All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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Dinosaur and prehistoric animal themed articles, features and stories.

15 06, 2018

Mexico’s Oldest Member of the Ankylosauria

By | June 15th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Acantholipan gonzalezi – Coahuila’s Oldest Dinosaur

A new genus of armoured dinosaur has been described.  This dinosaur roamed northern Mexico around 85 million years ago (the Santonian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous).  Described as a nodosaurid, the dinosaur has been named Acantholipan gonzalezi and it is the oldest dinosaur described to date from the Coahuila region of Mexico.  Its discovery is no real surprise, some osteoderms (dermal armour), associated with ankylosaurids have been described from the geologically younger (Campanian), Cerro del Pueblo Formation exposed in the Coahuila region.  In addition, a single tooth identified as nodosaurid, has been discovered in the Mexican state of Baja California.  This fossil tooth was found in Campanian-aged deposits.  Palaeontologists had expected that armoured dinosaur fossils would be found elsewhere in Mexico, extending their known range further south.

The Southernmost Nodosaurid from North America – Acantholipan gonzalezi

A life reconstruction of Acantholipan gonzalezi.

A model of the Mexican nodosaurid Acantholipan gonzalezi.

Picture Credit: Museo del Desierto (Mexico)

Identified from Fragments of Bone

Fragmentary fossils found near to the city of Ocampo in northern Mexico, back in 2011, suggested that nodosaurids roamed this part of North America during the Late Cretaceous, but it was thought that the fossil material was not sufficient to support the establishment of a new species.  The fossils consist of a single dorsal vertebra, a tail bone (caudal vertebra), a partial ulna, a fragment of rib, one large spike (osteodermal spine) along with a portion of an upper arm bone (distal end of a humerus).

The Fragmentary Fossil Material (CPC 272)

Acantholipan fossil material.

Fossil fragments representing a nodosaurid from Coahuila, Mexico (Acantholipan gonzalezi).

Picture Credit: Museo del Desierto (Mexico)

The photograph (above), shows the nodosaurid fossil material from Coahuila.  Although very fragmentary, subsequent comparative analysis with younger North American nodosaurids has permitted the establishment of a new species.

Key

Distal end of right humerus in (a) dorsal, (b) ventral, (c) anterior, and (d) posterior views.
Dorsal vertebra in (e) cranial, (f) caudal, and (g-h) lateral views.
Right ulna in (i) dorsal, (j) ventral, and (k-l) lateral views.
Osteodermal spine (m-p).

Note: Scale bar = 5 centimetres

A Skeletal Illustration of A. gonzalezi – Known Fossil Material Outlined in Red

Acantholipan gonzalezi skeletal drawing.

The known bones of A. gonzalezi are shown in red.

Picture Credit: Museo del Desierto (Mexico)

Armoured Dinosaur Bones Found in Marine Shales

The fossil material was discovered in marine shales associated with the Pen Formation.  The research team studying this material have concluded that the carcass of the dinosaur, a juvenile approximately 3.5 metres long, had been swept out to sea, before sinking to the seafloor and becoming buried by sediment.  If this dinosaur had reached maturity, the scientists estimate that it could have reached a length of about six metres and weighed several thousand kilograms.  With the naming of Acantholipan gonzalezi, this dinosaur becomes the oldest member of the Dinosauria described from the Coahuila region, and the first member of the Ankylosauria clade to have been named from Mexican fossils.

Commenting on the new species of armoured dinosaur, José Rubén Guzmán Gutiérrez of the Museo del Desierto and one of the co-authors of the scientific paper describing the dinosaur in the Swiss Journal of Palaeontology, stated:

“Here in Mexico, we have a significant palaeontological wealth, specifically in the state of Coahuila.  We have this palaeontological richness and it is worthwhile for the population to get involved in getting to know this heritage that belongs to all Mexicans.”

The name of this new species of armoured dinosaur honours its Mexican roots.  The genus name comes from the Greek “akanthos”, which means spine, combined with the name of the native Indians which inhabited this part of northern Mexico.  The species name honours Arturo González-González, the director of the Museo del Desierto.

To read an article from 2017 reporting on the discovery of a new species of horned dinosaur from the Coahuila region of Mexico: Yehuecauhceratops – A New Horned Dinosaur from Northern Mexico

14 06, 2018

Everything Dinosaur to Conduct Dinosaur and Fossil Workshops at The Beacon Museum

By | June 14th, 2018|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur at the Beacon Museum

As part of The Beacon Museum’s summer exhibition “Brick Dinos”, team members from Everything Dinosaur will be conducting a weekend of dinosaur and fossil themed workshops.  Join Mike and Sue from Everything Dinosaur from Friday afternoon 27th July and throughout that weekend and help them hunt for fossils including dinosaur bones!  Team members from Everything Dinosaur will be conducting a series of workshops at the Beacon Museum, giving participants the chance to be a palaeontologist and cast museum quality fossil replicas.  Turn dinosaur detective and get up close to some amazing fossils and learn how to find evidence of ancient life. Best of all, what you find on the fossil dig, you can keep!

Join Everything Dinosaur Team Members over the Weekend of July 27th to July 29th

Everything Dinosaur at the Beacon Museum

Everything Dinosaur will be conducting a series of family friendly dinosaur and fossil themed workshops from July 27th – July 29th.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Dinosaur Detectives and Perceptive Palaeontologists

The “Brick Dinos” event allows visitors to travel back in time and to interact with a series of prehistoric animal exhibits that have been created by the famous plastic bricks (Lego®).  Everything Dinosaur will be conducting a series of 2-hour-long, family friendly, dinosaur and fossil themed workshops, utilising the ground floor of the Beacon Portal.  Numbers are limited so booking is essential.

Dinosaur and Dino Pro combination tickets available please ring 01946 592302 for details, or alternatively, you can contact the Beacon Museum for tickets and further information: Contact The Beacon Museum at Whitehaven

Mike from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We are going to be bringing lots of different fossils which have been collected from various dig sites, sharks teeth, corals, ammonites, crocodile armour and of course, real dinosaur bone.  Visitors to the Beacon will have the opportunity to hunt for fossils and you can take home what you find, starting your own fossil collection.”

The Beacon Museum Promoting the Visit of Everything Dinosaur (July 27th to July 29th 2018)

Dinosaur workshops at the Beacon Museum.

Everything Dinosaur visiting The Beacon Museum in July 2018.

Picture Credit: The Beacon Museum (Whitehaven, Cumbria)

The Proposed Itinerary*

Everything Dinosaur team members are going to be very busy over that weekend.   The team intend to conduct a 2-hour dinosaur and fossil workshop on Friday afternoon (starting 2pm) and to delivery two further workshops on Saturday and Sunday morning.  On Saturday and Sunday afternoon, Everything Dinosaur will be laying out their fossil trays and inviting visitors to join them on a fossil hunt, looking for fossils which will include teeth from prehistoric sharks, belemnite guards and dinosaur bones.

Friday 27th July
• 2pm to 4pm – Dinosaurs and Fossils Workshop

Saturday 28th July
• 9.30am to 11.30am – Dinosaurs and Fossils Workshop

• 1pm – Fossil Trays and Finding Fossils

• 2pm – Fossil Trays and Finding Fossils

• 3pm – Fossil Trays and Finding Fossils

• 4pm – Fossil Trays and Finding Fossils

Sunday 29th July
• 9.30am to 11.30am – Dinosaurs and Fossils Workshop

• 1pm – Fossil Trays and Finding Fossils

• 2pm – Fossil Trays and Finding Fossils

• 3pm – Fossil Trays and Finding Fossils

• 4pm – Fossil Trays and Finding Fossils

Proposed itinerary* potentially subject to change contact The Beacon Museum for further information.

Finding Fossils Including Shark Teeth

fossilised shark teeth.

A successful fossil hunt.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Further information and tickets: Contact The Beacon Museum at Whitehaven

13 06, 2018

Sooty Owls Send in Questions

By | June 13th, 2018|Dinosaur Fans, Educational Activities, Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

Reception Class (Sooty Owls) Send in Questions

Our congratulations to all the budding palaeontologists in Sooty Owls class (Foundation Stage 2), at Laithes Primary in south Yorkshire for compiling such a fascinating set of questions about dinosaurs.  The children in Foundation Stage at this Barnsley school have just started their summer term topic and they are very excited to be learning about dinosaurs and life in the past.

Questions Compiled by Sooty Owls for Everything Dinosaur

Foundation Stage children think up questions about dinosaurs.

The children in the Sooty Owls class have compiled a set of questions about dinosaurs.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Laithes Primary School

Why do Dinosaurs Roar?

Sophie asked why do dinosaurs roar?  This is a very difficult question to answer as we don’t have a living Tyrannosaurus rex, Stegosaurus or any other non-avian dinosaur to study.  Dinosaurs certainly do a lot of loud roaring in movies like “Jurassic Park”, but it is hard to work out what sort of sounds they made by just studying the fossilised bones alone.  Having said that, the tiny bones of the inner ear that have been found have given palaeontologists some ideas as to the sort of sounds that these animals might have heard.  Dinosaurs seem to have had good hearing so they probably did make some sounds, perhaps some of the smaller dinosaurs might have chirped like their near relatives the birds.  Other dinosaurs might have squawked, twittered or clucked, whilst very big dinosaurs may have made low frequency rumbling sounds, the vibrations of which, could have been detected by their feet (elephants are believed to be able to detect low frequency sounds in this way).

Some Very Big Dinosaurs Could have Picked Up Sounds Using their Feet

Spinophosaurus dinosaur life reconstruction.

Some very big dinosaurs could have picked up sounds using their feet.

When do Dinosaurs Sleep?

Emir wanted to know about dinosaur sleeping habits.  He asked when do dinosaurs sleep?  There are lots and lots of different types of dinosaurs and some of them were probably nocturnal (active at night), so these types of dinosaurs would have slept during the day.  Can the children in Sooty Owls class make a list of animals alive today that are nocturnal?  Most dinosaurs would have slept at night, just like we do, but all dinosaurs would have probably napped from time to time to.  Palaeontologists have found fossils of sleeping dinosaurs.  Some dinosaurs may have slept with one eye open so that they could stay safe.

A Sleeping Dinosaur (Mei long)

Mei long illustration.

Did dinosaurs sleep with one eye open?

The fossils of the dinosaur from China called Mei long, suggest that some dinosaurs slept like birds.  The name Mei long means “sleeping dragon”.

Were Dinosaurs Cold-blooded?

Tyler asked were dinosaurs cold-blooded?  Reptiles that are alive today, animals like snakes, lizards and crocodiles, have to rely on external sources of heat to help them keep warm and active.  Reptiles bask in the sun, using the heat from the sun to warm their bodies.  It is likely that most dinosaurs, which were probably much more active than snakes and crocodiles, were not cold-blooded, that is, they could have maintained a body temperature that was warmer than their surroundings.  Many dinosaurs had feathers and these feathers helped trap body heat to keep these dinosaurs from getting too cold.

Some dinosaurs lived in Antarctica and some dinosaurs lived in the Arctic Circle, so they would have been well-used to chilly conditions.  Mammals and birds are warm-blooded, birds are very closely related to dinosaurs.

Warm-blooded or Cold-blooded Dinosaurs?

warm-blooded or cold-blooded dinosaurs?

Where on the spectrum between endothermic and ectothermic are the Dinosauria?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Would a T. rex Bite My Arm?

Rayen wanted to know about Tyrannosaurus rex and asked the following question – would T. rex bite my arm?  Tyrannosaurus rex was a meat-eating dinosaur, if it was around today, then a T. rex might indeed try to eat you.  T. rex was so big that he could have eaten everyone in Sooty Owls class for dinner and eaten the class teacher for dessert.  A fully-grown T. rex would have been capable of swallowing Rayen in one big bite!  It is reassuring to know that these types of dinosaurs, known as the non-avian dinosaurs are extinct!

Our thanks once again to the children in Sooty Owls class for compiling such a wonderful set of dinosaur themed questions.

12 06, 2018

The Pneumatic Bones of Theropods

By | June 12th, 2018|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

The Pneumatic Bones of Theropods (Living and Extinct)

Air-filled (pneumatic), bones are unique to birds amongst living terrestrial vertebrates.  However, it is known that many different types of Archosaurs as well as the birds had post-cranial bones with lots of air sacs.  Non-avian dinosaurs in the form of the Theropoda had them to.  Whilst visiting the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in London, this shared anatomical trait was beautifully demonstrated when viewing a number of avian exhibits.

An Ostrich Femur (Thigh Bone) Showing Pneumaticity

An ostrich femur showing extensive pneumaticity.

A cross-section of an ostrich femur showing the extensive air sacs.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The caption in the display case reads:

“OSTRICH FEMUR – Birds have honeycomb bones to reduce weight for flight.  Flightless ostriches evolved from flying birds and retain this feature”.

The above statement is true, but technically (most probably), pneumatic, post-cranial bones have been inherited from the Dinosauria.

A Fragment of Theropod Bone Showing the Highly Pneumatised Internal Structure

The tell-tale honeycomb structure of fossil bone indicates Theropod dinosaur.

A close up of the fossil bone shows the typical honeycomb structure indicative of a Theropod dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Jason Love/Burke Museum

Air-filled Bones Evolved Independently in Several Groups Avemetatarsalia

The fossil record has provided evidence of pneumaticity in Late Triassic Archosaurs (at least 210 million years ago), it is very likely that air-filled bones evolved much earlier in the branch of the Archosaurs (Avemetatarsalia), that includes the dinosaurs, pterosaurs and birds.  Bones with air sacs are also associated with derived members of the Sauropodomorpha.  It has been postulated that this characteristic evolved independently in several groups and that pneumaticity did not occur amongst these different Archosaurs as a result of sharing a common ancestor.

The evolution of light, but strong air-filled bones can be explained for the birds, as such bones would help reduce weight and make flying easier.   As for the other, extinct Archosaurs, this characteristic evolved in the Pterosauria (flying reptiles) for very probably the same reason – to reduce weight to make flying easier.  As for the dinosaurs and other largely non-volant Archosaurs that had this feature, pneumatisation might have evolved to reduce energy expenditure as these animals moved about.  After all, if you weigh several tonnes, as in the case of a basal Sauropod, if you could evolve a more efficient method of locomotion, than this makes a lot of evolutionary sense.

11 06, 2018

Scientists Calculate the Cost of Powering a Dinosaur Theme Park

By | June 11th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Scientists Calculate the Cost of Powering a Dinosaur Theme Park

This week, twenty-five years ago, saw the release of the film “Jurassic Park”, the Steven Spielberg directed blockbuster that brought to the world’s cinema screens CGI generated and animatronic dinosaurs.  As cinema-goers currently enjoy the latest instalment in this multi-billion-dollar franchise – “Fallen Kingdom”, we could reflect on how our perceptions regarding the Dinosauria has changed since the adaptation of Michael Crichton’s 1990 novel first hit our screens.

Celebrating Twenty-Five Years of Jurassic Park

The front cover of Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton.

The first edition of Jurassic Park published in 1990, Steven Spielberg’s blockbuster followed three years later.

We could comment on how these movies have enthused a whole generation of new scientists, with many opting for a career in palaeontology, first inspired by the amazing prehistoric animals brought to life on the silver screen.  Instead, let’s leave the speculation to others about whether it would ever be possible to resurrect a long extinct group of animals, the last of which roamed the Earth sixty-six million years ago and consider one of the more practical aspects of converting an island into a dinosaur themed tourist attraction – how much power would it take to run Jurassic Park?

Thanks to E.ON and the assistance of some very clever physicists at Imperial College London, we have an answer to this question.

It would take 455 million kWh to power a real-life Dinosaur Kingdom.  That’s enough to power half the homes in Harrogate for a year.   Furthermore, team members at Everything Dinosaur have calculated, that based on an average UK household’s power consumption of around 5,000 kWh per annum, the annual power consumption of your typical prehistoric animal populated park would permit you to run the average UK home for around 91,000 years!   That should be enough gas and electricity to see you comfortably through the next Ice Age.

The Cost of Powering a Prehistoric Animal Theme Park

The running costs of a dinosaur themed tourist attraction.

The energy costs involved in running a “Prehistoric Park”.

Picture Credit: E.ON

Running a Real-Life Jurassic Park

From a huge aquarium to house the semi-aquatic Spinosaurus to a dinosaur embryo cooling fridge and egg incubator, the physics experts investigated how much energy each feature would need to keep the park running over twelve months.  The final figure calculated was 455,145,418 kWh, costing approximately £131,732 a day.  We wonder how much money the owners of the theme park would have saved if they had instructed their geneticists to re-create dinosaurs as they probably were, that is, equipped with their own insulation in the form of downy, feathery coats.

If Feathered Dinosaurs had been Genetically Engineered – This Might Have Reduced the Annual Fuel Bill

Artwork by Zhao Chuang (PNSO).

If dinosaurs had been genetically engineered so that they retained their feathers, would insulated dinosaurs have reduced the annual fuel bill?

Picture Credit: Zhao Chuang PNSO

Modern Energy Solutions to Accommodate Ancient Animals

For any billionaire with aspirations to build a real-life “Jurassic Park”, having an understanding of the running costs would be an important component of the business plan.

Scott Somerville, E.ON’s Head of Advertising, PR and Campaigns, stated:

“With huge 10,000 volt electric fences and an aviary designed to house pterosaurs to name just two of the Dinosaur Kingdom’s unusual features, we suspected the energy needed to power the whole park would be big – possibly equivalent to powering a whole region within the UK.  But what our figures show is that it’s actually a massive amount!  It’s about the same as powering 30,142 average UK households a year – roughly equivalent to powering half the homes in Harrogate – but by adopting modern solutions, the power requirement and costs could be even less.”

Prehistoric Poo Turned into Power

The operators of any theoretical theme park, in which the main attractions would have quite happy consumed visitors for their breakfast, would need the very latest in safety features.  There have been five films in the “Jurassic Park/Jurassic World” franchise to date and we all know what happens when things go wrong – it does not end well for the tourists.  However, innovative and environmentally friendly methods of power generation could be adopted to keep those fences charged.  The dinosaurs themselves could play a role in helping to keep running costs from mutating into monstrous proportions, as E.ON’s Scott Somerville went onto explain:

“By generating electricity using technology like a biomass fuelled Combined Heat and Power station, park owners could turn dinosaur droppings into electricity.  Add on other solutions like solar and battery storage, then the park could ultimately benefit from a cheaper, sustainable and more reliable source of electricity instead having to deal with a ‘raptor rampage’ every time the generators that power the electric fences go down.”

For any would-be entrepreneurs with a few billion burning a hole in their pocket, further information on E.ON’s estimates of the running costs of a real-life dinosaur theme park can be found here: Dinosaur Kingdom Running Costs.

As for the rest of us, read the books, watch the movies, it is likely to be a lot less expensive and a good deal safer too.

If anyone or any organisation did really set out to create a dinosaur themed tourist attraction, populated by living, breathing, albeit genetically engineered prehistoric animals, then we suspect it would “spark” a Tyrannosaurus rex-sized debate.  Feathers would be well and truly ruffled!

8 06, 2018

South African Fossils Re-write History of Life on Land

By | June 8th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Some of the First Land Vertebrates Lived in Antarctica

The fossilised remains of two newly described Late Devonian tetrapods have helped to shed new light on the evolution of land vertebrates.  Since most of the known Devonian tetrapod fossils are associated with equatorial palaeoenvironments, it had been thought that the first animals with back bones to adapt to a life on land must have lived in very close to the equator.  However, these new specimens lived on the southernmost portion of the giant super-continent Gondwana.  These early land pioneers of 360 million years ago were living within the Antarctic circle.

A Life Reconstruction of the Two Newly Described Tetrapod Species from the Waterloo Farm Site

Waterloo Farm in the Late Devonian.

The Waterloo Farm area of South Africa during the Late Devonian (Tutusius and Umzantsia).

Picture Credit: Maggie Newman

The evolution of the first land animals from fish during the Devonian geological period is regarded as a key event in the history of life on Earth.  Newly described fossils from the Waterloo Farm locality near Grahamstown (Easter Cape Province, South Africa), are challenging current perceptions about where in the world the first land vertebrates evolved.

Lead author of the scientific paper, published in the journal “Science”, Dr Robert Gess (Albany Museum, Grahamstown), explained:

“Whereas all previously found Devonian tetrapods came from localities which were in tropical regions during the Devonian, these specimens lived within the Antarctic circle.”

The First African Devonian Tetrapods

The researchers, including co-author Professor Per Ahlberg (Uppsala University, Sweden), name two new species Tutusius umlambo and Umzantsia amazana from fragmentary bones from a road cutting at the Waterloo Farm site, bones from the shoulder girdle related to these new early tetrapods, are helping palaeontologists to gain a better understanding of the development of the shoulder girdle from a fish to that of a tetrapod, adapted to walking around on land.

Tutusius and Umzantsia, are Africa’s earliest known four-legged vertebrates by a remarkable 70 million years.  The approximately one-metre-long Tutusius umlambo (named in honour of Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu) and the somewhat smaller Umzantsia amazana are both incomplete.  Tutusius is represented by a single bone from the shoulder girdle, whereas Umzantsia is known from a greater number of bones, but they both appear similar to previously known Devonian tetrapods.  Alive, they would have resembled a cross between a salamander and a fish, with an amphibian-like head, stubby legs with numerous fingers and a tail that was reminiscent of a tadpole’s.

Scale Drawings of Tutusius and the Smaller Umzantsia

The known fossils of Tutusius umlambo and Umzantsia amazana

New Late Devonian Tetrapods from southern Gondwana.  Known bones highlighted in green.

Picture Credit: University of Witwatersrand

The Waterloo Farm site, where the fossils were discovered, is a road cutting first exposed two years ago after controlled rock-cutting explosions by the South African National Roads Agency (SANRAL).  This very important fossil site is along the N2 highway between Grahamstown and the Fish River.  The construction crew exposed dark, grey mudstones of the Witpoort Formation.  The strata represent sedimentary deposits laid down in a brackish, tidal river estuary.  The rocks preserve numerous fossils, including animals and plants.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s article about the fortuitous discovery of this important fossil site: Roadway Leads to Devonian Deposit

Antarctic Tetrapods

The discovery of these fossils is extremely significant not only for what was found, but where they were found.  Devonian tetrapod fossils are found in widely scattered localities.  However, if the continents are mapped back to their Devonian positions, it emerges that all previous finds are from rocks deposited in the palaeotropics, between 30 degrees north and south of the equator.

Almost all these rare and important fossils come from Laurasia, a super-continent that later fragmented into North America, Europe and Greenland.  Umzantsia and Tutusius have certainly bucked this trend.  Gondwana, the much larger, southern super-continent (made up of present -day South America, Australia, Madagascar, Australia, India and Africa), has hitherto yielded virtually no evidence of Devonian tetrapods.  Footprints ascribed to early tetrapods have been discovered in Australia and an isolated jawbone was found in New South Wales.  When this jawbone fossil was first studied, scientists thought it represented the jaw of a lobe-finned fish.  However, subsequent research led to the conclusion that this single bone came from a primitive tetrapod.  The species Metaxygnathus denticulus was erected.  During the later stages of the Devonian, this part of Australia was associated with the northern Gondwana.  It would have been located in the tropics.  As a result, it was assumed that movement of vertebrates from water onto land (terrestrialisation) also occurred in the tropics.  Attempts to understand the causes of these major macroevolutionary steps therefore focused on conditions prevalent in tropical water bodies.

The fossil Cleithrum of T. umlambo

One of the fossil bones of Tutusius umlambo.

The Cleithrum of Tutusius umlambo (part of the shoulder girdle).

Picture Credit: University of Witwatersrand

Challenging Current Perceptions and Assumptions About Tetrapod Evolution

The two early tetrapods named from Waterloo Farm fossils, also come from Gondwana, but from an environment associated with the southernmost part of the super-continent.  Waterloo Farm was approximately seventy degrees south, within the Antarctic circle.   Many plant and insect fossils recovered from the road side indicate that the climate was much milder than the Antarctic circle today, but it would still have been cold and during the long winter season, this region would have experienced many months when the sun did not appear above the horizon.  These amphibians would have had to endure long periods of darkness.

The Location of the Waterloo Farm Site in the Late Devonian

Waterloo Farm and Grahamstown Devonian fossil sites.

The location of Waterloo Farm and Grahamstown where a substantial number of Devonian fossils have been found.  Look for the green label.

Picture Credit: University of Witwatersrand with additional annotation by Everything Dinosaur

The researchers conclude that these fossils change our understanding of the distribution of Devonian tetrapods.  We now know that tetrapods occurred throughout the world by the Late Devonian and that their evolution and terrestrialisation could realistically have occurred anywhere.

7 06, 2018

Albertosaurus Helps Protect Against Fraud and Identity Theft

By | June 7th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

Alberta Reveals New Driver’s Licence with Dinosaur Design

In a bid to help protect residents of the Canadian province of Alberta from counterfeiting and identify theft, driving licences have been redesigned and they will feature a skeleton of an Albertosaurus.  This iconic, albeit somewhat extinct resident of southern Canada is honoured and the bones in the tail of the dinosaur image helps to improve the card’s security.

The New Driver’s Licence for the Canadian Province of Alberta

Albertosaurus features on driving licence.

The new design for a driving licence in Alberta features Albertosaurus.

Picture Credit: Alberta Government

The provincial government has redesigned driver’s licences and identity cards with updated and improved security features such as clear windows, laser engraving and three-dimensional embossing.  These features are designed to deter fraudsters and counterfeiters but the additional of an Albertosaurus skeleton must make this one of the coolest things that a wallet or purse could contain.

Stephanie McLean, (Minister of Service for Alberta) commented:

“Our government takes identity fraud very seriously.  We are the first jurisdiction in North America to integrate this combination of design and security to protect Albertans from ID theft and prevent fraud.  We are using the latest technology available to safeguard people’s personal information and prevent scams.”

Saving $1,000,000 Canadian Dollars

The new cards are currently in production and although the cards have a suite of security measures incorporated within them, advances in technology mean that they will cost less than the old licences to make.  The Alberta treasury expects to save over $1,000,000 Canadian dollars as a result of the new design.

The driver’s licence design depicts famous landmarks such as Castle Mountain and the Bow River in Banff National Park, while the new identity cards will feature a Wild Rose, Alberta’s provincial flower.  Both cards also include an image of an Albertosaurus, a dinosaur whose name honours Alberta.  Fossils of a very large predatory dinosaur had been uncovered in southern Canada prior to the turn of the Century and this dinosaur was finally named and scientifically described in 1905, the same year that the province of Alberta was established by an Act of Parliament.  Coincidentally, 1905 was also the year that Tyrannosaurus rex,  a famous relative of Albertosaurus was named.

A Museum Exhibit Albertosaurus Skeleton Fossil

Albertosaurus fossil exhibit.

The “Death Pose” of a Dinosaur.  A fossil exhibit featuring Albertosaurus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The last redesign occurred nine years ago and the Alberta government has incorporated advice from law enforcement agencies to ensure the cards have the most up-to-date safeguards against fraudsters and identify thieves.  The Albertosaurus image plays an important role in card security.  The dinosaur’s image is embossed and has a raised feel to it.  This creates a three-dimensional effect, the tail continues on the back of the card and appears to travel through the Alberta-shaped window, which also holds an image of the legitimate card holder.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“It is wonderful to see the authorities celebrating the natural beauty of the province of Alberta in such an interesting way.  Having an iconic dinosaur on the driver’s licence will remind holders of the rich fossil heritage of this part of Canada.”

A Life Reconstruction of Albertosaurus (A. sarcophagus)

Albertosaurus illustrated.

An illustration of Albertosaurus (A. sarcophagus).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

6 06, 2018

Three-toed Dinosaurs from the Tatras

By | June 6th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Scientists Discover Dinosaur Footprints in the Tatra Mountains

The beautiful and rugged Tatra mountain range forms a natural border between Poland and Slovakia, but during the Late Triassic, the sediments that formed part of these peaks were sandy shores close to large rivers where many different types of dinosaur wandered.  Dinosaurs left their footprints in these soft sands, and remarkably some of these trace fossils have survived more than 200 million years and they are helping palaeontologists to better understand the composition of Late Triassic vertebrate faunas.  Media reports from the Centre of Interdisciplinary Biosciences of Pavol Jozef Šafárik University in Košice, Slovakia, confirm the discovery of yet more three-toed Theropod dinosaur footprints, although most are badly eroded, these trace fossils indicate the presence of a sizeable predator, one that may have exceeded five metres in length.

The fossils come from the Tomanová Formation and although dating the strata is challenging, the rocks are thought to have been laid down during the Late Norian to the Rhaetian faunal stage of the Triassic (215 – 202 million years ago approximately).

Palaeontologist Martin Kundrát with a Cast of a Dinosaur Footprint

Dinosaur Footprint cast (Tatra Mountains).

Martin Kundrát holding a cast of the dinosaur trace fossil he discovered in the Tatras.

Picture Credit: Jana Otriová

Recording the Activity of Dinosaurs from the Late Triassic

The first dinosaur fossil footprints found in the High Tatras were described in 1976.  These fossils and subsequent footprint discoveries led to the establishment of a new ichnospecies – Coelurosaurichnus tatricus.  However, these new finds, ten dinosaur trace fossils, have helped shed further light on vertebrate fauna at an important time in our planet’s history.  At around this time, a mass extinction event occurred and a number of terrestrial vertebrates (and other types of animal) became extinct, providing the Dinosauria with even greater opportunities to diversify and produce new species.

Commenting on these fossils, one of the palaeontologists who discovered them, Martin Kundrát (Centre of Interdisciplinary Biosciences of Pavol Jozef Šafárik University), stated:

“The locality is extremely rare for Slovak dinosaurology.  It is located at high altitude.  This does not mean, however, that dinosaurs have been hiking.  The truth is that the sediments in which the traces were preserved were created hundreds of kilometres from Slovakia almost at the level of the then advancing sea.  The layers of the tracks were later transported to the territory of Slovakia and raised to the stars.  This is our modest dinosaur association.  Two of them are complete, the rest are only fragments.”

One of the More Complete Footprint Fossils

Dinosaur footprint fossil from Slovakia.

Coelurosaurichnus tatricus?  Footprints previously ascribed to the ichnospecies C. tatricus may have to be redefined in the light of these new fossil discoveries.

Picture Credit: Martin Kundrát

Important Fossils Although Fragmentary Fossils

The fossil record for dinosaurs from Europe during the Late Triassic is relatively poor, so even these fragments are very helpful to palaeontologists as they attempt to piece together the biota of Pangaea.  The trace fossils, although quite indistinct, help scientists to gain an understanding of the various types of dinosaur that roamed this part of the world more than 200 million years ago.  Moreover, these new discoveries allow palaeontologists to revise their knowledge about an ancient ecosystem.   Based on studies of similar imprints from South Korea, the United States, Iran and China, scientists have been able to make two important deductions.

First, the researchers have concluded that the former ichnotaxonomy (classification of an animal based on its footprints, burrows, or other traces) of Coelurosaurichnus tatricus is not valid.

Secondly, the number of imprints confined to a small area indicates that it was a very often frequented locality.

The Dinosaur Footprints Indicate a Theropod Around Five Metres in Length

Liliensternus drawing.

Liliensternus dinosaur drawing,  It is probable that the Slovakian Theropod looked like Liliensternus from the Late Triassic of Germany.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

In total, this part of the High Tatras has yielded several different types of dinosaur footprint.  Several papers have been published previously describing Ornithischian prints and the large, rounded tracks of what are assumed to be Sauropodomorpha, as well as numerous types of three-toed (tridactyl) prints assigned to the Theropoda.

5 06, 2018

Amargasaurus Makeover

By | June 5th, 2018|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Amargasaurus Makeover

The new for 2018, Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus model has been given a makeover by talented model maker Martin Garratt.  The “lizard from Amarga Canyon” has had its head raised, alterations have been made to those famous, bizarre spines and the tail has been shortened.  The end result is a very impressive dinosaur model indeed!

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus Model has been “Customised” by Martin Garratt

A customised Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus dinosaur model.

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus model is customised.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/UMF Models

Re-designing a Diplodocid

This stunning figure looks very different from the Safari Ltd dinosaur model, upon which it is based.  However, one of the great benefits of the Safari Ltd range is that model makers are starting with a well-made, detailed figure to begin with.  From this solid foundation, talented individuals like Martin can modify and customise the piece to create truly unique and most attractive dinosaur dioramas.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus Dinosaur (2018)

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus dinosaur figure.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Additional of Scales Running Down the Back

Eagle-eyed readers will note that Martin has added a row of scales running down the back of the plant-eating dinosaur.  In addition, the neck has been filled out somewhat and made thicker.  The pose remains virtually unaltered and although the colour scheme for the paint job is very different, it still incorporates the concept of counter shading as seen in the original Wild Safari Prehistoric World model.

A Close-up view of the Repainted and Re-modelled Head and Neck

A view of the re-painted and re-modelled Amargasaurus.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus figure gets a makeover.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/UMF Models

An Amazing Amargasaurus

This South American dinosaur (fossils come from Argentina), was named and described in 1991 by Leonardo Salgado and José Bonaparte.  It has been assigned to the diplodocid group of Sauropods, this means that it was related to the better-known, North American members of the Sauropoda, such as Diplodocus, Apatosaurus and Brontosaurus.   As the holotype specimen is missing much of the tail, the length of this Early Cretaceous dinosaur is not known.  However, most palaeontologists estimate that it was around twelve metres long.

The Amargasaurus Replica Created by Martin Garratt

A model of Amargasaurus.

The Amargasaurus has been mounted onto a bespoke base.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/UMF Models

The animal was named after the river (La Amarga) and the nearby town, plus the rock formation within which the fossils were found is also named La Amarga. This dinosaur was described during a period of research that led to the recognition of South America’s unique dinosaur fauna.  The amended figure has been placed on a bespoke base.

To view the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus and the other figures in the Safari Ltd range: Safari Ltd/Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models

The Beautiful and Detailed Head of the Amargasaurus

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus gets a makeover.

A close-up view of the head of the Amargasaurus figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/UMF Models

The picture (above) shows a close-up of the head and neck of the dinosaur model.  The details in the figure and the care taken with the painting are clearly evident.  Our congratulations to Martin for producing such an elegant and beautiful dinosaur figure.

The Customised Wild Safari Prehistoric World Amargasaurus Dinosaur Model

An Amargasaurus dinosaur model.

An Amargasaurus dinosaur figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/UMF Models

3 06, 2018

Beasts of the Mesozoic Velociraptor mongoliensis

By | June 3rd, 2018|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Beasts of the Mesozoic Velociraptor mongoliensis

The amazing Beasts of the Mesozoic model range arrived at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse last week and over the last few days, team members have been busy sorting out all the orders from customers, including all those dinosaur fans who had Beasts of the Mesozoic figures on reserve.  With lots of parcels now safely delivered, Everything Dinosaur is starting to get feedback on these superb, articulated 1/6th scale replicas.

Fans Take Pictures of their Beasts of the Mesozoic Models

Beasts of the Mesozoic Velociraptor on the prowl.

A photograph of a Beasts of the Mesozoic Velociraptor mongoliensis from a dinosaur model fan.

Picture Credit: Andrea/Everything Dinosaur

The Deluxe Velociraptor mongoliensis

Andrea sent us a picture of her Deluxe Beasts of the Mesozoic Velociraptor mongoliensis model.  It was ordered on Friday and it was delivered the next day.  It looks like the lizard model from the Rebor Dimorphodon figure (Judy) is in a lot of trouble, if it does not move it is likely to end up as dinner for the Velociraptor.  The diet of the two species of Velociraptor (V. mongoliensis named in 1924 and Velociraptor osmolskae, which was described in 2008), remains uncertain, although it is likely they fed on a variety of other creatures including mammals, amphibians and other reptiles.

One of the most famous fossils ever found was discovered in 1971.  A joint Mongolian/Polish expedition uncovered the fossilised remains of a Velociraptor mongoliensis that had been preserved in combat with another dinosaur (Protoceratops andrewsi).  This was evidence that Velociraptor attacked other dinosaurs.

The Famous “Fighting Dinosaurs” Fossil Excavation

Velociraptor in combat with Protoceratops.

“Duelling dinosaurs” – Velociraptor fighting with Protoceratops.

Picture Credit: Polish Academy of Sciences

To view the Beasts of the Mesozoic Deluxe Velociraptor mongoliensis figure and the rest of this 1:6 scale model range: Beasts of the Mesozoic

An Illustration Showing the Velociraptor Fighting a Protoceratops

Fighting dinosaurs.

Fighting dinosaurs – a Protoceratops defends itself against Velociraptor.

When first discovered it was thought that this combat between two dinosaurs had been preserved as both animals had drowned, but subsequent studies showed that these poor, unfortunate creatures had been covered in sand, presumably as a dune had collapsed and buried them both, or they may have been caught in a sudden sandstone.  The Protoceratops skeleton shows signs of having been scavenged, so these two dinosaurs could have died locked in combat before being completely covered.  It remains one of the most remarkable vertebrate fossil discoveries known to science and provided evidence of predatory behaviour amongst dromaeosaurids.

Velociraptor – A Very Popular Dinosaur

Whether it is due to the over-sized Velociraptors depicted in the “Jurassic Park ” film franchise or due to amazing fossil examples such as the “fighting dinosaurs” fossil from Mongolia, Velociraptor remains a very popular dinosaur and it is great to see an articulated, highly-detailed Velociraptor mongoliensis model on the market.

The Beasts of the Mesozoic Velociraptor mongoliensis Figure

Beasts of the Mesozoic Velociraptor mongoliensis.

Velociraptor mongoliensis.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

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