All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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Dinosaur and prehistoric animal themed articles, features and stories.

7 10, 2019

New Pterosaur Species Described from Liaoning Province

By | October 7th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Nurhachius luei – A New Species of Early Cretaceous Pterosaur from China

A team of international researchers including scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the University of Copenhagen and the Fur Museum (both Denmark), along with colleagues based in Brazil, have named a new species of istiodactylid pterosaur from the Liaoning Province of north-eastern China.  This new flying reptile has been named Nurhachius luei, it is the second species in the Nurhachius genus to be announced after the type species Nurhachius ignaciobritoi, which also hails from the Jiufotang Formation, was named and described in 2005.

The Holotype Specimen of Nurhachius luei

Holotype specimen of Nurhachius luei with an accompanying line drawing.

The holotype specimen of Nurhachius luei with an accompanying line drawing.  Note scale bar = 5 cm.

Picture Credit: PeerJ

Described from Cranial Material and Neck Bones

More than twenty different pterosaur species have been described to date from fossils associated with the Jiufotang Formation of China.  Although, the date of these extensive deposits is controversial, it is thought that Nurhachius luei lived during the Aptian faunal stage of the Cretaceous (125 – 113 million years ago).  The Istiodactylidae family are thought by many palaeontologists to represent the first lineage of the Pterodactyloidea.  They evolved sometime in the Late Jurassic and their thin bone walls, reduced tails, absence of a fifth toe and elongated hand bones (metacarpals), provided the anatomical “blueprint” for all subsequent types of pterosaur.  In essence, these “new” types of flying reptile replaced the long-tailed rhamphorhynchids and their relatives.

Four pterosaur genera and five species (all represented by a single specimen), have been referred to the Istiodactylidae.  Three of the genera are associated with Liaoning deposits, whilst the remaining genus Istiodactylus (I. latidens), the first to be studied at the very beginning of the 20th Century, hails from the Early Cretaceous Vectis Formation of the Isle of Wight.

A few years ago (2011), a jaw tip found in Canada was interpreted as being from an istiodactylid pterosaur.  This pterosaur was named Gwawinapterus beardi.  It seemed both geographically and temporally removed from all the other known members of the Istiodactylidae and a revised description was published in 2012.  Gwawinapterus was actually a fish, it just happened to have closely spaced teeth that superficially resembled the dentition of istiodactylid pterosaurs.

To read more about Gwawinapterus beardiA New, Unique Species of Canadian Pterosaur is Described.

The scientific paper: “Nurhachius luei, a new istiodactylid pterosaur (Pterosauria, Pterodactyloidea) from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Chaoyang City, Liaoning Province (China) and comments on the Istiodactylidae” by Xuanyu Zhou​, Rodrigo V. Pêgas​, Maria E.C. Leal and Niels Bonde published in the academic journal PeerJ.

4 10, 2019

PNSO Megalodon Model – More Information

By | October 4th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

PNSO Megalodon Model – More Information

At Everything Dinosaur, we try our best to respond to all the enquiries, questions and emails that we receive from our customers.  This is no mean feat considering the thousands of customers we have all over the world, but we do try hard to answer all the queries in a timely fashion.  For example, having produced a short video featuring the large Megalodon (Carcharocles megalodon) replica from PNSO, we were asked to show more details of this shark model.  To this end, within 24-hours, we produced another brief video showing the prehistoric shark model in greater detail.

The PNSO Large Megalodon Model – Showcasing “Patton” the Megalodon

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

PNSO Megalodon “Patton” Large Prehistoric Shark Model

In this short video presentation, we reaffirm the model’s size (it measures around 32 centimetres in length), we estimate the model’s scale at approximately 1:50 based on the length of Carcharocles megalodon at around 16 metres.  In addition, we highlight the “battle scarring” on the model and discuss the figure’s gloss finish.  Large predators tend to pick up a variety of injuries, we suspect Megalodon was no exception.  If it preyed on marine mammals, we expect creatures such as Obobenocetops which was contemporaneous with this prehistoric shark, not to succumb without putting up a fight.  Scars and tears in the fins would be just part of being an apex predator.

Holding a PNSO Megalodon Shark Model

PNSO Megalodon model "Patton".

The PNSO large Megalodon model “Patton” being held by an Everything Dinosaur team member.  Note the white “battle scars” on the body and the nicks and rips in the dorsal fin.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Our latest prehistoric animal themed video is now up on the company’s YouTube channel.  Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel features over a hundred different prehistoric animal model reviews and lots of other helpful information for model collectors and dinosaur fans.

Discover Everything Dinosaur on YouTube and please subscribe: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

A Glossy Wet-look

In this short video, we also comment on the finish of this shark replica.  The new version of “Patton” (the large PNSO Megalodon figure), has a glossier finish than its predecessor.  The model’s seams are much less visible and the addition of a gloss provides a pleasing wet-look finish to the figure.  As the video narrator remarked, the wet-look is very appropriate given the fact that this is a model of a marine animal.

For further details about the impressive PNSO Age of Dinosaurs model range, including information about the PNSO Megalodon figures visit: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Figures and Replicas.

2 10, 2019

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models

By | October 2nd, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|1 Comment

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models

The new for 2020 prehistoric animal models from Safari Ltd have been announced.  In total, nine new figures will be added to the Wild Safari Prehistoric World model range, namely:

  1. Concavenator
  2. Deinonychus
  3. Dilophosaurus
  4. Edmontosaurus
  5. Ichthyosaurus (marine reptile)
  6. Pachycephalosaurus
  7. Qianzhousaurus
  8. Sarcosuchus (prehistoric crocodile)
  9. Shringasaurus (a bizarre, diapsid reptile from the Triassic of India, that was only formally named and described two years ago)

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Concavenator Dinosaur Model

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Concavenator dinosaur model.

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Concavenator dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Deinonychus Dinosaur Model

The new for 2020 the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Deinonychus dinosaur model.

New for 2020 the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Deinonychus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Dilophosaurus Dinosaur Model

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Dilophosaurus dinosaur model.

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Dilophosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Edmontosaurus Dinosaur Model

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Edmontosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus Marine Reptile Model

New for 2020 the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus model.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Ichthyosaurus model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus Dinosaur Model

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus dinosaur model.

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pachycephalosaurus model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Qianzhousaurus Dinosaur Model

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Qianzhousaurus tyrannosaurid model.

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Qianzhousaurus model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The World Safari Prehistoric World Sarcosuchus Model

2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Sarcosuchus.

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Sarcosuchus model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Shringasaurus Model

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Shringasaurus.

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Shringasaurus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Tale of the Tape – Model Measurements

We know how important the size of a figure is to dinosaur fans and model collectors, we have published details (below), of the approximate factory model measurements.  As and when models come into stock, our team members will check measurements and record model details.

  • Concavenator – length 16.8 cm and just under 7 cm (head height).
  • Deinonychus – length just over 22 cm, height of head just over 8.5 cm.
  • Dilophosaurus – length just over 16 cm, height of head just over 7.5 cm.
  • Edmontosaurus – length 26.2 cm, height 9.5 cm.  The Edmontosaurus is the largest prehistoric animal model Safari Ltd are introducing early in 2020.
  • Ichthyosaurus – length just over 19 cm.
  • Pachycephalosaurus – length 20.6 cm, height of head just over 10 cm.
  • Qianzhousaurus -length 22.9 cm, height of head just over 9 cm.
  • Sarcosuchus – length just under 26.5 cm.
  • Shringasaurus – length 17 cm, height of head 6 cm.

Expected When?

These figures will be put into production over the next few weeks, the official introduction date is around February 2020.  However, Everything Dinosaur hopes to have some of these models a little earlier, perhaps around December 2019.  Pricing for these models has yet to be announced.

Everything Dinosaur’s priority reserve list is now open, to reserve any of these figures simply email us, stating which model(s) you would like to reserve: Email Everything Dinosaur.

1 10, 2019

PNSO Large Megalodon Model – Patton

By | October 1st, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

The Battle Damaged PNSO Large Megalodon Model

Our friends at PNSO introduced this year a new version of their large prehistoric shark replica (Megalodon).  We have been asked by many fans of prehistoric animals to show more pictures of this exciting figure.  Our team members are happy to oblige and we have produced a short video in which we unbox this large replica and provide a view of the amazing paintwork and detail on this PVC shark.  We also comment on the intricate and subtle scarring that is seen on this PNSO replica.

The Battle Scarred PNSO Large Megalodon Model

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Reviewing a Fearsome Prehistoric Shark

Known from calcified vertebrae and most famously, from huge triangular teeth, this prehistoric shark is thought to be the largest hypercarnivorous Elasmobranch to have ever existed.  Size estimates vary, but a length of approximately sixteen metres has been proposed.  The PNSO Megalodon figure is also an impressive size, it measures around 32 centimetres in length and when erected on its display base (included in the box), the figure stands some 25 cm high.

The Stunning Cover Sleeve Artwork for the PNSO Megalodon Model

Brilliant artwork on the PNSO Megalodon model cover sleeve.

The amazing, colourful sleeve artwork on the PNSO Megalodon figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Patton or Patton?

In our short video, (it lasts around 1 minute 45 seconds), we highlight some of the beautiful detail on this amazing prehistoric shark model.  PNSO now have two Megalodon models in their range.  Earlier this year, a second, smaller model was introduced, this figure had an articulated lower jaw.  Ironically, both these figures have been given the nickname “Patton” by the manufacturer, this might lead to a little bit of confusion.  We have asked our chums at PNSO for explanation, it seems that since Patton proved to be such a popular name for the larger figure, then the monicker became the name of choice for the second Megalodon replica.  So, PNSO currently offer two Megalodon figures, both entitled Patton.

“Patton” and “Patton” Two Megalodon Prehistoric Shark Replicas from PNSO

PNSO Megalodon shark models.

Which of the PNSO Megalodon prehistoric shark models do you prefer?  Please select either “Patton” or “Patton”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel provides lots of informative and helpful videos about dinosaur and prehistoric animal models.  Checkout out our YouTube channel and please subscribe.

Find Everything Dinosaur on YouTube: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

Further details on the extensive PNSO Age of Dinosaurs model range, including information on the two PNSO Megalodon figures visit: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Figures and Replicas.

29 09, 2019

Kit Out Your Young Palaeontologists

By | September 29th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Kit Out Your Young Palaeontologists

Kit out your budding, young palaeontologists like seasoned dinosaur hunters with these two super additions to the Everything Dinosaur product range.  We have a young palaeontologist field kit and a child’s dinosaur themed hard hat to help turn enthusiastic young dinosaur fans into experienced fossil collectors.

The Dinosaur Explorer Hard Hat

Dinosaur explorer hard hat.

Go exploring for dinosaur fossils with this child’s dinosaur explorer hard hat.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Go Hunting for Dinosaur Fossils

Go exploring for dinosaur fossil bones and teeth with this super, child’s dinosaur themed hard hat.  The hard hat comes complete with a headlamp torch to help illuminate the young explorer’s path.  Please note, this is a hat ideal for role play and dressing up games and that this is not a piece of actual safety apparel, although the hat with its motif of dinosaur skeletons, claws and teeth is much more attractive than our own hard hats that we wear.  The torch requires two AA batteries (not supplied), but the hat comes with comprehensive instructions about fitting/changing batteries.  The child’s hard hat even has an adjustable plastic strap, just like a real hard hat, so you can ensure that the hat fits snug and secure.

The Dinosaur Explorer Palaeontologist Field Kit

Dinosaur Explorer Young Palaeontologists Field Kit.

The young palaeontologist dinosaur explorer kit contains a sturdy plastic water bottle along with a toy compass and a pair of dinosaur themed binoculars.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Dinosaur Explorer Field Palaeontologist Kit

What a super idea for a Christmas gift!  We suspect that your young dinosaur fan will be roaring with excitement when they see this field palaeontologist kit.  The field kit contains the essentials to help budding young dinosaur hunters to explore and hunt for dinosaur fossils.  There is a sturdy and robust bright red water bottle, which you can write your name on.  The kit also includes a pair of dinosaur themed binoculars and a toy compass to help you plot your way through the Hell Creek Formation of Montana, or your garden, whichever is the nearest.

The Young Palaeontologist Dinosaur Explorer Palaeontologist Field Kit (Contents)

A palaeontologist field kit.

Dinosaur Explorer Young Palaeontologist Field Kit.  The kit contains a toy compass, a sturdy, plastic water bottle and a pair of dinosaur themed binoculars to help you spot fossils!

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The child’s hard hat and the dinosaur explorer field palaeontologist set are great for creative and imaginative play.  Helping to enthuse the next generation of Earth scientists with exciting games and role play.

To view the dinosaur explorer young palaeontologists field kit and the child’s hard hat, simply visit this section of our website: Dinosaur Gifts and Toys.

25 09, 2019

Stiff Skull Helped T. rex Crush Bones

By | September 25th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Stiff Skull Helped T. rex Crush Bones

Numerous research papers have been published about those monstrous jaws and huge skull of Tyrannosaurus rex.  Many of the studies have examined the biomechanics in a bid to better understand the bite forces that this Late Cretaceous terror could generate.  It is widely accepted that T. rex had a bone crushing bite, but just how it managed to crush the bones of a Triceratops or an unfortunate Edmontosaurus without damaging itself, has puzzled palaeontologists.  A new study, published in the journal “The Anatomical Record”, suggests that the T. rex skull was much stiffer than previously thought, much more like a crocodile skull or that of a hyena than a scaled-up, flexible bird skull.

New Study Suggests T. rex Had a Stiff Skull

"Scotty" the Tyrannosaurus rex.

A reconstruction of the skeleton of “Scotty” the T. rex.  Regarded as the heaviest specimen of T. rex known to science.   A new study suggests that like other bone-crushing tetrapods, the skull was functionally akinetic.

Picture Credit: Amanda Kelley

One of the co-authors of the study, Kaleb Sellers of the Missouri University School of Medicine explained:

“The T. rex had a skull that’s about six feet long, five feet wide and four feet high and bites with the force of about six tons.  Previous researchers looked at this from a bone-only perspective without taking into account all the connections, ligaments and cartilage that really mediate the interactions between the bones.”

Computer Generated Models Examined Stresses in the Upper Skull with a Focus on the Palatal Area

T. rex skull stress test.

Computer generated models were created to assess the stresses placed on an adult T. rex skull.

Picture Credit: University of Missouri

Looking at the Roof of the Mouth (Palatal Area)

The scientists, which included Kevin Middleton of the Missouri University School of Medicine, M. Scott Echols of The Medical Centre for Birds, Lawrence Witmer of Ohio University and Julian Davis (University of Southern Indiana), used a combination of anatomical study, computer modelling and biomechanical analysis assessing the skulls of a gecko and a parrot to examine how the skull of this apex Late Cretaceous predator was adapted to deliver such powerful bites.

Casey Holliday, from the University of Missouri, who also helped to write the scientific paper commented:

“Dinosaurs are like modern-day birds, crocodiles and lizards in that they inherited particular joints in their skulls from fish — ball and socket joints, much like people’s hip joints — that seem to lend themselves, but not always, to movement like in snakes.  When you put a lot of force on things, there’s a trade-off between movement and stability.  Birds and lizards have more movement but less stability.  When we applied their individual movements to the T. rex skull, we saw it did not like being wiggled in ways that the lizard and bird skulls do, which suggests more stiffness.”

A Functionally Akinetic Skull

Tyrannosaurus rex is considered to have one of the strongest bites of any terrestrial tetrapod.  There are lots of scientific papers and other literature that document this evidence.  Over the years, Everything Dinosaur have produced many articles on this subject area, including a blog post that summarised research published in “Biology Letters” – T. rex had a Bite More Powerful than any Other Land Animal.

The Skull and Jaws of Tyrannosaurus rex

A close-up view of a Kaiyodo Sofubi Toy Box Tyrannosaurus rex "classic" colour.

A close-up view of the head of the Kaiyodo Sofubi Toy Box T. rex “classic” colouration.  T. rex is famous for its huge and powerful jaws.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Biomechanical Paradox

The skull of T. rex has been regarded as quite flexible by palaeontologists, that is, it exhibits a degree of cranial kinensis.  The joints in the skull are quite mobile and flexible in relation to each other and the animal’s braincase.  This contradicts with what is seen in many extant tetrapods who are known to have a powerful, bone smashing bite.  Alligators and hyenas for example, have relatively robust and inflexible skulls, when compared to the skull of a bird or a lizard.  If the T. rex skull was flexible but still capable of delivering an enormous bite force, this is a biomechanical paradox, it defies a logical explanation.  Furthermore, the greatest bite forces measured for crocodilians and hyenas (ourselves for example too), are detected towards the back of the jaws, whereas, in Tyrannosaurus rex, the largest bite forces that have been calculated are recorded at the front of the jaws.

This New Analysis Suggests that the T. rex Skull was Functionally Akinetic

T. rex upper skull diagram.

Lateral and ventral views of a T. rex skull. The skull may have been more robust and stiffer than previously thought.

Picture Credit: University of Missouri

The researchers identified a number of adaptations in the cranium of T. rex to support the idea that the skull was not as flexible as previously thought.  The scientists postulate that the skull was functionally akinetic (much stiffer than previously surmised).

Research that Provides a Better Understanding of Our Own Joints and Bones

This study will help palaeontologists to better understand the function of tyrannosaurid skulls and the researchers postulate that their findings can help advance human and veterinary medicine.

The study, “Palatal biomechanics and its significance for cranial kinesis in Tyrannosaurus rex”, was published in The Anatomical Record.  Authors include Kevin Middleton of the Missouri University School of Medicine; M. Scott Echols of The Medical Centre for Birds; Lawrence Witmer of Ohio University and Julian Davis of University of Southern Indiana.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from the University of Missouri in the compilation of this article.

23 09, 2019

Papo Models on Display

By | September 23rd, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Papo Prehistoric Animal Models on Display

At Everything Dinosaur, we are always keen to see how the prehistoric animal models that we supply are displayed.  Our staff are constantly amazed by the incredible dinosaur dioramas and prehistoric landscapes that are built by our customers.  Take for example, Donovan from Canada.   An enthusiastic collector of Papo figures “Les Dinosaures”, Donovan has built a substantial display case for the Papo models within his collection.

A Prehistoric World Dominated by Papo Prehistoric Animals

A fantastic display of Papo dinosaurs and prehistoric animal figures.

A fabulous display of Papo prehistoric animal figures.

Picture Credit: Donovan

A Splendid Dinosaur Display!

The recent Everything Dinosaur purchases have been added to Donovan’s dinosaur diorama.  The new for 2019 Papo Pentaceratops can be seen on the left of the picture (above),  in between the huge Papo Brachiosaurus and just behind the Papo Ankylosaurus model.  It had better look out as emerging from the trees we can see a Papo running T. rex model lurking, perhaps getting ready to ambush the unwary horned dinosaur!

Papo Prehistoric Animal Models on Display

A wonderful display of prehistoric animal models featuring Papo dinosaurs and othe models.

Papo models on display.  A wonderful display featuring Papo dinosaur models and a number of other prehistoric animal models.  Can you spot the Papo Dimetrodon?

Picture Credit: Donovan

Clever Use of Silhouettes

Providing a backdrop to the model display are some excellent silhouettes that help to provide an illusion of depth.   They are very well drawn and we congratulate our Canadian customer for such a creatively constructed prehistoric landscape.  There is certainly plenty of detail to admire, including a Therizinosaurus defending itself from an attacking Acrocanthosaurus and an unfortunate Styracosaurus that has been grabbed by a crocodile.

After providing permission for Everything Dinosaur to post up some pictures of his handiwork, Donovan explained that his personal prehistoric park took many hours to plan and to build, he commented:

“It took a lot of hard work for me to build that toy box/ display case.  I hope to finish the bookshelf case this winter that will go with the toy box and display the other half of our Papo figures.”

A Variety of Landscapes Feature in the Display Including a Desert and a Watering Hole

A desert scene featuring some Papo prehistoric animal models.

A desert scene has been incorporated into the Papo model display.  Note the rare, original Papo Oviraptor model in the foreground.

Picture Credit: Donovan

We congratulate Donovan on his fine prehistoric animal display, the diorama even has lighting to showcase his model collection.

Beware of the Dinosaur!  The Fantastic Prehistoric Animal Model Display Case

Papo prehistoric animal models on display at night.

A beautifully lit Papo prehistoric animal display case.

Picture Credit: Donovan

To view the Papo prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals.

22 09, 2019

The Second Velociraptor Species – Velociraptor osmolskae

By | September 22nd, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

The Second Velociraptor Species – Velociraptor osmolskae

The second Velociraptor species to be scientifically described – V. osmolskae, is very similar to V. mongoliensis.  However, the known fossil material has sufficient autapomorphies to support the erection of a separate species.  It is intriguing that the Djadochta and Bayan Mandahu Formations have yielded a very similar dinosaur fauna.  For example, Velociraptor mongoliensis, Protoceratops andrewsi, and Pinacosaurus grangeri are synonymous with the Djadochta Formation.  In contrast, V. osmolskae is associated with the Bayan Mandahu Formation, and this member of the Velociraptorinae subfamily shared its environment with Protoceratops hellenikorhinus, and Pinacosaurus mephistocephalus.

These differences in the biota associated with each geological formation might be due to some form of natural barrier separating the regions where these two deposits were formed.  Evidence for any substantial barrier that would deter the movement of animals from one area to another has proved elusive.  It might be and indeed, many palaeontologists favour this hypothesis, that the different faunas can be explained by there being a temporal difference between the two formations, i.e. one formation is younger than the other.

Everything Dinosaur’s Scale Drawing of Velociraptor osmolskae

Drawing of Velociraptor osmolskae.

A drawing of Velociraptor osmolskae.  It is estimated that this little “raptor”  measured around 1.8 metres in length (mostly tail), stood approximately 1 metre high and weighed around 15 kilograms.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

21 09, 2019

PNSO Box Art

By | September 21st, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page|0 Comments

The Fantastic Box Art on the PNSO Megalodon Figure (Patton)

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have received a lot of very positive comments about the cover sleeve artwork on the PNSO Megalodon model.  The company has gained a tremendous reputation for its artwork, thanks largely to the input of famous Chinese palaeoartist Zhao Chuang, who has illustrated numerous scientific papers highlighting fossil discoveries.  The artwork, showing a large shark breaking the surface with its huge teeth-lined jaws gaping has received lots of praise.

The Beautiful and Highly Detailed Cover Sleeve Artwork – PNSO Megalodon Model “Patton”

Brilliant artwork on the PNSO Megalodon model cover sleeve.

The amazing, colourful sleeve artwork on the PNSO Megalodon figure.  A fantastic illustration of the giant prehistoric shark Megalodon.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

PNSO have lots of other prehistoric animal figures in the pipeline, we look forward to seeing the box art that will accompany these models.

20 09, 2019

Japan’s Greatest Fossil Dinosaur Gets a Name

By | September 20th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Kamuysaurus japonicus – Japan’s Newest Dinosaur

Earlier this month, a scientific paper was published providing details of Japan’s most complete dinosaur fossil known to science.  The dinosaur, a member of the Hadrosauridae, has been named Kamuysaurus japonicus, with the Rugby World Cup starting today in the “land of the rising sun”, we thought it appropriate to feature this new species of Late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur in today’s blog post.

A Life Reconstruction of the Newly Described Japanese Dinosaur Kamuysaurus japonicus

Kamuysaurus life reconstruction.

A herd of Kamuysaurus wander along a beach.   In the illustration by Masato Hattori, a trio Kamuysaurus wander across a beach some 72 mya, the fossilised remains, representing a single animal was discovered in marine strata.

Picture Credit:  Kobayashi Y., et al, Scientific Reports

The fossils come from the part Cretaceous to Palaeocene-aged Hakobuchi Formation, specifically from outcrops close to the town of Mukawa on the island of Hokkaido.  Despite the semi-articulated and nearly complete nature of the fossil material, some bones are heavily damaged and show signs of extensive bioerosion (damage caused by marine invertebrates boring into the bones), prior to burial.  The strata associated with the fossil material has yielded ammonites, mosasaurs and the remains of a sea turtle, it is correlated to the lowest Maastrichtian (faunal stage).

At Everything Dinosaur, we have followed the research into this new species of duck-billed dinosaur with eager anticipation.  We first wrote about this fossil discovery some years ago, when tail bones discovered eroding out of a hillside hinted at a very special dinosaur fossil find:  Japan’s Most Complete Dinosaur Discovery

Assigned to the Edmontosaurini Clade

In the current study, a group of researchers led by Professor Yoshitsugu Kobayashi of the Hokkaido University Museum conducted comparative and phylogenetic analyses on 350 bones and 70 taxa of hadrosaurids, which led to the discovery that the dinosaur belongs to the Edmontosaurini clade and is closely related to Kerberosaurus unearthed in Russia and Laiyangosaurus from China.  This herbivorous dinosaur was named after the indigenous people of Hokkaido, the specific name refers to Japan.  It translates as “the deity of Japanese dinosaurs”.

The Holotype Skeleton of Kamuysaurus

Holotype specimen of Kamuysaurus.

Holotype skeleton of Kamuysaurus japonicus (a). Reconstructed skeleton showing recovered elements in white (b).  Its unique characteristics include the anterior inclination of neural spines of the sixth to twelfth dorsal vertebrae.

Picture Credit: Kobayashi Y., et al Scientific Reports

The researchers found that Kamuysaurus has three unique characteristics that are not shared by other dinosaurs in the Edmontosaurini clade: the low position of the cranial bone notch, the short ascending process of the jaw bone, and the anterior inclination of the neural spines of the sixth to twelfth dorsal vertebrae.  The histological analysis revealed that the animal was a fully grown adult at least nine years of age and it measured 8 metres in length with a body mass of around 4,000 kilograms.

The frontal bone, a part of its skull, has a big articular facet connecting to the nasal bone, possible evidence that Kamuysaurus may have had a crest.  The crest, if it existed, is believed to resemble the thin, flat crest of Brachylophosaurus subadults, whose fossils have been unearthed in North America.

Selected Skull Elements of Kamuysaurus japonicus

Selected skull elements of Kamuysaurus.

Selected skull elements of Kamuysaurus japonicus.  Its unique characteristics include the low position of the cranial bone notch (quadratojugal notch, qjn) and the short ascending process of the jaw bone (surangular, acp)

Picture Credit: Kobayashi Y., et al Scientific Reports

The study also shed light on the origin of the Edmontosaurini clade and how it might have migrated.  Its latest common ancestors spread widely across Asia and North America, which were connected by what is now Alaska, allowing them to travel between the two continents.  Among them, the clade of Kamuysaurus, Kerberosaurus and Laiyangosaurus inhabited the Far East during the Campanian faunal stage, the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous, before evolving independently.

The research team’s analyses pointed to the possibility that ancestors of hadrosaurids and its subfamilies, Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae, preferred to inhabit areas near the ocean, suggesting the coastline environment was an important factor in the diversification of the hadrosaurids in its early evolution, especially in North America.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from Hokkaido University in the compilation of this article.

The “A New Hadrosaurine (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae) from the Marine Deposits of the Late Cretaceous Hakobuchi Formation, Yezo Group, Japan” by Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, Tomohiro Nishimura, Ryuji Takasaki, Kentaro Chiba, Anthony R. Fiorillo, Kohei Tanaka, Tsogtbaatar Chinzorig, Tamaki Sato and Kazuhiko Sakurai published in the journal Scientific Reports.

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