All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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Dinosaur and prehistoric animal themed articles, features and stories.

27 12, 2019

Everything Dinosaur’s Top Ten Blog Posts 2019 (Part 1)

By | December 27th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur’s Top Ten Blog Posts of 2019 (Part 1)

As this year draws to a close, it is time to reflect on all the work put into writing this web log by Everything Dinosaur team members.  It is also an opportunity to look back and reflect on some of the news stories and articles that we have published over the last twelve months.  Today, we start our look at the top ten articles that we have posted, the countdown from ten to number six.  This list has been compiled based on the total number of comments made, emails received requesting  further information, Facebook “likes” and comments, Pinterest shares and so forth.

So, without any further fuss, here is the first part of our top ten news stories for 2019.

10).  Prehistoric Shark Named After Video Game Character

In January, Everything Dinosaur covered a story about the naming of a new species of Late Cretaceous prehistoric shark.  Strange, unusually shaped shark’s teeth had been found preserved in some of the matrix associated with the famous “Sue” T. rex skeleton.  The tiny teeth reminded the research team of the shape of a spaceship from the 1980’s video game Galaga.  This was the inspiration behind the naming of this new species – Galagadon nordquistae.

Life Reconstruction of Galagadon nordquistae

Galagadon nordquistae life reconstruction.

A life reconstruction of the Late Cretaceous shark Galagadon nordquistae.

Picture Credit: Velizar Simeonovski (Field Museum)

9).  Bajadasaurus pronuspinax Rears its Head

Early February saw the announcement of the discovery of a new, bizarre dicraeosaurid from Neuquén Province, Argentina.  A single, cervical vertebra suggests that Bajadasaurus had a series of forward facing defensive spikes on its neck.  A sauropod that carried its own set of Victorian railings around with it.  Although, the fossil material is fragmentary, CollectA were quick of the mark and have created a stunning replica of this Early Cretaceous giant.  Everything Dinosaur expects to have the CollectA Bajadasaurus replica in stock early in 2020.

A Silhouette Showing a Reconstruction of the Neck Vertebrae of Bajadasaurus and the CollectA Bajadasaurus Dinosaur Model

CollectA Bajadasaurus model and an illustration of the strange cervical vertebrae.

The bizarre cervical vertebrae of Bajadasaurus.  In the silhouette illustration known fossil material is shown in white.

Picture Credit: Gallina et al published in Scientific Reports and Everything Dinosaur

8).  The Jurassic Mile

In March, a blog post was published recording the start of a huge collaboration between a number of European and American museums to explore and excavate an extraordinary, fossil-rich deposit located in the Badlands of Wyoming.  The site has been nicknamed the “Jurassic Mile” and these Morrison Formation deposits have already yielded a treasure trove of dinosaur bones, fossil plants and dinosaur trackways.

Everything Dinosaur will be providing more details of the fossil discoveries in blog articles over the coming twelve months, but the site is so vast that it could be decades before all the fossil material has been collected and studied.

Palaeontologist Phil Manning Sitting Next to a Diplodocid Femur from the “Jurassic Mile”

Professor Phil Manning and the diplodocid femur.

Professor Phil Manning (The University of Manchester) poses next to the diplodocid femur.

Picture Credit: Manchester University

7). New Kid on the Block – Homo luzonensis

The discovery of fragmentary fossil remains of a diminutive hominin on the island of Luzon in the Philippines gave the human family tree a jolt in 2019.  The fossil material, dated to around 67,000 years ago, provides the earliest direct evidence of human inhabitation of the Philippines archipelago, but is Homo luzonensis, with its arboreal adaptations the descendant of a primitive African hominin that somehow migrated to south-eastern Asia or a more advanced hominin, perhaps related to Homo erectus that evolved and changed as it adapted to life on a heavily forested tropical island?

Professor Philip Piper – A Co-author of the Scientific Paper Published in April Holding a Cast of a Toe Bone

A cast of the toe bone of Homo luzonensis.

Professor Piper (Australian National University) holding a cast of a toe bone assigned to H. luzonensis.

Picture Credit: Lannon Harley (Australian National University)

6). A Terrifying Trilobite (Redlichia rex)

In the summer, Everything Dinosaur published an article about the largest trilobite to have been discovered in Australia.  A likely predator of other trilobites, this was a thirty-centimetre-long Cambrian terror. It was appropriately named Redlichia rex and was nicknamed “the king of the trilobites”.  The fossil material comes from an exceptional Lagerstätte known as the Emu Bay Shale on Kangaroo Island, South Australia.  Around fifty different species of trilobite have been identified from this location.  Intriguingly, the predatory and potentially cannibalistic Redlichia rex may also have been hunted, preserved coprolite and the injuries recorded on the exoskeleton of specimens hint at a much larger predator lurking in the shallow sea that once covered this part of Australia.

A Fossil Specimen and the New for 2020 CollectA Redlichia rex Trilobite Model

Redlichia rex fossil and model.

A Redlichia rex trilobite fossil and the new for 2020 CollectA model.

Picture Credit: University of Adelaide/Everything Dinosaur

The naming of a new Cambrian predator inspired the model makers at CollectA to create a replica of Redlichia rex, we expect this figure to make its debut on the Everything Dinosaur website around the middle of next year.  Prior to that event in 2020, we must first complete our chronicle of the top blog posts of 2019, we will conclude this feature tomorrow.

26 12, 2019

Dinosaurs Bred Close to the South Pole

By | December 26th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Baby Dinosaurs from Australia Indicate Dinosaurs Bred at High Latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere

Evidence has been found of ornithopod dinosaurs breeding at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere but evidence of similar behaviours in the southern hemisphere, dinosaurs nesting within the Antarctic Circle, had been lacking until now.  Writing in the on-line, open access journal “Scientific Reports”, researchers from the University of New England (New South Wales, Australia), in collaboration with colleagues from the Australian Opal Centre (Lightning Ridge, New South Wales), report the discovery of two tiny thigh bones (femora), that suggest that ornithopods did breed in southern polar environments.

An Artist’s Reconstruction of a Nesting Ornithopod with Recently Hatched Young

Dinosaurs Nesting Close to the South Pole.

A life reconstruction of a nesting Australian ornithopod (based on Weewarrasaurus).  The two femora are indistinct and scientists are not able to identify them down to the genus level but since the wallaby-sized ornithopod Weewarrasaurus is known from close by, the reconstruction has been based on this dinosaur.

Picture Credit: James Kuether

Co-author of the scientific paper, Dr Phil Bell (School of Environmental and Rural Science, University of New England) explained:

“We have examples of hatchling-sized dinosaurs from close to the North Pole, but this is the first time we’ve seen this kind of thing anywhere in the southern hemisphere.  It’s the first clue we’ve had about where these animals were breeding and raising their young.”

Dinosaurs Were Able to Tolerate a Range of Climates

The discovery of the two tiny, opalised thigh bones adds to the growing body of evidence that suggests that the Dinosauria, just like their close relatives the birds,  were remarkably climate-tolerant.  They thrived in equatorial, temperate and polar environments.  Fossilised eggshell and the fossilised remains of tiny hatchling hadrosaurids demonstrates that dinosaurs bred at high latitudes in the northern hemisphere and now the discovery to two partial thigh bones from the Griman Creek Formation exposed near Lightning Ridge suggests that non-iguanodontid ornithopods bred beyond sixty degrees south, well inside the Antarctic Circle.

The Two Opalised Fragmentary Dinosaur Thigh Bones (Femora)

The two tiny thigh bones indicate dinosaur nesting within the Antarctic Circle.

Proximal parts of ornithopod femora from the Griman Creek Formation. LRF 0759 (a–d). LRF 3375 (e–i).  Anterior views (a-e); (b,f) medial views; (c,g) posterior views; (d,i) proximal views; (h) lateral view.

Picture Credit: Scientific Reports

The two fragmentary fossil femurs do not preserve any evidence of histology, so, it is not possible to determine the exact age of the animals from these fossils.  However, when this material is compared with neonatal and slightly older, possible yearling specimens known from the geologically slightly older Eumeralla and Wonthaggi formations in Victoria (Australia), it can be deduced that these are the thigh bones of embryonic dinosaurs, ones that were yet to hatch.

The femur is relatively large (although in these tiny dinosaurs, one femur is estimated to have a total length of 4.5 cm, whilst the other is even smaller with an estimated total length of just 3.7 cm), as such, this bone has a better chance of surviving the fossilisation process than most of the other bones in the dinosaur’s body.  Palaeontologists had thought that dinosaurs living at high latitudes were not permanent residents, they migrated into these areas during the period of extended daylight and subsequent copious plant growth, just like herds of caribou in the Arctic Circle do today.  However, the ornithopods, even as fully grown adults were relatively small animals, as such they were probably not capable of migrating vast distances.  Therefore, it is likely that at least some dinosaurs were permanent residents at very high southerly latitudes and as such they bred at these environments.

Palaeogeographic Map of Australia Around 100 Million Years Ago

Palaeogeographic map of South Pole (100 million years ago).

Palaeogeographic map of Australia at the Albian/Cenomanian boundary (circa 100 million years ago) showing the fossil localities discussed in this paper. (1) Lightning Ridge, Griman Creek Formation (Cenomanian); (2) Dinosaur Cove, Eumeralla Formation (Albian); (3) Flat Rocks, Wonthaggi Formation (Aptian).

Picture Credit: Scientific Reports

The image (above) shows the approximate landmass associated with the polar regions around 100 million years ago.  The tiny fossilised thigh bones come from (1) the Lightning Ridge location.  In order to determine the age of these dinosaurs, they were compared with bones representing neonatal and slightly older animals found at locations (2) and (3).

The researchers conclude that these fossils support they hypothesis that some dinosaurs at least were permanent residents in the very southernmost portion of Gondwana.

The scientific paper: “High-latitude neonate and perinate ornithopods from the mid-Cretaceous of south-eastern Australia” by Justin L. Kitchener, Nicolás E. Campione, Elizabeth T. Smith and Phil R. Bell published in Scientific Reports.

25 12, 2019

Merry Christmas from Everything Dinosaur

By | December 25th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Merry Christmas from Everything Dinosaur

“Tis the season to be jolly.”  A very merry Christmas to all our customers, social media followers, Instagram aficionados, Facebook fans and blog readers.  It has been another very busy year of web log posts with lots of amazing new fossil discoveries, news stories and fascinating research.  Seasonal greetings and compliments of the season to all our dedicated readers of this blog.

Merry Christmas from Everything Dinosaur

A merry Christmas from all at Everything Dinosaur.

Wishing all our customers, social media fans, followers and of course, our web log readers the compliments of the season.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Team members are already looking forward to an exciting 2020, plans are very well advanced for the forthcoming year.  We intend to write lots of new dinosaur and prehistoric animal themed articles over the next twelve months or so.  We can’t wait to introduce our readers to lots of new dinosaurs and yes, there will be quite a few in 2020.

Wishing all our customers and readers a wonderful Christmas and a happy New Year.

Given our plans, we think it is appropriate to also say: Feliz Navidad, Joyeux Noël, Fröhliche Weihnachten, Buon Natale, Feliz Natal, Merīkurisumasu ….

24 12, 2019

Taking a Stroll Around “Garden” Rebor Stegosaurus Models in Stock

By | December 24th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor Stegosaurus Models in Stock

The trio of Rebor 1:35 scale Stegosaurus models called “Garden” are in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  All three colour variants – “Plain”, “Woodland” and “Mountain” have arrived and what a tremendous trio of Thyreophorans they make!

All Three Rebor Stegosaurus Models are in Stock at Everything Dinosaur

Rebor Stegosaurus armatus "Garden" colour variants.

The three new for 2019 Rebor Stegosaurus dinosaur models – left to right “plain”, “mountain” and “woodland”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Each figure is supplied with its own presentation base and the tail equipped with its “thagomizer”, slots neatly into the model to form a spectacular display piece  The colouration and finish on these models is really good, each figure has been given a glossy wash coat, which gives the plates a beautiful sheen and the dinosaur an attractive and realistic “wet-look”.

The New for 2019 Rebor Stegosaurus “Plain” Colour Variant

Rebor Stegosaurus armatus "Garden" dinosaur model.

Rebor 1:35 scale Stegosaurus armatus “plain” colour variant.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Stegosaurus armatus

Rebor have chosen to base these new armoured dinosaur figures on the Stegosaurus armatus species erected by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1877, from fossilised remains found in Colorado.  A victim of the bone wars, the first Stegosaurus species to be named is regarded by many palaeontologists as invalid, it has nomen dubium status, but since the first description of this Late Jurassic herbivore was published, Stegosaurus has gone onto become one of the most recognisable dinosaurs of all.  The Rebor replicas are superb, the different colour variants depict different potential habitats for this low browser.  It is hard to decide which one is our personal favourite.

The Rebor Stegosaurus “Woodland” Colour Variant

Rebor Stegosaurus armatus "woodland" colour variant.

The stunning Stegosaurus “woodland” colour variant from Rebor.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Flexible Tails and Necks

The Stegosaurus figures have flexible necks and tails.  The tail can be placed in a variety of poses, those carefully crafted spikes on the end of the tail can be positioned in such a way as to indicate that the animal is striking at an attacker with its “thagomizer”.  The thicker, shorter neck is a little less flexible, but the head can still be turned and adjusted so that dinosaur fans can create their own, unique dioramas.

The Rebor Stegosaurus armatus Model “Mountain”

Rebor Stegosaurus 1:35 scale dinosaur model "mountain".

The Rebor Stegosaurus armatus “mountain” colour scheme.  Both the tail and the neck can be bent sideways to create new poses for the dinosaur model.  Note the both the tail and the head have been positioned away from the camera.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Detailed Bases

Each model is supplied with its own base, but if you acquire two or more of these Stegosaurus figures then the bases can be interchanged between the models.  After all, with such a huge appetite these armoured dinosaurs probably migrated quite large distances to find food, from the open plains to the woodlands and perhaps to higher altitudes to seek some relief from the hottest and driest part of the dry season.

The Three New for 2019 Rebor 1:35 scale Stegosaurus Dinosaur Models

Three Rebor Stegosaurus models.

A trio of Stegosaurus models.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Available separately or as a three-piece set whilst stocks last from Everything Dinosaur.  To view the Stegosaurus figures and the rest of the spectacular Rebor range available from Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

23 12, 2019

“The Story of the Dinosaurs in 25 Discoveries” Book Review

By | December 23rd, 2019|Book Reviews, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

“The Story of the Dinosaurs in 25 Discoveries” Book Review

There are many dinosaur books on the market but very few are written in such an engaging and informative manner – “The Story of the Dinosaurs in 25 Discoveries” by Donald R. Prothero tells the fascinating story of how our knowledge regarding the Dinosauria has evolved and changed over time – and what a superb read it is!  We doff our hard hats to you sir, once again you have produced an extremely informative and enjoyable read.

The Front Cover of “The Story of the Dinosaurs in 25 Discoveries”

"The Story of the Dinosaursin 25 Discoveries".

Front cover of the new book by Professor Donald R. Prothero “The Story of the Dinosaurs in 25 Discoveries”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

160 Million Years of Dinosaur Evolution and 190 Years of Study Encapsulated in Four Parts

Professor Prothero draws on all his experience as a palaeontologist, geologist and teacher to identify twenty-five dinosaurs that tell the story of scientific enquiry, the development of vertebrate palaeontology and to plot our changing views when it comes to these extinct reptiles.  The book is cleverly divided up into four distinct parts.  The first section outlines the early discoveries and some of the first of the dinosaurs to be scientifically described.  Megalosaurus and Iguanodon feature prominently, but the author widens the narrative somewhat by penning a chapter on the first dinosaur to be described from North America (Hadrosaurus).  The southern portion of this great continent is not overlooked, this section of the book is drawn to a close with a focus on Eoraptor from South America, widely regarded as one of the first dinosaurs to be have existed.

Part two introduces the long-necked giants, famous dinosaurs such as Diplodocus, Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus and the larger than life characters who were responsible for the “bone wars” and the taxonomic puzzles that still, in many cases have yet to be unravelled.  Look out for a chapter dedicated to working out which was the biggest dinosaur of all, we think the reader is going to be intrigued by Professor Prothero’s conclusion.

The Book is Adorned with Larger than Life Characters and the Stories Behind Fossil Discoveries

Othniel Charles Marsh and Red Cloud.

Famous American palaeontologist Othniel Charles Marsh with his friend Red Cloud Chief of the Lakota people.

Picture Credit: “The Story of the Dinosaurs in 25 Discoveries”/Colombia University Press

If you needed to pacify an angry native American and get their permission to prospect for fossils on their territory, being able to take your false teeth out seems to do the trick, that is in the view of the author in one of his many, carefully researched anecdotes.

Red in Tooth and Claw

Part three deals with the Theropoda, that broad clade that includes most of the carnivorous giants.  Readers can expect to encounter Spinosaurus, Giganotosaurus and of course, perhaps the most famous dinosaur of all Tyrannosaurus rex.  Professor Prothero explains the problems surrounding the hunt for the fossils of such a well-known dinosaur, the T. rex chapter provides a concise overview of the issue of poaching and the illegal sale of fossil material to private collectors and dealers.

The fourth instalment of this excellent book, highlights the bird-hipped dinosaurs.  Entitled “horns and spikes and armour and duck-bills”, this moniker neatly encapsulates the contents, as the Ornithischians dinosaurs such as Stegosaurus, Triceratops and Corythosaurus are featured.

Members of the Thyreophora Such as Edmontonia Feature in the Book

Edmontonia and a life reconstruction.

The nodosaur Edmontonia (A), on display with an outdated life reconstruction (B).  The book contains numerous black and white photographs and illustrations.

Picture Credit: “The Story of the Dinosaurs in 25 Discoveries”/Colombia University Press

Tale of the Tape

T‎itle: “The Story of the Dinosaurs in 25 Discoveries”.
ISBN: 978-0-231-18602-5.
Price: Around £27 GBP.
Format: Hardback and ebook.
Publisher: Columbia University Press.
Size: 446 pages excluding index.
Subject classification: natural history/popular science/science.

Everything Dinosaur’s verdict – highly recommended both for the academic and for the general reader.

This book can be purchased on the Columbia University Press website: Columbia University Press.  Use the search feature to find the author and to see a selection of his books.

22 12, 2019

Dinosaurs from the “End of the World”

By | December 22nd, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Scientists Map out the Late Cretaceous Biota of the Chorrillo Formation (Patagonia)

Scientists meeting at the end of year conference of the Argentine Museum of Natural Sciences have presented a new paper that provides an insight into the vertebrate biota associated with the Chorrillo Formation in the Province of Santa Cruz (Patagonia, southern Argentina).  Two new dinosaurs have been described, a basal member of the Iguanodontia estimated to have measured around four metres in length and a much bigger dinosaur, a titanosaur that is estimated to have measured around twenty-five metres long.

Numerous fossil fragments representing several individuals have been found indicating that the iguanodont material might represent a small herd of animals that died together.  This dinosaur has been named Isasicursor santacrucensis, whilst the titanosaur has been named Nullotitan glaciaris.

Two New Dinosaurs were Named at the Conference

Nullotitan and Isasicursor life reconstruction.

A life reconstruction of the titanosaur Nullotitan and the basal iguanodontid Isasicursor.

Picture Credit: CONICET

“Los Dinosaurios del fin del Mundo”

All the fossil material examined in the scientific paper, the dinosaur remains, fossilised titanosaur eggshells, fossils associated with other reptiles including a mosasaur, come from an area of approximately 2,000 square metres.  The sequential strata associated with this part of the Chorrillo Formation plot a gradual ingression of the sea eating into a coastal environment.  The dinosaurs are believed to have lived around 70 million years ago (Maastrichtian faunal stage of the Cretaceous).  As these fossils date from near the end of the Age of Dinosaurs and are geographically located in the south of Argentina, the researchers dubbed them as “Los dinosaurios del fin del mundo” – the dinosaurs from the end of the world.

Silhouette Reconstructions of Isasicursor and Nullotitan

Chorrillo Formation dinosaurs.

Silhouettes of Isasicursor santacrucensis (top) and Nullotitan glaciaris (bottom).

Picture Credit: CONICET

An Enormous Femur

Nullotitan fossil material consists of fragmentary elements from the tail (caudal vertebrae), along with a single neck bone (cervical vertebra), portions of the limbs and other scrappy fossil material.  The largest, most complete fossil bone is a humerus (upper arm bone), it measures 114 cm long, but both the distal and proximal ends of an enormous femur (thigh bone) were also recovered from the site.  The femur is estimated to have been around 190 centimetres in length.

The scientists also reported fragments of theropod eggshells as well as evidence of the presence of both large and small members of the Megaraptoridae, although no fossils associated with abelisaurs were found.  Remains of fishes, lizards, turtles and snakes were also identified along with fossil wood and a large number of terrestrial and freshwater snails.  Mammals were present in the ecosystem, two isolated vertebrae belonging to a small mammal were found.  The fossil material representing individual animals might be quite poor and scrappy in nature, but the number of fossil finds has greatly improved our understanding of the biota of the southern tip of Patagonia close to the K-Pg boundary that marks the end of the Cretaceous.

Fossil Material Ascribed to Isasicursor santacrucensis

Isascursor fossils.

The fossil material associated with Isasicursor.

Picture Credit: CONICET

21 12, 2019

Fukuisaurus Scale Drawing

By | December 21st, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page|0 Comments

Fukuisaurus tetoriensis Scale Drawing

As Everything Dinosaur prepares for the arrival of the first of the new for 2020 CollectA “Age of Dinosaurs” models and figures, team members are busy sorting out scale drawings to insert into the prehistoric animal fact sheets that we are researching and writing.  One of the first of the new CollectA models will be a Fukuisaurus, a replica of a bird-hipped dinosaur known from the Early Cretaceous of Japan.

Very little of the skeleton of Fukuisaurus (F. tetoriensis) is known.  CollectA, just like palaeontologists who have to try to reconstruct a dinosaur skeleton, from only a limited amount of material, have based their figure on better-known iguanodontids that were probably closely related to Fukuisaurus.  From the model, Everything Dinosaur team members have been able to commission their scale drawing.

The Scale Drawing of Fukuisaurus (F. tetoriensis)

Fukuisaurus illustration.

A scale drawing of the Early Cretaceous dinosaur Fukuisaurus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Calculating the Size of Fukuisaurus

Although the actual size of Fukuisaurus is not known (due to the scarcity and paucity of the fossil material), Everything Dinosaur team members have based their scale drawing on the size estimate given by the acclaimed dinosaur expert Gregory S. Paul who postulated a body length of around four to four and half metres.  The body weight of this herbivorous dinosaur would have fluctuated over the course of the year, depending on the availability of food.  Just like many herbivores today, this dinosaur would have laid down fat during the times when forage was plentiful and then it would have lived on its reserves during times when food was scarce, such as in the dry season.  Everything Dinosaur team members estimate that this dinosaur probably weighed around four hundred kilograms when fully grown.

At the time when Everything Dinosaur announced this 2020 edition to the CollectA Deluxe range, model designer Anthony Beeson stated that he had been inspired to introduce another dinosaur from the famous Kitadani Formation of Japan, in response to requests from Japanese collectors.  These fans will have in 2020, a model of an Early Cretaceous ornithopod to display alongside the CollectA Fukuiraptor that was introduced this year (2019).

The CollectA Fukuiraptor and the CollectA Fukuisaurus Dinosaur Models

CollectA dinosaur models Fukuiraptor and Fukuisaurus.

The CollectA Fukuiraptor (top) and the CollectA Deluxe Fukuisaurus (bottom).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To read about the first of the new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animal models: New CollectA Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models (Part 1).

To view the range of prehistoric animal scale models available from Everything Dinosaur in the CollectA Deluxe model range: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Animal Models.

19 12, 2019

Papo Model Retirements for 2020

By | December 19th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Maintenance on Website, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Papo Prehistoric Animal Model Retirements for 2020

Everything Dinosaur team members recently announced what new prehistoric animal models will be brought out by Papo in 2020.  In total, six new models will be introduced next year, five dinosaurs: New Papo Dinosaur Models for 2020 and for us, the stand out figure from Papo for 2020, a replica of Megaloceros New Papo Megaloceros.

Today, we publish details of those prehistoric animal figures that are being withdrawn.  Being notified about retiring figures is important to collectors, with such a notice they can secure a model for their collection before they become too rare and difficult to obtain.

In 2020 Papo will retire the following:

  • Green Stegosaurus
  • Baby Pachycephalosaurus
  • Original Feathered Velociraptor model
  • Green Parasaurolophus

Papo Prehistoric Animal Models Retired in 2020

Papo prehistoric animal model retirements.

Papo prehistoric animal model retirements (2020).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Model Retirements

With the arrival of a new Stegosaurus colour variant it was always likely that the original, green Stegosaurus dinosaur model would go the same way as the Papo Allosaurus and be withdrawn from production.  This is indeed the case, the Papo green Stegosaurus dinosaur model has been retired.

The Papo Green Stegosaurus has been Replaced by a New Colour Variant Papo Stegosaurus

Two Papo Stegosaurus figures.

The retired Papo Stegosaurus (left) and the new for 2019 Papo Stegosaurus (right).

A New Papo Parasaurolophus Heralds the Demise of the Original Papo Parasaurolophus

As Papo develops a number of colour variants, then the original figures are very likely to be retired shortly afterwards.  The original Papo Parasaurolophus will be replaced by a new colour variant in 2020 and is already out of production.

The Original Papo Parasaurolophus Model is Being Retired

Papo Parasaurolophus models old and new.

The original Papo Parasaurolophus (top) is being replaced by a new colour variant (bottom) in 2020.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The new Parasaurolophus has certainly got a striking colour scheme, but many model collectors and fans of Papo will miss the original version with its more muted colours and tones.

Papo Baby Pachycephalosaurus and the Feathered Velociraptor

The Papo Baby Pachycephalosaurus dinosaur model is also being retired and production of this model has already ceased.  Readers of this blog might have suspected that this figure was under threat when Everything Dinosaur released news of the introduction of a new “bonehead”, a replica of Stygimoloch , which is likely to be available in the late summer/autumn of 2020.

In addition, the original feathered Velociraptor model, released in 2016 is also being retired.  It too is being replaced by a new colour variant.

Papo Feathered Velociraptor Old and New

Papo Feathered Velociraptor Models (Old and New).

New Papo feathered Velociraptor dinosaur model (top), the 2016 Papo feathered Velociraptor (bottom).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We can now reveal which models are being retired from the Papo Les Dinosaures range.  By releasing this information now, model collectors still have the chance to acquire these figures before they become subject to inflated prices as found on internet auction sites.”

Everything Dinosaur still has stocks of these figures available, they can be found here: Papo Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Figures

17 12, 2019

Ancient Crocodilian Evolved Unique Specialisations Due to its Size

By | December 17th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Purussaurus mirandai – Had an Extra Vertebra to Assist Movement

The giant, prehistoric caiman Purussaurus mirandai, known from Miocene-aged deposits of Venezuela, had unique anatomical adaptations to help it move.  New research, published in the on-line journal “eLife” by an international team of scientists led by Dr Torsten Scheyer of the Palaeontological Institute and Museum of Zurich, demonstrate that this three-tonne predator was able to support its huge bulk by having an extra vertebra in its hip region (sacrum) and the shoulder girdle had also become specially adapted to assist terrestrial movement.

Comparing the Anatomy of P. mirandai to an Extant Caiman (C. Yacare)

P. mirandai compared to a living caiman (C. Yacare).

Comparing the anatomy of P. mirandai to a living caiman (C. Yacare).

Picture Credit: JA Chirinos/The Royal Veterinary College

A Swamp Dweller But Capable of Moving Around on Land

The unusual characteristics suggest that although Purussaurus would have been very much at home in rivers and swamps it was also able to move around on land, although not all that quickly, but over rough terrain and a short distance, this 8-metre-long reptile could have threatened to catch a typical member of our own species .  This research links nicely into a study carried out on the locomotion of modern crocodilians undertaken recently by the Royal Veterinary College, a study that Everything Dinosaur intends to report upon in the near future.

It is the only crocodilian to date to have an extra vertebra in its sacrum.  Purussaurus had three sacral vertebrae not the usual two.  This development requires changes to the “Hox genes” that control where certain body parts are formed.  The scientists noticed that some living crocodilians suffer malformations that cause an extra vertebra to be created in their sacrum, so it is evident that the Hox genes that can make these evolutionary changes remain available to crocodilians today.

Commenting on the findings, co-author of the study, Professor John Hutchinson (Royal Veterinary College) stated:

“We didn’t think that Purussaurus moved quickly on land.  Our findings are important because they help show how development can be altered in order to enable biomechanical changes as animals evolve into larger body sizes.”

Selected Forelimb Bones of Purussaurus from the Urumaco Formation of Venezuela

Purussaurus forelimb fossils.

(A) Interpretative reconstruction of the complete body outline of P. mirandai showing the preserved and assembled bones and the lower jaw in tentative live position.  Left shoulder blade (B) in lateral, medial, and posterior view.  Right shoulder blade (c) in medial view.  Right lower shoulder girdle (coracoid) (D) in dorsomedial, ventrolateral, and anterior view.  Note bony armour osteoderms (in upper part of trunk) and ribs (in lower part of trunk) are not in life position.

Picture Credit: The Royal Veterinary College

Lead author of the research, Dr Torsten Scheyer commented:

“We have been extremely lucky to find such a high amount of fossils in the badlands of Venezuela, which allowed the recognition of the unique condition in the hip region of the giant Purussaurus in the first place.  These old bones show us once again that the morphological variation seen in animals that are long extinct extends well beyond that of what is known in living animals, and thereby broadens our knowledge of what animals can do in evolution.”

An Illustration of the Fearsome Crocodilian Purussaurus mirandai 

Purussaurus mirandai illustrated.

Purussaurus mirandai illustrated, scale bar = 50 cm.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The scientific paper: “Giant extinct caiman breaks constraint on the axial skeleton of extant crocodylians” by Torsten M Scheyer, John R Hutchinson, Olivier Strauss, Massimo Delfino, Jorge D Carrillo-Briceño, Rodolfo Sánchez and Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra published in eLife.

15 12, 2019

CollectA 2020 Prehistoric Animal Models

By | December 15th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

CollectA 2020 Prehistoric Animal Models

Taking a short break from all the picking and packing we are doing in order to get parcels out to customers as quickly as we can in readiness for the 25th December, team members at Everything Dinosaur took some pictures of the illustrations we have of the new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animal models.  What an eclectic mix of ancient creatures they are!

Illustrating the New for 2020 CollectA Prehistoric Animal Models

What a collection? The new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animals.

Some of the illustrations we used in our recent videos announcing the new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animal models.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

From Terrific Trilobites to Mighty Megalodon

CollectA have certainly developed a diverse range of models to be introduced over the next twelve months or so.  There is quite a range of geological deep time represented by the different taxa, from terrific Trilobites of the Late Cambrian through the remainder of the Palaeozoic, the Mesozoic into the Cenozoic and with the nautilus, to the present.

We congratulate the design team at CollectA for providing such a variety of new models.  The first of these models such as the Protoceratops in 1:6 scale, are due out in quarter 1 of 2020, the rest of the figures will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur over the following few months.

With so  many models it is difficult to pick a favourite, however, team members are excited about the Orthoceras and it is great to see a representative of the elephant-sized dicynodont Lisowicia bojani coming into stock.  Our Polish customers are going to be particularly pleased to see L. bojani.

To view the current range of CollectA Age of Dinosaurs – Popular size figures: CollectA Prehistoric Life.

To view the first of the 2020 CollectA prehistoric animals to be announced: New CollectA Prehistoric Animals (Part 1).

To read about the second set of new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animals: New CollectA Prehistoric Animals (Part 2).

To read the third part in our series introducing new CollectA figures: New CollectA Models (Part 3).

To read the fourth part in this series: New CollectA Models (Part 4).

To view the CollectA scale model series: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life.

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