tend to consist of highly fragmentary remains.  The discovery of Wightia declivirostris demonstrates how significant the Lower Cretaceous Isle of Wight sediments are to palaeontologists as they try to plot the radiation of different types of flying reptile during the Early Cretaceous.

The scientific paper: “First tapejarid pterosaur from the Wessex Formation (Wealden Group: Lower Cretaceous, Barremian) of the United Kingdom” by David M. Martill,  Mick Green, Roy E. Smith,  Megan L. Jacobs and John Winch published in the journal Cretaceous Research.

28 05, 2020

Rebor Swarm X-REX (Plague) Coming into Stock

By | May 28th, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor Swarm X-REX (Plague) Coming into Stock

The eagerly awaited Rebor alien/Tyrannosaurus rex hybrid figure is coming into stock at Everything Dinosaur around late July to early August.  This figure, the second in a planned series of four models entitled Swarm X-REX plague, is currently in production and it should be ready to ship at the end of June for a delivery into Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse a few weeks’ later.

The Rebor Alien – T. rex Hybrid Swarm X-REX in the Plague Colouration

Rebor Swarm X-REX (Plague).

The Rebor Swarm X-REX alien/T. rex hybrid model (plague colour variant).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A 1/35th Scale Model

Model collectors and fans of science fiction have a new range of Rebor figures and replicas to admire.  “Plague” is the second model to be introduced in this line of 1:35 scale replicas representing an alien xenomorph/dinosaur crossover.  We expect this new figure to be the same size as the first model in this range “Broodlord”, so the Swarm X-REX plague colour variant will measure around 43 centimetres in length.

The Frightening X-REX “Plague” on the Prowl

Rebor Swarm X-REX (Plague).

The Rebor Swarm X-REX alien/T. rex hybrid model (plague colour variant).  An amazingly detailed xenomorph/dinosaur replica in 1:35 scale.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Rebor planned to introduce four brand new, innovative science-fiction/Dinosauria inspired figures this year, the first, “Broodlord”, the X-REX metallic variant, came out in February, now collectors will be able to match “Broodlord” with “Plague” when “Plague” comes into stock in the summer.

A Closer Look at the Amazing Detail on the Head, Neck and Shoulders of the X-REX Figure

Rebor Swarm X-REX (Plague).

The Rebor Swarm X-REX alien/T. rex hybrid model (plague colour variant).  A close look at the amazing detail on the replica.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

For fans who missed out on “Broodlord” a small stock of these figures is due to arrive at the Everything Dinosaur warehouse in a few weeks’ time.  A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We are bringing some more of the X-REX metallic colour variant into stock, these figures should be with us around the middle of June.  This figure could of course, arrive a few days earlier. We anticipate that the second model in this series – plague, it could be in stock late July or early August – if all goes to plan.”

A View (Lateral View) of the Rebor Swarm X-REX Plague Variant

Rebor Swarm X-REX (Plague).

The Rebor Swarm X-REX alien/T. rex hybrid model (plague colour variant).  The model is believed to approximately the same size of the previously released “Broodlord” and it is expected to measure around 43 cm in length.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur has opened a priority reserve list for the Swarm X-REX plague colour variant, to request a model be reserved: Email Everything Dinosaur.

27 05, 2020

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus “Turntable Tuesday”

By | May 27th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus “Turntable Tuesday”

In this week’s “Turntable Tuesday” video, it was the turn of the recently introduced Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus model to go for a spin.  This figure is one of nine new for 2020 prehistoric animal replicas from Safari Ltd, it was the only marine reptile amongst the company’s new releases, but what a splendid model it is.  In our short video, we provide fans of prehistoric animal models with a three-hundred and sixty degree view of this replica.

“Turntable Tuesday” It’s the Turn of Ichthyosaurus

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus Model

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus sports a colouration that resembles the Killer Whale (Orcinus orca).  Several species of Ichthyosaurus are now recognised, this taxon having been something of a taxonomic waste basket for much of the 19th and 20th centuries.  Ichthyosaurus was much smaller than an extant Killer Whale, with the largest individuals less than 3.5 metres long and some species such as Ichthyosaurus communis, which was the named and scientifically described in 1822, being smaller still, with most specimens from the Dorset coast for example, averaging 2 metres in length.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus Model

An Ichthyosaurus model

The Ichthyosaurus model (Wild Safari Prehistoric World) ready to take its turn on the Everything Dinosaur turntable.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Wonderful and Detailed Marine Reptile Model

The 2020 Ichthyosaurus replaces the 2010 Ichthyosaurus from Safari Ltd.  In the “Turntable Tuesday” video the beautiful detailing around the eyes is highlighted along with the model’s colouration.  A segment of the video is dedicated to showing the underside of the figure.  The cloaca (vent) is highlighted, demonstrating how the sculptors at Safari Ltd have gone to great lengths to ensure an accurate interpretation of a marine reptile.

The Video Shows the Underside and Highlights the Presence of a Cloaca on the Ichthyosaur Model

Showing the underside of the Ichthyosaurus model.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus model.  The red arrow highlights the location of the cloaca (vent).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus Replica

Comparing Ichthyosaur Models

Comparing the 2010 Ichthyosaurus model with the 2020 Ichthyosaurus.  The 2010 Ichthyosaurus figure was depicted holding an ammonite in its jaws.  Palaeontologists believe that the principle constituents of the diet of Ichthyosaurus were small fish and squid.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Measuring around nineteen centimetres in length, the new for 2020 Ichthyosaurus replica makes a fine addition to a prehistoric animal model collection.

A Close View of the Head of the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus Replica

Marine reptile model (Ichthyosaurus).

A close-up view of the head of the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The “Turntable Tuesday” video showcasing the remarkable Ichthyosaurus model can be found on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

We recommend that you subscribe to Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

To view the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus and the rest of the prehistoric animals in this range: Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models and Figures.

26 05, 2020

New PNSO Dinosaur Models Coming into Stock

By | May 26th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|2 Comments

New PNSO Dinosaur Models Coming into Stock

Two new PNSO dinosaur models are coming into stock at Everything Dinosaur!  Aaron the baby Tyrannosaurus rex figure along with A-Qi the young Sinoceratops will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in just a few weeks.  These two beautiful figures are just the latest in a long line of exciting prehistoric animal replicas to be produced by PNSO.

Aaron the Baby Tyrannosaurus rex Coming to Everything Dinosaur

Aaron the baby T. rex dinosaur model (PNSO).

Aaron the baby Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur model (PNSO).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A-Qi the Young Sinoceratops Dinosaur Model

PNSO baby Sinoceratops dinosaur model.

A-Qi the baby Sinoceratops model (PNSO).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson for the UK-based company stated:

“Everything Dinosaur team members are really looking forward to the arrival of these two very cute and beautifully sculpted dinosaur figures.  Both models have been carefully created based on ontogenic studies of baby dinosaurs and Aaron the young T. rex figure will sport a coat of “dino fuzz”, that would not only have served to keep this baby dinosaur warm, but also offered it some camouflage, just in case a dromaeosaurid or some other predator decided that baby dinosaurs were on the menu.”

Lots of PNSO Figures Coming into Stock at Everything Dinosaur

As well as these two new exciting replicas, the shipment will contain a lot of other PNSO prehistoric animal replicas, helping to replenish Everything Dinosaur’s stock of Patton the Megalodon, Duke the Spinops, Paulwin the Dakosaurus, Essien the Spinosaurus, Nick the Ceratosaurus and Lucas the Giganotosaurus.  In total, seventeen different product lines will be re-stocked.

Lots of PNSO Figures Coming to Everything Dinosaur

PNSO figures and replicas coming back into stock at Everything Dinosaur

Lots of PNSO figures and replicas coming back into stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The PNSO prehistoric animals are due to be shipped from the factory this week (end May 2020).  If all goes to plan, these exciting prehistoric animal figures and replicas including Aaron the young Tyrannosaurus rex and A-Qi the cute, baby Sinoceratops will be in stock on-line at the company’s website in July.

The Young Sinoceratops Coming into Stock at Everything Dinosaur

PNSO baby Sinoceratops dinosaur model.

A-Qi the baby Sinoceratops model (PNSO).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Aaron the Young T. rex Complete with a Coat of “Dino Fuzz”

Aaron the baby T. rex dinosaur model (PNSO).

Aaron the baby Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur model (PNSO).  Both PNSO baby dinosaur replicas exhibit characteristics associated with young animals, such as the proportionately large eyes and in the case of Aaron the T. rex, large feet, indicative of distal growth.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

If you want to enquire about the two new PNSO baby dinosaurs, ask about reserving a figure or to request further information on any of the PNSO prehistoric animals, simply: Email Everything Dinosaur.

To view the current range of PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models.

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