All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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Dinosaur and prehistoric animal themed articles, features and stories.

17 01, 2020

Extra-terrestrial Impact Wiped Out the Dinosaurs

By | January 17th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page|0 Comments

Mass Extinction Event Caused by Impact Event

One of the greatest controversies surrounding the Dinosauria is what actually caused the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs?  Around the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event, there was an enormous extra-terrestrial impact in the Gulf of Mexico.  A worldwide layer of clay, saturated in the rare Earth element iridium, marking the K-Pg geological boundary was first publicised by American father and son Luis and Walter Alvarez.  They postulated that an Earth impact event had resulted in this deposition and it was speculated that such a catastrophic event might have been responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs.

New Study Suggests Dinosaur Extinction Due to the Extra-terrestrial Impact Event

Chicxulub impact event.

A reconstruction of the Chicxulub impact which marked the extinction of many terrestrial and marine forms of life, including the non-avian dinosaurs.

The “Smoking Gun” Evidence

Such an impact would have left an enormous crater, the search was on to find the “smoking gun” to support the theory regarding a meteorite, asteroid or perhaps a comet hitting the Earth.  Most researchers now agree, that the Yucatan peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico was ground zero.  However, there is a problem, as scientists are aware of a number of other potential candidates responsible for the extinction of a large amount of the planet’s biota some sixty-six million years ago.  For example, the Late Cretaceous was characterised by extensive volcanism.  Huge amounts of lava from the Deccan traps led to the formation of thousands of miles of  flood basalt.  The out-pouring of noxious gases as a result of this extensive volcanism could well have played a significant role in the extinction of many different kinds of organisms too.

Asteroid impact theory challenged: Blame the Deccan Traps.

In a new paper, a team of international researchers led by Dr Celli Hull from Yale University, conclude that the volcanism did not play a huge role in the extinction, but it may have played a significant role in shaping the rise of different species after the extinction event had occurred.

Impact Event the Most Likely Cause of End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction

The extinction of the dinosaurs.

An international team of scientists conclude that it was the extra-terrestrial bolide impact that caused the mass-extinction event.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Analysis of Ancient Ocean Sediments

In order to disentangle the relative effects of the volcanism and the impact event, the scientists analysed deep sea sediment sections drilled from the North Atlantic, Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans.  They found that volcanic activity in the Late Cretaceous period caused only a gradual global warming of about two degrees Celsius, but this had no significant effect on marine ecosystems, and cooler conditions had returned prior to the extinction.

Hull et al investigated the timing of the Deccan outgassing by modelling in several scenarios, the effects of the gases ejected by volcanoes (sulphur and carbon dioxide).  Their results suggest that more than half of the total Deccan outgassing occurred well before the impact event, not just before it.  The scientists concluded that the timing of most of the atmospheric pollution from the extensive volcanism, just did not fit the extinction event.  The major volcanism is likely to have occurred at least 200,000 years before the extinction event.

One of the co-authors of the study, Professor Paul Bown (University College London), explained.

“Most scientists acknowledge that the last, and best-known, mass extinction event occurred after a large asteroid slammed into Earth 66 million years ago, but some researchers suggested volcanic activity might have played a big role too and we’ve shown that is not the case.”

The team’s models showed that the changes in the carbon cycle that resulted from the volcanism was mitigated by the oceans absorbing vast quantities of CO2.  This would have limited any global warming.

Fellow co-author Professor Paul Wilson (Southampton University), added:

“There’s been a big row about the cause of the mass extinction for decades.  The demise of the dinosaurs was the iconic event but they were large animals and there weren’t really that many of them so it’s tough to use them to figure out the cause.  We studied microscopic marine organisms called foraminifera and there are thousands of them in a teaspoon-full of ocean sediment.  To get them we drilled into the sea bed in waters nearly 5 kilometres deep not far from the watery grave of RMS Titanic off the coast of Newfoundland using a sort of geology time machine – a drill ship called the JOIDES Resolution run by one the world’s most successful international scientific collaborations, the International Ocean Discovery Program.”

The authors postulate that the volcanism may have played a role in shaping the evolution of Palaeogene species in the aftermath of the end-Cretaceous extinction event.

What About Hell Creek – Were Dinosaurs Already in Decline?

From a scientific perspective, it makes much more sense to examine the fossil record of planktonic foraminifera.  Relying on the non-avian dinosaurs as an indicator of palaeo-climate change some sixty-six million years ago is fraught with difficulties.  For instance, although many different types of life were affected by the end-Cretaceous extinction event, it is often only the dinosaurs that are mentioned by the media.  It is worth remembering that many other lifeforms died out.  There are not that many windows into the end of the Maastrichtian and the earliest part of the Palaeocene (Danian faunal stage).  One such example is the Hell Creek Formation, which provides a record of the last few million years of the Mesozoic.

Hell Creek – Prospecting for Fossils in the Upper Cretaceous Sediments

Looking for fossils - Hell Creek Formation.

Prospecting for fossils – Hell Creek Formation (Montana).

Picture Credit: University of California Museum of Palaeontology

Studies of the number and variety of dinosaur fossils excavated from the Hell Creek Formation and other slightly older geological formations, suggest that in the last ten million years of the Cretaceous, the number of dinosaur species fell by more than fifty percent.

An analysis of the youngest fifteen metres of sediments from the Hell Creek Formation, revealed just eleven different types of dinosaur.  In the uppermost strata, the last three metres of the Hell Creek Formation representing the end of the Cretaceous, only three types of dinosaur were recorded.  Whilst it can be difficult to accurately date and assess the chronology of strata, the study of dinosaur fossils from Hell Creek suggests that the Dinosauria may have been in decline (at least in this part of Laramida), prior to the impact event.  This decline, if it was a decline, could have been caused by the environmental effects of the extensive volcanism, or other factors for that matter.

We suspect that just like the Deccan Traps, this debate is going to rumble on for a considerable period of time.

16 01, 2020

A Tale of Tail – Tail Insertion (Rebor Stegosaurus armatus)

By | January 16th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

How to Insert the Tail – Rebor Stegosaurus armatus 1:35 Scale Figure

Just before Christmas, Everything Dinosaur received stocks of the 1:35 scale Rebor replica Stegosaurus armatus.  Dinosaur fans and model collectors will probably know that this figure is available in three colour schemes – “mountain”, “plain” and “woodland”.  Since these exciting figures came into stock, Everything Dinosaur team members have posted up several pictures of these dinosaurs.  Today, following a request from a Rebor collector, we have produced a short video which shows how to connect the tail to the model.

A Tale of a Tail – How to Insert the Tailpiece into the Rebor Stegosaurus armatus 1:35 Scale Replica

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Sixty Seconds – Dinosaur Model Update

The video lasts approximately sixty seconds.  The model is shown and the narrator explains how the figure is supplied (the tail piece can be found in the box, adjacent to the rest of the figure), then how the tail slots into the model is demonstrated.  One firm push should do the trick, the tail fitting snuggly into the aperture.  In the video, the flexibility of the tail is illustrated and compared to the neck which is also flexible.

The Tail Insertion Video Features the Rebor Stegosaurus armatus in the “Mountain” Colour Scheme

Rebor Stegosaurus 1:35 scale dinosaur model "mountain".

The Rebor Stegosaurus armatus “mountain” colour scheme.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To purchase the Rebor Stegosaurus armatus figure and to view the rest of the Rebor range: Rebor Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models.

The Rebor Stegosaurus Figure – All Three Colour Schemes

Rebor Stegosaurus armatus "Garden" colour variants.

The three new for 2019 Rebor Stegosaurus dinosaur models – left to right “plain”, “mountain” and “woodland”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We intend to post up more videos including reviews of actual models in the future.  Everything Dinosaur has had a YouTube channel for many years now, over that time we have posted nearly 150 videos, but we intend to increase our output and do more using various media including Instagram and YouTube.  Our aim is to put up new content on the company’s YouTube channel once a week or so.”

Everything Dinosaur on YouTube

The Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel features information about new model releases, tips on working with figures, display suggestions and of course, lots of prehistoric animal facts and information.  Everything Dinosaur, in response to requests from collectors intends to increase the number of videos that are put up on this platform.  Blog articles will continue and where possible, more videos will be used in conjunction with blog articles and other social media posts.

Visit Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

Look out for more YouTube content being posted from Everything Dinosaur very soon…

13 01, 2020

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric Animal Models in Stock

By | January 13th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric Animal Models in Stock

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World prehistoric animal models are in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  All nine of the new models are now available, Concavenator, Dilophosaurus, Deinonychus, Edmontosaurus, Pachycephalosaurus and Qianzhousaurus, six dinosaurs plus Shringasaurus, Sarcosuchus and the marine reptile Ichthyosaurus.

The New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models (All Nine) are in Stock at Everything Dinosaur

Nine new models in stock at Everything Dinosaur

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World prehistoric animal models are in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view all the new models and the rest of the prehistoric animal figures in the Safari Ltd range: Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models and Figures.

A Range Noted for its Scientific Accuracy

Safari Ltd has continued to build on its reputation for producing accurate prehistoric animal models and figures that reflect some of the latest scientific research and thinking.  For example, joining this award-winning range, is a replica of the Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Edmontosaurus.  Recent studies of fossil specimens from North America have led to palaeontologists postulating that this large ornithischian sported a soft comb-like crest on the top of its skull.  The Edmontosaurus figure has been given such an adornment, all part of Safari Ltd’s drive to reflect actual research into the Dinosauria and other long-extinct creatures from the past.

The New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Edmontosaurus Has a Soft Comb

The new for 2020 Edmontosaurus model.

A close-up view of the new Edmontosaurus dinosaur model with its soft comb-like crest.  In this closer view of the model, the crest can be clearly seen, but not also the detail on the beak and the attention given to sculpting scales of different sizes and shape across the dinosaur’s body.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We are delighted to have all nine of the new for 2020 prehistoric animal models in stock.  The range and the quality of these models demonstrates Safari Ltd’s commitment to model collecting.  Everything Dinosaur has more than a hundred Safari Ltd figures available, in what is, a most impressive range of prehistoric animal and plant models.”

New Models Based on Recent Fossil Discoveries

Safari Ltd are quick to introduce models and figures that reflect relatively recent fossil discoveries.  Take for example, the excellent Shringasaurus model, it represents an extinct reptile (archosauromorph), that was only formally named and described in August 2017.

The Middle Triassic Horned Reptile of India – Shringasaurus

Shringasaurus indicus model.

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Shringasaurus indicus model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

11 01, 2020

Thin-skinned, Grey Duck-billed Dinosaurs

By | January 11th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Thin-skinned, Grey Duck-billed Dinosaurs

Scientists writing in the journal of The Palaeontological Association have published a remarkable study on the properties of the skin of duck-billed dinosaurs.  Analysis of fossilised hadrosaur skin, from the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History (New Haven, Connecticut), suggests that the skin structure of these dinosaurs had more in common with living birds than with reptiles.  In addition, the skin is much thinner when compared to large, terrestrial mammals of comparable size such as elephants and rhinos.  In a blow to palaeoartists who like to adorn their ornithischian illustrations with a multitude of colours, the scientists conclude from an analysis of potential preserved skin pigments that hadrosaurids were grey in colour.

Hadrosaurs Could Have Been Largely Grey in Colour Just Like Big Terrestrial Mammals Alive Today Such as Elephants

Gryposaurus - Hadrosaur Model available from Everything Dinosaur.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Gryposaurus dinosaur model.  The model’s colouration being largely grey may actually reflect the true colouration of duck-billed dinosaurs.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Getting Under the Skin of a Dinosaur

Scientists from Yale University, in collaboration with colleagues in Italy, investigated the chemical properties of a section of fossilised duck-billed dinosaur skin that had been preserved in three dimensions. The specimen (YPMPU 016969) was also subjected to detailed chemical mapping and microspectroscopy as well as scanning electron micrographs to establish the anatomical structure.

Two of the three layers associated with skin in tetrapods were identified, the outer layer (epidermis) and the dermis. The innermost layer, the subcutis, could not be identified in this study.  The dinosaur’s scales on the skin surface are very well-preserved.  They form an irregular, pebbly pattern with individual scales ranging in size from under one millimetre in diameter to much larger scales around 12 millimetres across.

Specimen Number YPMPU 016969 – The Fossilised Skin Studied

Fossilised duck-billed dinosaur skin.

The skin preserved in YPMPU 016969 (A), three‐dimensional skin and (B), the fossil counterpart. Scale bar represents 2 cm.

Picture Credit: Yale University

Three-dimensionally Preserved Pigment Bearing Bodies and  Blood Vessels

The detailed analysis of the fossilised skin and the samples taken permitted the scientists to identify three-dimensionally preserved eumelanin‐bearing bodies.  This enabled the researchers to propose that the dinosaur was mostly dark grey in colour, a skin colouration that reflects ecological parallels seen in today’s large, terrestrial animals such as elephants and rhinos.  However, caution is urged when it comes to determining the colouration of these types of dinosaurs.  There might be a preservation bias in favour of pigment cells that produce darker skin tones, other pigments may not have been preserved.  The section of fossil skin also permitted the researchers to trace blood vessels and dermal cells.

The Study Suggests That Large-bodied Hadrosaurids Were Similar in Colour to Today’s Large-bodied Terrestrial Mammals

Analysis suggests grey-coloured hadrosaurids.

A life reconstruction of a grey-coloured duck-billed dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Yale University

Surprisingly Thin Skin

The skin was found to be much thinner than that of living mammals of similar size.  The outer layer of skin is around 0.2 mm in thickness, whilst the dermis is estimated to have been up to 3 mm thick.  Although, no measurements for the subcutis layer could be made, in living elephants the skin is around 10-15 mm thick and in extant rhinos a skin thickness (all three layers, epidermis, dermis and subcutis), of 25 mm is not uncommon.

The relative thickness of the epidermis and dermis in YPMPU 016969 resembles that in birds more closely than that of reptiles.

If the skin of these large, Cretaceous herbivores is so much thinner than previously thought, then how does it fossilise more readily than the integumentary coverings of other dinosaurs?  After all, the most commonly preserved soft tissues associated with ornithischian dinosaurs are skin remains.  The researchers postulate that the unusual layering and the microstructure of hadrosaur skin may play an important role in its fossilisation potential.

The scientific paper: “Three-dimensional soft tissue preservation revealed in the skin of a non-avian dinosaur” by Matteo Fabbri, Jasmina Wiemann, Fabio Manucci and Derek E. G. Briggs published in Palaeontology – the journal of The Palaeontological Association

8 01, 2020

Picking Out a Papo Allosaurus for a Customer

By | January 8th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Picking Out a Papo Allosaurus for a Customer

The original Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model, a staple of the Papo “Les Dinosaures” model range, has been withdrawn from production and retired.  However, Everything Dinosaur still has stock of this popular theropod figure and a customer from Canada emailed us asking for more information about this particular Papo model and wanted to see some photographs of an Allosaurus prior to making a purchase.

Naturally, our dedicated, enthusiastic team members were happy to oblige.

Taking Pictures of a Papo Allosaurus Dinosaur Model (Original Colour Scheme)

Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model (original colour scheme).

The original Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

This model is likely to become increasingly rare in the future, the Allosaurus has been retired by Papo, for confirmation about other prehistoric animal figures being withdrawn from the Papo range, take a look at Everything Dinosaur’s exclusive blog article here: Papo Prehistoric Animal Model Retirements in 2019.

This Model is Becoming Increasingly Rare (Papo Allosaurus in Original Colour Scheme)

Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model (original colour scheme).

The original Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model.  Now out of production and retired.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Allosaurus New Colour Variant

With the announcement that the original Allosaurus was being withdrawn, the French manufacturer was quick to introduce a replacement, a new colour version of this Late Jurassic, carnivorous dinosaur.  This new figure is based on the same sculpt and it too has an articulated jaw, just like the original figure, but the colour scheme has been changed.

Introduced in 2019 – Papo Allosaurus New Colour Scheme

Papo Allosaurus new colour scheme (2019).

The Papo Allosaurus new colour scheme (2019).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Commenting on the response to the Canadian customer’s request a spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur stated:

“We get a lot of prehistoric animal model collectors asking us about models that have been recently retired.  We try our best to carry stock of as many different models and figures as possible.  If a customer requests a photograph of a figure prior to purchase, then we are happy to do this for them.  We select a model, take the photographs and email them over to the customer, if they are happy with the model, then we set it aside and when the order is placed we send out the figure.”

Recently, Everything Dinosaur provided information on Papo prehistoric animal figures that are being retired this year (2020), in total four Papo models are being withdrawn: Papo Model Retirements (2020).

Taking Photographs of a Papo Model for a Customer

Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model (original colour scheme).

The original Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model.  Team members take pictures of the model from several angles, thus providing the customer with a really good view of their potential purchase.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of Papo dinosaurs and prehistoric animal models, including the retired original Papo Allosaurus (whilst stocks last): Papo Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

7 01, 2020

Turning a Stegosaur Fossil into the “Rosetta Stone”

By | January 7th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Newly Described Specimen of Miragaia longicollum helps to Decipher the Dacentrurinae

A fossil of a stegosaur discovered in 1959 on the coast of western Portugal has helped to decipher the taxonomic relationships of an obscure sub-family of armoured dinosaurs known from the Late Jurassic.  The specimen number MG 4863 has been identified as an example of Miragaia longicollum, a stegosaur named and described in 2009 from fossils found some 6 miles (10 kilometres) further inland.

MG 4863 has been described as a “Rosetta Stone” specimen, just as the discovery of the Rosetta Stone was vital in helping scholars to interpret and understand ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, these fossils, that had languished in storage for sixty years, can help palaeontologists to distinguish between different genera of closely related stegosaurs.

Laid Out in an Approximate Skeletal Reconstruction (MG 4863) – Newly Described Miragaia longicollum Specimen

Views of the Miragaia longicollum specimen ( MG 4863)

Miragaia longicollum specimen (A) before preparation and (B) after preparation. Material is laid out in approximate articulation.

Picture Credit: Costa and Mateus published in PLOS One

The picture (above), shows the fossil material associated with MG 4863 prior to preparation (September 2015) and after preparation (May 2017).  The fossils have been positioned in an approximate skeletal layout, the box in (B) contains unidentified fossil fragments.

Although far from complete and lacking any evidence of a skull, these fossils, that had been stored in an unprepared state at the Alfragide campus of LNEG (Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Portugal), consist of bones that were not part of the original holotype specimen for M. longicollum (specimen number ML 433).  Thus, palaeontologists have more parts of the skeleton of Miragaia longicollum to study and this newly described specimen has helped to decipher the differences between Miragaia and the closely related Dacentrurus.

The Dacentrurinae Deciphered

The first armoured dinosaur to be scientifically described was Dacentrurus armatus (although it was originally named Omosaurus armatus by the famous English palaeontologist Richard Owen).  It was named from a jumbled up set of bones preserved in a block discovered in a clay quarry in Wiltshire (southern England).  The fossilised bones mostly represent the back-end (posterior) portions of an armoured dinosaur.  For a considerable period, stegosaur fossils from strata approximately the same age from the Iberian peninsula were referred to as Dacentrurus.  When ML 433 was excavated all that changed and this part of Europe had its very own stegosaur Miragaia longicollum.  However, the holotype (ML 433), represented the front end (anterior) of the animal, so direct comparisons between Dacentrurus and Miragaia were not possible.

Now that palaeontologists have more fossils of Miragaia to study, thanks to the Alfragide campus specimen, clear differences between these two taxa can be identified, which reinforces their validity.  In addition, ML 4863 is the the most complete dinosaur described from Portugal and the most complete stegosaur described from the whole of Europe.

Comparing the Holotypes of Dacentrurus armatus and Miragaia longicollum with the Newly Described Miragaia Material (ML 4863)

Dacentrurus and Miragaia compared.

Comparing Dacentrurus with Miragaia.  Known fossil bones are shown in white.

Picture Credit: Costa, Mateus et al published in PLOS One with additional annotation by Everything Dinosaur

Both the Miragaia holotype (ML 433) and this newly described specimen (MG 4863), are associated with the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã Formation.  Writing in the on-line academic journal PLOS One, the researchers (Francisco Costa and Octávio Mateus), provide a revised diagnosis for both M. longicollum and D. armatus.

A Land Bridge Between Iberia and North America – Late Jurassic Faunal Interchange

Significantly, the scientists conclude that Miragaia was closely related to a Late Jurassic stegosaur named Alcovasaurus longispinus, which is known from hip bones and other fragmentary fossils associated with a Morrison Formation outcrop in Natrona County (Wyoming, USA).  Not only does MG 4863 help to describe and define two European stegosaurs but it lends weight to the idea that there was an ephemeral land bridge between North America and Iberia that allowed faunal exchange.

A Scale Drawing of Miragaia longicollum

Scale Drawing of Miragaia

“Long-neck from Miragaia”.  A scale drawing of M. longicollum.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

We have two species of the carnivorous Late Jurassic dinosaur Torvosaurus identified, one from the western United States (T. tanneri) and one from Portugal (T. gurneyi) and now the idea of there being links between the Iberian landmass and North America is reinforced by the conclusion that Miragaia from Portugal and Alcovasaurus from Wyoming were closely related.  Indeed, Alcovasaurus is so similar to Miragaia that the researchers propose that it should be assigned to the same genus and renamed Miragaia longispinus.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s article from 2009 about the discovery of Miragaia longicollumA New Long-necked Stegosaur from Portugal.

6 01, 2020

Rebor Broodlord X-REX Pre-Order Available

By | January 6th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor Broodlord X-REX Pre-Order Available

Rebor will be introducing four brand new, innovative figures this year which combine elements of science-fiction with the Dinosauria.  The first of these figures “Broodlord”, the X-REX metallic variant will be available from Everything Dinosaur around the end of February and this model is available now for pre-order.

Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX Metallic Variant Figure Available to Pre-Order from Everything Dinosaur

Available on pre-order "Broodlord" 1:35 scale Rebor model.

The Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX metallic variant figure is available on pre-order from Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To pre-order your Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX figure, simply visit this link: Click here to pre-order the Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX figure.

Science Fiction Combined with Science – Ne Plus Ultra!

Those talented people at Rebor have combined the anatomies of a Tyrannosaurus rex with an alien xenomorph to create this stunning and magnificently detailed collector’s item.  When Henry Fairfield Osborn described Tyrannosaurus rex in 1905, he justified the “tyrant lizard king” genus by stating:

“Tyrannosaurus, in reference to its size, which far exceeds that of any carnivorous land animal hitherto described”.   The famous American palaeontologist added…

“This animal is in fact the ne plus ultra for the evolution of the large carnivorous dinosaurs, in brief it is entitled to the royal and high sounding group name which I have applied to it.”

“Ne plus ultra” reflects Osborn’s view that T. rex was the ultimate theropod dinosaur, the apex in carnivorous dinosaur evolution.  It is true that more recent fossil discoveries have led palaeontologists to describe a number of gigantic and terrifying meat-eaters, but none have the popular appeal of the “tyrant lizard king”.

How fitting therefore for the design team at Rebor, to use a 1:35 scale Tyrannosaurus rex sculpt as the basis for this, the first of four fantasy figures that the company intends to introduce this year.

The Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX Metallic Variant

Rebor Broodlord (metallic variant).

The Rebor Broodlord X-REX Metallic Variant (1:35 scale).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Rebor X-REX “Broodlord” (Metallic Variant)

Measuring around 43 cm from those monstrous, double jaws to the tip of that alien tail, this figure demonstrates stunning detail and the careful painting provides a demonic, wet-look to the model.  It certainly is a remarkable cross-over between two popular genres.  X-REX has a removable tongue, the arms can be rotated and placed in different poses and the tail is flexible, so it too can be posed in a variety of positions.

The Rebor X-REX “Broodlord” Figure

Rebor Broodlord (metallic variant).

The Rebor Broodlord X-REX Metallic Variant (1:35 scale).  The tongue can be removed, the arms repositioned and the flexible tail can be put into a variety of poses.  Create your own unique fantasy diorama!

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Pre-Order from Everything Dinosaur

The amazing Rebor Broodlord X-REX model (metallic variant) in 1:35 scale can be pre-ordered from Everything Dinosaur – purchase price £29.99 plus sales tax (if applicable) and postage.

No credit/debit card payment will be taken up front, no payment will be due until the product is in stock ready to ship.  Customers who log into their personal account at Everything Dinosaur can view any pre-orders that they make.  Naturally, pre-order products can be cancelled at any time.  No deposit to pay, no fees up front, just the reassurance that the customer has been able to secure an amazing model, all backed and supported by the 5-star, award winning customer service of Everything Dinosaur.

For those customers who prefer to use PayPal, they will simply be sent an email reminder asking them to complete transaction payment when the model is in stock and ready for release.

Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX Expected Around the End of February 2020

Rebor Broodlord (metallic variant).

The Rebor Broodlord X-REX Metallic Variant (1:35 scale).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A wonderful science fiction/fantasy model from Rebor, the Rebor Broodlord X-REX metallic variant.  Customers can cancel pre-orders at any time before the payment falls due.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We have set up a pre-order function at Everything Dinosaur in response to requests from our customers.  As model and figure collectors too, if our customers ask for something we try to deliver it.  Our customers can now order products before they are available, but there is no fee to pay up front, no need for a deposit, payments will be made on release of the figure when it is ready to despatch from our warehouse.  This is an additional service we are providing and with the imminent introduction of such an exciting Rebor figure as this X-REX, it seems a fitting time to roll this feature out.”

To pre-order your Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX 1:35 scale figure, click this link: Pre-order Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX here.

5 01, 2020

Scaling Up a Shringasaurus

By | January 5th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Shringasaurus Scale Drawing

Everything Dinosaur team members are busy preparing for the arrival of new for 2020 prehistoric animal models from Safari Ltd.  One of the new figures is a replica of the Middle Triassic, horned archosauromorph from India called Shringasaurus (Shringasaurus indicus).  Plans are advanced as we prepare for the arrival of the models, team members are already compiling the fact sheets that are to be sent out with these new additions to our product portfolio.

For Shringasaurus, as with the vast majority of the prehistoric animal models we supply, a scale drawing has been commissioned, primarily for use with the fact sheet.

Everything Dinosaur’s Scale Drawing of the Horned, Middle Triassic Archosauromorph Shringasaurus

Shringasaurus scale drawing.

The archosauromorph reptile from the Middle Triassic of India – Shringasaurus indicus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Tale of the Tape

The actual model measures approximately 16.5 centimetres in length.  When Everything Dinosaur blogged about the formal naming and scientific description of this reptile back in the late summer of 2017* the length of this herbivore, based on the seven known specimens was estimated to have been around 3.5 to 4 metres.  Taking an average, Everything Dinosaur team members prepared the scale drawing (see above).  Although Safari Ltd do not publish a scale for these types of models, the new for 2020 Shringasaurus is in approximately 1:23 scale.

To read our blog post about the 2017* discovery: New Long-necked and Horned Stem Archosaur from India.

The New for 2020 Safari Ltd (Wild Safari Prehistoric World) Shringasaurus Model

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Shringasaurus.

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Shringasaurus.  Everything Dinosaur’s commissioned illustration for this prehistoric animal seems to have captured the detailing in the Safari Ltd model quite nicely.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Model collectors and dinosaur fans can expect all the new for 2020 Safari Ltd prehistoric animal replicas to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in the near future.

In the meantime, click this link to see the range of Safari Ltd models and replicas currently in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Safari Ltd – Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models and Figures.

4 01, 2020

A New “Thunder Lizard” Tralkasaurus

By | January 4th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

A New Abelisaurid (Tralkasaurus cuyi) from Argentina

A team of scientists based in Argentina have described a new species of abelisaurid from the Huincul Formation in northern Patagonia.  The new dinosaur is represented by a fragmentary skeleton consisting of caudal vertebrae (tail bones), a bone from the upper jaw (maxilla), a distorted pelvic girdle and sacral vertebrae.  Although the fossils were found in a disarticulated state and quite widely scattered, it is likely that the bones represent a single, individual animal.  With an estimated body length of around five metres and a hip height of approximately 1.5 metres, this newest member of the Abelisauridae, named Tralkasaurus cuyi, is much smaller than abelisaurs such as Carnotaurus sastrei, Abelisaurus comahuensis and Ekrixinatosaurus novasi. 

Writing in the “Journal of South American Earth Sciences”, the researchers, which included Mauricio Cerroni, a PhD student at the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina), conclude that Tralkasaurus probably occupied a different ecological niche compared to the much larger and heavier Late Cretaceous abelisaurids.

A Size Comparison Between Carnotaurus sastrei and Tralkasaurus cuyi

Tralkasaurus cuyi and Carnotaurus sastrei size comparison.

A size comparison between Tralkasaurus cuyi and Carnotaurus sastrei.  Tralkasaurus very probably had a typical abelisaurid body plan, but its size suggests that it was a secondary predator, specialising in hunting other types of prey compared to the much larger carnivorous dinosaurs that it co-existed with.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A New “Thunder Lizard”

This new dinosaur was found at the Violante Farm site, in Río Negro province (northern Patagonia).  The sandstones of the Huincul Formation has yielded a diverse range of theropods including the giant carcharodontosaurid Mapusaurus (M. roseae), which is estimated to have measured around 12 metres in length along with the at least 6-metre-long Gualicho (G. shinyae), tentatively described as a member of the Neovenatoridae family and two other abelisaurids Skorpiovenator (S. bustingorryi) and Ilokelesia (I. aguadagrandensis).

The genus name translates as “thunder lizard”, in the native Mapuche language.

Life Reconstruction with Scale Tralkasaurus cuyi

Tralkasaurus scale drawing.

Tralkasaurus cuyi scale drawing.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Being much smaller than other abelisaurids such as Abelisaurus and Carnotaurus suggests that this new taxon probably occupied a different ecological niche within the ecosystem.

The scientific paper: “A new abelisaurid from the Huincul Formation (Cenomanian-Turonian; Upper Cretaceous) of Río Negro province, Argentina” by M. A. Cerroni, M. J. Motta, F. L. Agnolína, A. M. Aranciaga Rolando, F. Brissón Egli and F. E. Novas published in the Journal of South American Earth Sciences.

3 01, 2020

Palaeontology Predictions for 2020

By | January 3rd, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur’s Palaeontology Predictions for 2020

Just for a little bit of fun, team members at Everything Dinosaur have been taking a look into their crystal balls to see if they can predict some of the news stories and other articles that we will feature on this blog site over the coming twelve months or so.  Proposals have been brought forward, we have discussed and debated and come up with a list of our predictions for what we think will be covered in our next 365 or so blog posts.

Here are our attempts at second guessing what news stories will be covered on this site.  At the end of 2020, we will take a look back to see how we have done.

1).  A new Dinosaur Named from Thailand

Last year we predicted that a new dinosaur would be named and described from fossil discoveries made in India.  We drew a blank on that one, we did not report any new genera from India being erected, so, this time we will predict that a new dinosaur will be discovered in Thailand, perhaps a basal ornithopod or a member of the Theropoda.   Last year we reported upon the discovery of two meat-eating dinosaurs from Thailand (Phuwiangvenator yaemniyomi and Vayuraptor nongbualamphuensis), in previous years we have blogged about the discovery of the remains of a huge sauropod.  Dinosaur fossils from Thailand are rare, but we will stick our collective necks out and predict a new dinosaur from this part of south-east Asia.

To read our 2019 blog article about Phuwiangvenator yaemniyomi and Vayuraptor nongbualamphuensisTwo New Theropods from Thailand.

Will a New Theropod Dinosaur be Named in 2020 from Fossils Found in Thailand?

Will Thailand have a new theropod dinosaur in 2020?

A new genus of theropod dinosaur to be named from fossil discoveries made in Thailand?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

2).  Everything Dinosaur to be Awarded Feefo Platinum Award for Customer Service

The independent ratings company Feefo will introduce a new top standard of customer service in 2020.  The Feefo Platinum Trusted Service award recognises those businesses that go above and beyond to provide a consistently high level of customer service all the time.  This is the highest service recognition that Feefo has ever offered, will Everything Dinosaur achieve these exacting standards.  Our team members are going to do their best, if we continue to put our customers front and centre then we predict that Everything Dinosaur will achieve this standard in the next twelve months.

Everything Dinosaur Has Earned the Feefo Gold Standard for Customer Service but in 2020 Can We Do Better?

Gold Trusted Service Award to Everything Dinosaur.

Feefo awards top marks to Everything Dinosaur.  Will Everything Dinosaur earn the Platinum Trusted Service accolade in 2020?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

3).  The “Jurassic Mile” to Make its Mark

A 26o hectare site in Wyoming (United States), will continue to astonish scientists with the wealth of Late Jurassic fossil material that it contains.  We predict that Everything Dinosaur will report on more discoveries from this remarkable site.  The location will be opened again in the spring and the joint Dutch, American and British research team will be adding to their discoveries shortly afterwards.  Expect more news of sauropods, fossil flora and dinosaur tracks, with theropods and stegosaurs thrown into the mix too.  It is the Children’s Museum of Indianapolis that is leading the research, we predict more news from them and sadly, the first reports of illegal fossil gathering from the site.

Professor Phil Manning (University of Manchester) at the “Jurassic Mile”

Professor Phil Manning and the diplodocid femur.

Professor Phil Manning (The University of Manchester) poses next to a diplodocid femur.

Picture Credit: Manchester University

4).  The Anthropocene and our Carbon Footprint

Climate change will dominate the news in the coming years.  Everything Dinosaur team members predict that the Anthropocene, the proposed, new geological epoch dating from the commencement of significant human impact on Earth’s geology and ecosystems will be thrown into sharp focus this year.  Research will be published that contrasts the sudden rise in greenhouse gases with what is known about global warming from ancient palaeoclimates.  In 2019, Everything Dinosaur developed an environmental and ethical trading policy.  We will continue to do our part by increasing the amount of recycled packing materials we use, cutting out waste, increasing the amount of material recycled and reducing our use or electricity.  We have a number of initiatives in place to help make our company more environmentally friendly including supporting the restoration of natural habitats.  We predict blog posts will focus on the environmental emergency and that links will be made to previous climate change events recorded by scientists.  The concept of a sixth mass extinction event as recorded in the Phanerozoic will be reported upon in this weblog.

Expecting the Anthropocene to Make Headlines in 2020

Climate change, time is running short to make necessary changes.

Climate change, time is running out, changes in human activity need to be made.

Picture Credit: Associated Press

5).  Everything Dinosaur to add an Additional Fifty Models

This year is going to be yet another very busy one for Everything Dinosaur.  The range of models and figures that we currently supply is vast but just as last year we predict that at least fifty new replicas and figures will be added to our range over the next twelve months.  We have already made exclusive announcements about CollectA models and Papo, expect more news about new products in the coming months.  Fifty new models works out at around one new model every 175 hours!

New Models for 2020 in Stock at Everything Dinosaur

New models and figures expected at Everything Dinosaur in 2020.

Everything Dinosaur expects to stock a lot of new prehistoric animal figures in 2020.  Expect new models from Rebor, Beasts of the Mesozoic, CollectA, Safari Ltd and Papo in 2020.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

6). “Jurassic World 3” – First Trailers Expected

Expect the hyperbole regarding the sixth instalment of the “Jurassic Park/World” movie franchise to build over the next twelve months.  The first teaser trailers are likely to be released soon, perhaps airing first in the USA during the commercials surrounding the Super Bowl in early February.  An announcement has already been made about the original stars of the 1993 film “Jurassic Park”, joining the cast and reprising their roles for the new film.  “Jurassic World 3” is due for release in 2021 and will be directed by Colin Trevorrow.

Stars of the Original Film will Feature in “Jurassic World 3”

Stars to return in "Jurassic World 3".

Sam Neill, Laura Dern and Jeff Goldblum will reprise their roles.  However, Gennaro (pictured far left), played by Martin Ferrero, is not going to return, his part in the franchise was ended by a hungry T. rex.

Picture Credit: Getty Images

7).  Picking Up a Prehistoric Penguin

Last but not least comes our prediction that sometime over the next twelve months or so a scientific paper will be published that describes a new species of prehistoric penguin.  Lots of different types of prehistoric birds are going to be named and described in 2020.  We can expect new discoveries from China, the United States and possibly Antarctica.  However, Everything Dinosaur team members predict that a scientific paper will be published naming and describing a new species of penguin, perhaps a recent Pleistocene species or an early member of the Sphenisciformes Order.  New Zealand has proved to be a successful hunting ground for fossils of early penguins so we predict that the fossil discoveries will come from that country.

To read a recent article about the fossils of a giant penguin: Monster Penguin from the Southern Hemisphere.

So, we have made seven predictions about news stories and other articles that we will feature on this blog site over the coming year.  In twelve months’ time, we will look back to see how we have got on.

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