All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
/Dinosaur Fans

Dinosaur and prehistoric animal themed articles, features and stories.

20 01, 2020

Stegosaurus armatus – Thank You Rebor

By | January 20th, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Stegosaurus armatus – Thank You Rebor

In December, Everything Dinosaur received stocks of the 1:35 scale Rebor Stegosaurus armatus dinosaur model.  This beautiful figure is available in three colour schemes, “plain”, “woodland” and many team member’s personal favourite – “mountain”.  We had been asked to demonstrate how the tailpiece fitted into the model and we did produce a short video demonstrating how to insert the tail into the slot at the back of the figure, but we had more footage so we have posted up a slightly longer video that provides a little more detail about this excellent armoured dinosaur replica.

Thank You Rebor – Stegosaurus armatus “Mountain” Colour Scheme (1:35 Scale Dinosaur Model)

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Providing More Information About the Rebor Stegosaurus armatus Figure

In this short video, (it is a little under one minute forty-five seconds in length), we show the “mountain” colour scheme figure as well as images of the two other colour variants “plain” and “woodland”.  We comment on the tailpiece and demonstrate how to connect it to the body.  In addition, we briefly discuss the fossil material that was once the type specimen for the Stegosaurus genus.  This fossil material was very incomplete, only the rear portion of the animal was preserved and only one iconic plate was found in association.  The fossils once ascribed to S. armatus, were replaced as the designated type material for the genus by much more complete Stegosaurus stenops material in a ruling by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), in 2013.

We take this opportunity to thank Rebor for producing such an excellent dinosaur model.

Stegosaurus might be an iconic dinosaur, but compared to the horned dinosaurs of the Late Cretaceous such as Triceratops and its close relatives, there remains a lot of debate as to the exact taxonomic make-up of the Stegosauridae.

The Rebor S. armatus Dinosaur Model is Available in Three Colour Variants

A trio of three Rebor Stegosaurus (S. armatus) models.

The Rebor 1:35 scale Stegosaurus (S. armatus) is available in three colour variants “plain”, “mountain” and woodland”.  Which one is your favourite?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the Rebor Stegosaurus figures and the rest of the Rebor models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Replicas, Models and Figures.

Committed to Making More Videos Including Product Reviews

At Everything Dinosaur, we are committed to making and posting up more videos onto our YouTube channel.  We hope to put up a new video onto our YouTube channel every week, so long as other work commitments permit.

To view a recent blog post that contains our first, short video showing how to insert the tail into Stegosaurus armatus figure: The Tale of a Tail – How to Insert the Tailpiece into the 1:35 scale Stegosaurus armatus. model.

You can find the Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel here: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

19 01, 2020

Little Dancing Dragon Sheds Light on How Dinosaurs Grew Up

By | January 19th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

The New Microraptorine Wulong bohaiensis

A new feathered dinosaur from Liaoning Province (north-eastern China), has been named and described.  The little dinosaur, not much bigger than a crow, but with a long tail, has been named Wulong bohaiensis.  The fossilised feathers associated with the beautifully preserved skeleton, include two long tail feathers, the sort of extravagant plumage associated with mature birds which use such adornments to attract a mate.  However, when an analysis of the limb bones was undertaken to determine the age of the specimen (histological analysis), the research team discovered that the specimen represented a juvenile.

Either those long, showy feathers served some other function, or dinosaurs that were closely related to birds grew up differently when compared to their living relatives.

The Newly Described Wulong bohaiensis.

Wulong bohaiensis fossil specimen.

The beautifully preserved and almost complete W. bohaiensis fossil specimen.

Picture Credit: Ashley W. Poust (University of California)

Dancing Dragon

The fossil specimen was found more than ten years ago by a local farmer.  It had resided in the vertebrate collection of the Dalian Natural History Museum (Liaoning Province), being eventually described and studied by scientists at the museum in conjunction with student Ashley Poust under the supervision of  Dr David Varricchio (Montana State University), her former advisor, prior to Ashley moving to the University of California.

The genus name is Chinese for “dancing dragon”, a reference to the posture of the preserved specimen.  A phylogenetic analysis places W. bohaiensis within Microraptorinae, this little dinosaur was therefore closely related to Microraptor.  Whether, like Microraptor, Wulong bohaiensis was capable of powered flight can be speculated upon.

Ashley Poust explained the significance of this research stating:

“The specimen has feathers on its limbs and tail that we associate with adult birds, but it had other features that made us think it was a juvenile.”

In order to determine the age of the dinosaur when it died, staff at the Dalian Natural History Museum gave permission for the tibia, fibula and humerus bones to be examined histologically.  Essentially, cross-sectional slices of these bones were removed from the skeleton, prepared and then examined under a microscope so that the seasonal/annual growth of the animal could be identified.  Such a technique is invasive and will cause damage to the fossil specimen, fortunately, the curators at the Dalian Natural History Museum took the decision that in order to benefit science the invasive procedures had to be undertaken.

Ashley commented:

“Thankfully, our co-authors at the Dalian Natural History Museum were really forward thinking and allowed us to apply these techniques, not only to Wulong, but also to another dinosaur, a close relative that looked more adult called Sinornithosaurus.”

A Life Reconstruction of Wulong bohaiensis

Life reconstruction of Wulong bohaiensis.

A life reconstruction of Wulong bohaiensis.  The sharp, small teeth in the jaw of Wulong suggest that this dinosaur was a piscivore, or perhaps feeding on insects.

Picture Credit: Ashley Poust (University of California)

Sinornithosaurus Provides a Surprise

The histology of a specimen of another feathered dinosaur associated with the Early Cretaceous Jehol biota was also examined.  The research team wanted to compare their immature, juvenile Wulong to what they thought was a specimen of an adult Sinornithosaurus.  However, analysis of the bone structure of the Sinornithosaurus provided a surprise.  The histology revealed that both specimens were young and still growing at death, indicating an age for Wulong of about one-year-old.

Commenting on the results of the histological analysis on the Sinornithosaurus specimen, Ashley explained:

“Here was an animal that was large and had adult looking bones.  We thought it was going to be mature, but histology proved that idea wrong.  It was older than Wulong, but seems to have been still growing.  Researchers need to be really careful about determining whether a specimen is adult or not.  Until we learn a lot more, histology is really the most dependable way.”

An Illustration of Sinornithosaurus

Sinornithosaurus

The fearsome dromaeosaurid Sinornithosaurus, in reality this dinosaur was about 1-1.2 metres in length, although it might have preyed upon the smaller Wulong bohaiensis.

Picture Credit: Zhao Chuang

This new study suggests that either young dinosaurs developed elaborate tail feathers for some other purpose, or that they were growing feathers in a different way from their close living relatives the Aves (birds).

The Paraves Clade

The Paraves is a clade of theropod dinosaurs.  It is defined as containing all the dinosaurs which are more closely related to birds than to oviraptorosaurs.  As such it includes troodontids, dromaeosaurids and avialians, which encompasses extant birds.  Much of what we know about the diversity of this group in the Early Cretaceous comes from fossil specimens found in Liaoning, China.  However, many taxa are represented by specimens of unclear ontogenetic age.  With a better understanding of how dinosaurs may have changed in their appearance as they grew up, scientists can be more confident about their phylogeny, their evolutionary relationships and which character traits can be used to infer biology and the dinosaur’s position within the complex Jehol ecosystem.

This scientific paper identified several different types of feather associated with Wulong bohaiensis – pennaceous primary feathers, filamentous feathers and long tail feathers.  The team established that such plumage preceded skeletal maturity and full adult size in some dromaeosaurids.  Histological analysis of the Wulong holotype and a Sinornithosaurus specimen revealed that they developed mature feather coverings associated with adult animals after their first year, but before they had become fully grown.  This has implications for Paraves research as assumptions made about the adult age of a fossil specimen may not be accurate in the absence of histological analysis.

The scientific paper: “A new microraptorine theropod from the Jehol Biota and growth in early dromaeosaurids” by Ashley W. Poust, Chunling Gao, David J. Varricchio, Jianlin Wu, and Fengjiao Zhang published in The Anatomical Record.

18 01, 2020

Diplodocus Features on a Thank You Note

By | January 18th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page|0 Comments

Diplodocus Says Thank You

Our thanks to dinosaur and fossil fan Caroline who on receipt of her delivery from Everything Dinosaur was inspired to send us a little thank you card illustrated with a sauropod sketch.  What a beautiful illustration of a dinosaur!  The drawing is entitled “Young Diplodocus Going for a Dip”.

A “Young Diplodocus Going for a Dip”

Young Diplodocus going for a dip.

A young Diplodocus going for a dip.

Picture Credit: Caroline Smalley.

Inside the card, Caroline had written:

“Thank you for your kindness, fantastic customer service and speedy delivery.”

You are most welcome, happy to help out where we can and thank you again for your card with the wonderful dinosaur illustration.

17 01, 2020

Extra-terrestrial Impact Wiped Out the Dinosaurs

By | January 17th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page|2 Comments

Mass Extinction Event Caused by Impact Event

One of the greatest controversies surrounding the Dinosauria is what actually caused the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs?  Around the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event, there was an enormous extra-terrestrial impact in the Gulf of Mexico.  A worldwide layer of clay, saturated in the rare Earth element iridium, marking the K-Pg geological boundary was first publicised by American father and son Luis and Walter Alvarez.  They postulated that an Earth impact event had resulted in this deposition and it was speculated that such a catastrophic event might have been responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs.

New Study Suggests Dinosaur Extinction Due to the Extra-terrestrial Impact Event

Chicxulub impact event.

A reconstruction of the Chicxulub impact which marked the extinction of many terrestrial and marine forms of life, including the non-avian dinosaurs.

The “Smoking Gun” Evidence

Such an impact would have left an enormous crater, the search was on to find the “smoking gun” to support the theory regarding a meteorite, asteroid or perhaps a comet hitting the Earth.  Most researchers now agree, that the Yucatan peninsula in the Gulf of Mexico was ground zero.  However, there is a problem, as scientists are aware of a number of other potential candidates responsible for the extinction of a large amount of the planet’s biota some sixty-six million years ago.  For example, the Late Cretaceous was characterised by extensive volcanism.  Huge amounts of lava from the Deccan traps led to the formation of thousands of miles of  flood basalt.  The out-pouring of noxious gases as a result of this extensive volcanism could well have played a significant role in the extinction of many different kinds of organisms too.

Asteroid impact theory challenged: Blame the Deccan Traps.

In a new paper, a team of international researchers led by Dr Celli Hull from Yale University, conclude that the volcanism did not play a huge role in the extinction, but it may have played a significant role in shaping the rise of different species after the extinction event had occurred.

Impact Event the Most Likely Cause of End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction

The extinction of the dinosaurs.

An international team of scientists conclude that it was the extra-terrestrial bolide impact that caused the mass-extinction event.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Analysis of Ancient Ocean Sediments

In order to disentangle the relative effects of the volcanism and the impact event, the scientists analysed deep sea sediment sections drilled from the North Atlantic, Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans.  They found that volcanic activity in the Late Cretaceous period caused only a gradual global warming of about two degrees Celsius, but this had no significant effect on marine ecosystems, and cooler conditions had returned prior to the extinction.

Hull et al investigated the timing of the Deccan outgassing by modelling in several scenarios, the effects of the gases ejected by volcanoes (sulphur and carbon dioxide).  Their results suggest that more than half of the total Deccan outgassing occurred well before the impact event, not just before it.  The scientists concluded that the timing of most of the atmospheric pollution from the extensive volcanism, just did not fit the extinction event.  The major volcanism is likely to have occurred at least 200,000 years before the extinction event.

One of the co-authors of the study, Professor Paul Bown (University College London), explained.

“Most scientists acknowledge that the last, and best-known, mass extinction event occurred after a large asteroid slammed into Earth 66 million years ago, but some researchers suggested volcanic activity might have played a big role too and we’ve shown that is not the case.”

The team’s models showed that the changes in the carbon cycle that resulted from the volcanism was mitigated by the oceans absorbing vast quantities of CO2.  This would have limited any global warming.

Fellow co-author Professor Paul Wilson (Southampton University), added:

“There’s been a big row about the cause of the mass extinction for decades.  The demise of the dinosaurs was the iconic event but they were large animals and there weren’t really that many of them so it’s tough to use them to figure out the cause.  We studied microscopic marine organisms called foraminifera and there are thousands of them in a teaspoon-full of ocean sediment.  To get them we drilled into the sea bed in waters nearly 5 kilometres deep not far from the watery grave of RMS Titanic off the coast of Newfoundland using a sort of geology time machine – a drill ship called the JOIDES Resolution run by one the world’s most successful international scientific collaborations, the International Ocean Discovery Program.”

The authors postulate that the volcanism may have played a role in shaping the evolution of Palaeogene species in the aftermath of the end-Cretaceous extinction event.

What About Hell Creek – Were Dinosaurs Already in Decline?

From a scientific perspective, it makes much more sense to examine the fossil record of planktonic foraminifera.  Relying on the non-avian dinosaurs as an indicator of palaeo-climate change some sixty-six million years ago is fraught with difficulties.  For instance, although many different types of life were affected by the end-Cretaceous extinction event, it is often only the dinosaurs that are mentioned by the media.  It is worth remembering that many other lifeforms died out.  There are not that many windows into the end of the Maastrichtian and the earliest part of the Palaeocene (Danian faunal stage).  One such example is the Hell Creek Formation, which provides a record of the last few million years of the Mesozoic.

Hell Creek – Prospecting for Fossils in the Upper Cretaceous Sediments

Looking for fossils - Hell Creek Formation.

Prospecting for fossils – Hell Creek Formation (Montana).

Picture Credit: University of California Museum of Palaeontology

Studies of the number and variety of dinosaur fossils excavated from the Hell Creek Formation and other slightly older geological formations, suggest that in the last ten million years of the Cretaceous, the number of dinosaur species fell by more than fifty percent.

An analysis of the youngest fifteen metres of sediments from the Hell Creek Formation, revealed just eleven different types of dinosaur.  In the uppermost strata, the last three metres of the Hell Creek Formation representing the end of the Cretaceous, only three types of dinosaur were recorded.  Whilst it can be difficult to accurately date and assess the chronology of strata, the study of dinosaur fossils from Hell Creek suggests that the Dinosauria may have been in decline (at least in this part of Laramida), prior to the impact event.  This decline, if it was a decline, could have been caused by the environmental effects of the extensive volcanism, or other factors for that matter.

We suspect that just like the Deccan Traps, this debate is going to rumble on for a considerable period of time.

16 01, 2020

A Tale of Tail – Tail Insertion (Rebor Stegosaurus armatus)

By | January 16th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

How to Insert the Tail – Rebor Stegosaurus armatus 1:35 Scale Figure

Just before Christmas, Everything Dinosaur received stocks of the 1:35 scale Rebor replica Stegosaurus armatus.  Dinosaur fans and model collectors will probably know that this figure is available in three colour schemes – “mountain”, “plain” and “woodland”.  Since these exciting figures came into stock, Everything Dinosaur team members have posted up several pictures of these dinosaurs.  Today, following a request from a Rebor collector, we have produced a short video which shows how to connect the tail to the model.

A Tale of a Tail – How to Insert the Tailpiece into the Rebor Stegosaurus armatus 1:35 Scale Replica

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Sixty Seconds – Dinosaur Model Update

The video lasts approximately sixty seconds.  The model is shown and the narrator explains how the figure is supplied (the tail piece can be found in the box, adjacent to the rest of the figure), then how the tail slots into the model is demonstrated.  One firm push should do the trick, the tail fitting snuggly into the aperture.  In the video, the flexibility of the tail is illustrated and compared to the neck which is also flexible.

The Tail Insertion Video Features the Rebor Stegosaurus armatus in the “Mountain” Colour Scheme

Rebor Stegosaurus 1:35 scale dinosaur model "mountain".

The Rebor Stegosaurus armatus “mountain” colour scheme.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To purchase the Rebor Stegosaurus armatus figure and to view the rest of the Rebor range: Rebor Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models.

The Rebor Stegosaurus Figure – All Three Colour Schemes

Rebor Stegosaurus armatus "Garden" colour variants.

The three new for 2019 Rebor Stegosaurus dinosaur models – left to right “plain”, “mountain” and “woodland”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We intend to post up more videos including reviews of actual models in the future.  Everything Dinosaur has had a YouTube channel for many years now, over that time we have posted nearly 150 videos, but we intend to increase our output and do more using various media including Instagram and YouTube.  Our aim is to put up new content on the company’s YouTube channel once a week or so.”

Everything Dinosaur on YouTube

The Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel features information about new model releases, tips on working with figures, display suggestions and of course, lots of prehistoric animal facts and information.  Everything Dinosaur, in response to requests from collectors intends to increase the number of videos that are put up on this platform.  Blog articles will continue and where possible, more videos will be used in conjunction with blog articles and other social media posts.

Visit Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

Look out for more YouTube content being posted from Everything Dinosaur very soon…

13 01, 2020

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric Animal Models in Stock

By | January 13th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric Animal Models in Stock

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World prehistoric animal models are in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  All nine of the new models are now available, Concavenator, Dilophosaurus, Deinonychus, Edmontosaurus, Pachycephalosaurus and Qianzhousaurus, six dinosaurs plus Shringasaurus, Sarcosuchus and the marine reptile Ichthyosaurus.

The New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models (All Nine) are in Stock at Everything Dinosaur

Nine new models in stock at Everything Dinosaur

The new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World prehistoric animal models are in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view all the new models and the rest of the prehistoric animal figures in the Safari Ltd range: Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models and Figures.

A Range Noted for its Scientific Accuracy

Safari Ltd has continued to build on its reputation for producing accurate prehistoric animal models and figures that reflect some of the latest scientific research and thinking.  For example, joining this award-winning range, is a replica of the Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Edmontosaurus.  Recent studies of fossil specimens from North America have led to palaeontologists postulating that this large ornithischian sported a soft comb-like crest on the top of its skull.  The Edmontosaurus figure has been given such an adornment, all part of Safari Ltd’s drive to reflect actual research into the Dinosauria and other long-extinct creatures from the past.

The New for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Edmontosaurus Has a Soft Comb

The new for 2020 Edmontosaurus model.

A close-up view of the new Edmontosaurus dinosaur model with its soft comb-like crest.  In this closer view of the model, the crest can be clearly seen, but not also the detail on the beak and the attention given to sculpting scales of different sizes and shape across the dinosaur’s body.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We are delighted to have all nine of the new for 2020 prehistoric animal models in stock.  The range and the quality of these models demonstrates Safari Ltd’s commitment to model collecting.  Everything Dinosaur has more than a hundred Safari Ltd figures available, in what is, a most impressive range of prehistoric animal and plant models.”

New Models Based on Recent Fossil Discoveries

Safari Ltd are quick to introduce models and figures that reflect relatively recent fossil discoveries.  Take for example, the excellent Shringasaurus model, it represents an extinct reptile (archosauromorph), that was only formally named and described in August 2017.

The Middle Triassic Horned Reptile of India – Shringasaurus

Shringasaurus indicus model.

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Shringasaurus indicus model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

11 01, 2020

Thin-skinned, Grey Duck-billed Dinosaurs

By | January 11th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Thin-skinned, Grey Duck-billed Dinosaurs

Scientists writing in the journal of The Palaeontological Association have published a remarkable study on the properties of the skin of duck-billed dinosaurs.  Analysis of fossilised hadrosaur skin, from the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History (New Haven, Connecticut), suggests that the skin structure of these dinosaurs had more in common with living birds than with reptiles.  In addition, the skin is much thinner when compared to large, terrestrial mammals of comparable size such as elephants and rhinos.  In a blow to palaeoartists who like to adorn their ornithischian illustrations with a multitude of colours, the scientists conclude from an analysis of potential preserved skin pigments that hadrosaurids were grey in colour.

Hadrosaurs Could Have Been Largely Grey in Colour Just Like Big Terrestrial Mammals Alive Today Such as Elephants

Gryposaurus - Hadrosaur Model available from Everything Dinosaur.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Gryposaurus dinosaur model.  The model’s colouration being largely grey may actually reflect the true colouration of duck-billed dinosaurs.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Getting Under the Skin of a Dinosaur

Scientists from Yale University, in collaboration with colleagues in Italy, investigated the chemical properties of a section of fossilised duck-billed dinosaur skin that had been preserved in three dimensions. The specimen (YPMPU 016969) was also subjected to detailed chemical mapping and microspectroscopy as well as scanning electron micrographs to establish the anatomical structure.

Two of the three layers associated with skin in tetrapods were identified, the outer layer (epidermis) and the dermis. The innermost layer, the subcutis, could not be identified in this study.  The dinosaur’s scales on the skin surface are very well-preserved.  They form an irregular, pebbly pattern with individual scales ranging in size from under one millimetre in diameter to much larger scales around 12 millimetres across.

Specimen Number YPMPU 016969 – The Fossilised Skin Studied

Fossilised duck-billed dinosaur skin.

The skin preserved in YPMPU 016969 (A), three‐dimensional skin and (B), the fossil counterpart. Scale bar represents 2 cm.

Picture Credit: Yale University

Three-dimensionally Preserved Pigment Bearing Bodies and  Blood Vessels

The detailed analysis of the fossilised skin and the samples taken permitted the scientists to identify three-dimensionally preserved eumelanin‐bearing bodies.  This enabled the researchers to propose that the dinosaur was mostly dark grey in colour, a skin colouration that reflects ecological parallels seen in today’s large, terrestrial animals such as elephants and rhinos.  However, caution is urged when it comes to determining the colouration of these types of dinosaurs.  There might be a preservation bias in favour of pigment cells that produce darker skin tones, other pigments may not have been preserved.  The section of fossil skin also permitted the researchers to trace blood vessels and dermal cells.

The Study Suggests That Large-bodied Hadrosaurids Were Similar in Colour to Today’s Large-bodied Terrestrial Mammals

Analysis suggests grey-coloured hadrosaurids.

A life reconstruction of a grey-coloured duck-billed dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Yale University

Surprisingly Thin Skin

The skin was found to be much thinner than that of living mammals of similar size.  The outer layer of skin is around 0.2 mm in thickness, whilst the dermis is estimated to have been up to 3 mm thick.  Although, no measurements for the subcutis layer could be made, in living elephants the skin is around 10-15 mm thick and in extant rhinos a skin thickness (all three layers, epidermis, dermis and subcutis), of 25 mm is not uncommon.

The relative thickness of the epidermis and dermis in YPMPU 016969 resembles that in birds more closely than that of reptiles.

If the skin of these large, Cretaceous herbivores is so much thinner than previously thought, then how does it fossilise more readily than the integumentary coverings of other dinosaurs?  After all, the most commonly preserved soft tissues associated with ornithischian dinosaurs are skin remains.  The researchers postulate that the unusual layering and the microstructure of hadrosaur skin may play an important role in its fossilisation potential.

The scientific paper: “Three-dimensional soft tissue preservation revealed in the skin of a non-avian dinosaur” by Matteo Fabbri, Jasmina Wiemann, Fabio Manucci and Derek E. G. Briggs published in Palaeontology – the journal of The Palaeontological Association

8 01, 2020

Picking Out a Papo Allosaurus for a Customer

By | January 8th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Picking Out a Papo Allosaurus for a Customer

The original Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model, a staple of the Papo “Les Dinosaures” model range, has been withdrawn from production and retired.  However, Everything Dinosaur still has stock of this popular theropod figure and a customer from Canada emailed us asking for more information about this particular Papo model and wanted to see some photographs of an Allosaurus prior to making a purchase.

Naturally, our dedicated, enthusiastic team members were happy to oblige.

Taking Pictures of a Papo Allosaurus Dinosaur Model (Original Colour Scheme)

Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model (original colour scheme).

The original Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

This model is likely to become increasingly rare in the future, the Allosaurus has been retired by Papo, for confirmation about other prehistoric animal figures being withdrawn from the Papo range, take a look at Everything Dinosaur’s exclusive blog article here: Papo Prehistoric Animal Model Retirements in 2019.

This Model is Becoming Increasingly Rare (Papo Allosaurus in Original Colour Scheme)

Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model (original colour scheme).

The original Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model.  Now out of production and retired.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Allosaurus New Colour Variant

With the announcement that the original Allosaurus was being withdrawn, the French manufacturer was quick to introduce a replacement, a new colour version of this Late Jurassic, carnivorous dinosaur.  This new figure is based on the same sculpt and it too has an articulated jaw, just like the original figure, but the colour scheme has been changed.

Introduced in 2019 – Papo Allosaurus New Colour Scheme

Papo Allosaurus new colour scheme (2019).

The Papo Allosaurus new colour scheme (2019).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Commenting on the response to the Canadian customer’s request a spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur stated:

“We get a lot of prehistoric animal model collectors asking us about models that have been recently retired.  We try our best to carry stock of as many different models and figures as possible.  If a customer requests a photograph of a figure prior to purchase, then we are happy to do this for them.  We select a model, take the photographs and email them over to the customer, if they are happy with the model, then we set it aside and when the order is placed we send out the figure.”

Recently, Everything Dinosaur provided information on Papo prehistoric animal figures that are being retired this year (2020), in total four Papo models are being withdrawn: Papo Model Retirements (2020).

Taking Photographs of a Papo Model for a Customer

Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model (original colour scheme).

The original Papo Allosaurus dinosaur model.  Team members take pictures of the model from several angles, thus providing the customer with a really good view of their potential purchase.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of Papo dinosaurs and prehistoric animal models, including the retired original Papo Allosaurus (whilst stocks last): Papo Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures.

7 01, 2020

Turning a Stegosaur Fossil into the “Rosetta Stone”

By | January 7th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Newly Described Specimen of Miragaia longicollum helps to Decipher the Dacentrurinae

A fossil of a stegosaur discovered in 1959 on the coast of western Portugal has helped to decipher the taxonomic relationships of an obscure sub-family of armoured dinosaurs known from the Late Jurassic.  The specimen number MG 4863 has been identified as an example of Miragaia longicollum, a stegosaur named and described in 2009 from fossils found some 6 miles (10 kilometres) further inland.

MG 4863 has been described as a “Rosetta Stone” specimen, just as the discovery of the Rosetta Stone was vital in helping scholars to interpret and understand ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics, these fossils, that had languished in storage for sixty years, can help palaeontologists to distinguish between different genera of closely related stegosaurs.

Laid Out in an Approximate Skeletal Reconstruction (MG 4863) – Newly Described Miragaia longicollum Specimen

Views of the Miragaia longicollum specimen ( MG 4863)

Miragaia longicollum specimen (A) before preparation and (B) after preparation. Material is laid out in approximate articulation.

Picture Credit: Costa and Mateus published in PLOS One

The picture (above), shows the fossil material associated with MG 4863 prior to preparation (September 2015) and after preparation (May 2017).  The fossils have been positioned in an approximate skeletal layout, the box in (B) contains unidentified fossil fragments.

Although far from complete and lacking any evidence of a skull, these fossils, that had been stored in an unprepared state at the Alfragide campus of LNEG (Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Portugal), consist of bones that were not part of the original holotype specimen for M. longicollum (specimen number ML 433).  Thus, palaeontologists have more parts of the skeleton of Miragaia longicollum to study and this newly described specimen has helped to decipher the differences between Miragaia and the closely related Dacentrurus.

The Dacentrurinae Deciphered

The first armoured dinosaur to be scientifically described was Dacentrurus armatus (although it was originally named Omosaurus armatus by the famous English palaeontologist Richard Owen).  It was named from a jumbled up set of bones preserved in a block discovered in a clay quarry in Wiltshire (southern England).  The fossilised bones mostly represent the back-end (posterior) portions of an armoured dinosaur.  For a considerable period, stegosaur fossils from strata approximately the same age from the Iberian peninsula were referred to as Dacentrurus.  When ML 433 was excavated all that changed and this part of Europe had its very own stegosaur Miragaia longicollum.  However, the holotype (ML 433), represented the front end (anterior) of the animal, so direct comparisons between Dacentrurus and Miragaia were not possible.

Now that palaeontologists have more fossils of Miragaia to study, thanks to the Alfragide campus specimen, clear differences between these two taxa can be identified, which reinforces their validity.  In addition, ML 4863 is the the most complete dinosaur described from Portugal and the most complete stegosaur described from the whole of Europe.

Comparing the Holotypes of Dacentrurus armatus and Miragaia longicollum with the Newly Described Miragaia Material (ML 4863)

Dacentrurus and Miragaia compared.

Comparing Dacentrurus with Miragaia.  Known fossil bones are shown in white.

Picture Credit: Costa, Mateus et al published in PLOS One with additional annotation by Everything Dinosaur

Both the Miragaia holotype (ML 433) and this newly described specimen (MG 4863), are associated with the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã Formation.  Writing in the on-line academic journal PLOS One, the researchers (Francisco Costa and Octávio Mateus), provide a revised diagnosis for both M. longicollum and D. armatus.

A Land Bridge Between Iberia and North America – Late Jurassic Faunal Interchange

Significantly, the scientists conclude that Miragaia was closely related to a Late Jurassic stegosaur named Alcovasaurus longispinus, which is known from hip bones and other fragmentary fossils associated with a Morrison Formation outcrop in Natrona County (Wyoming, USA).  Not only does MG 4863 help to describe and define two European stegosaurs but it lends weight to the idea that there was an ephemeral land bridge between North America and Iberia that allowed faunal exchange.

A Scale Drawing of Miragaia longicollum

Scale Drawing of Miragaia

“Long-neck from Miragaia”.  A scale drawing of M. longicollum.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

We have two species of the carnivorous Late Jurassic dinosaur Torvosaurus identified, one from the western United States (T. tanneri) and one from Portugal (T. gurneyi) and now the idea of there being links between the Iberian landmass and North America is reinforced by the conclusion that Miragaia from Portugal and Alcovasaurus from Wyoming were closely related.  Indeed, Alcovasaurus is so similar to Miragaia that the researchers propose that it should be assigned to the same genus and renamed Miragaia longispinus.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s article from 2009 about the discovery of Miragaia longicollumA New Long-necked Stegosaur from Portugal.

6 01, 2020

Rebor Broodlord X-REX Pre-Order Available

By | January 6th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor Broodlord X-REX Pre-Order Available

Rebor will be introducing four brand new, innovative figures this year which combine elements of science-fiction with the Dinosauria.  The first of these figures “Broodlord”, the X-REX metallic variant will be available from Everything Dinosaur around the end of February and this model is available now for pre-order.

Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX Metallic Variant Figure Available to Pre-Order from Everything Dinosaur

Available on pre-order "Broodlord" 1:35 scale Rebor model.

The Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX metallic variant figure is available on pre-order from Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To pre-order your Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX figure, simply visit this link: Click here to pre-order the Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX figure.

Science Fiction Combined with Science – Ne Plus Ultra!

Those talented people at Rebor have combined the anatomies of a Tyrannosaurus rex with an alien xenomorph to create this stunning and magnificently detailed collector’s item.  When Henry Fairfield Osborn described Tyrannosaurus rex in 1905, he justified the “tyrant lizard king” genus by stating:

“Tyrannosaurus, in reference to its size, which far exceeds that of any carnivorous land animal hitherto described”.   The famous American palaeontologist added…

“This animal is in fact the ne plus ultra for the evolution of the large carnivorous dinosaurs, in brief it is entitled to the royal and high sounding group name which I have applied to it.”

“Ne plus ultra” reflects Osborn’s view that T. rex was the ultimate theropod dinosaur, the apex in carnivorous dinosaur evolution.  It is true that more recent fossil discoveries have led palaeontologists to describe a number of gigantic and terrifying meat-eaters, but none have the popular appeal of the “tyrant lizard king”.

How fitting therefore for the design team at Rebor, to use a 1:35 scale Tyrannosaurus rex sculpt as the basis for this, the first of four fantasy figures that the company intends to introduce this year.

The Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX Metallic Variant

Rebor Broodlord (metallic variant).

The Rebor Broodlord X-REX Metallic Variant (1:35 scale).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Rebor X-REX “Broodlord” (Metallic Variant)

Measuring around 43 cm from those monstrous, double jaws to the tip of that alien tail, this figure demonstrates stunning detail and the careful painting provides a demonic, wet-look to the model.  It certainly is a remarkable cross-over between two popular genres.  X-REX has a removable tongue, the arms can be rotated and placed in different poses and the tail is flexible, so it too can be posed in a variety of positions.

The Rebor X-REX “Broodlord” Figure

Rebor Broodlord (metallic variant).

The Rebor Broodlord X-REX Metallic Variant (1:35 scale).  The tongue can be removed, the arms repositioned and the flexible tail can be put into a variety of poses.  Create your own unique fantasy diorama!

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Pre-Order from Everything Dinosaur

The amazing Rebor Broodlord X-REX model (metallic variant) in 1:35 scale can be pre-ordered from Everything Dinosaur – purchase price £29.99 plus sales tax (if applicable) and postage.

No credit/debit card payment will be taken up front, no payment will be due until the product is in stock ready to ship.  Customers who log into their personal account at Everything Dinosaur can view any pre-orders that they make.  Naturally, pre-order products can be cancelled at any time.  No deposit to pay, no fees up front, just the reassurance that the customer has been able to secure an amazing model, all backed and supported by the 5-star, award winning customer service of Everything Dinosaur.

For those customers who prefer to use PayPal, they will simply be sent an email reminder asking them to complete transaction payment when the model is in stock and ready for release.

Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX Expected Around the End of February 2020

Rebor Broodlord (metallic variant).

The Rebor Broodlord X-REX Metallic Variant (1:35 scale).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A wonderful science fiction/fantasy model from Rebor, the Rebor Broodlord X-REX metallic variant.  Customers can cancel pre-orders at any time before the payment falls due.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We have set up a pre-order function at Everything Dinosaur in response to requests from our customers.  As model and figure collectors too, if our customers ask for something we try to deliver it.  Our customers can now order products before they are available, but there is no fee to pay up front, no need for a deposit, payments will be made on release of the figure when it is ready to despatch from our warehouse.  This is an additional service we are providing and with the imminent introduction of such an exciting Rebor figure as this X-REX, it seems a fitting time to roll this feature out.”

To pre-order your Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX 1:35 scale figure, click this link: Pre-order Rebor “Broodlord” X-REX here.

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