All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
/Dinosaur Fans

Dinosaur and prehistoric animal themed articles, features and stories.

20 04, 2019

JurassicCollectables Reviews a Spinosaurus Dinosaur Model

By | April 20th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Spinosaurus Reviewed by JurassicCollectables

The team at JurassicCollectables have recently published a video review of the new for 2019 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Spinosaurus dinosaur model.  Over recent years, palaeontologists have revised their views regarding the Spinosauridae, with the largest known spinosaurid, Spinosaurus aegyptiacus becoming the focus for an intense debate regarding the ecological role these huge Theropods played in the Cretaceous ecosystem.  JurassicCollectables have taken care to highlight the characteristics and attributes of this new model, that reflect current scientific thinking, after all, it is believed that Spinosaurus was semi-aquatic.

The JurassicCollectables Video Review of the New for 2019 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Spinosaurus Model

Video Credit: JurassicCollectables

A Dinosaur That Thought it Was a Crocodile

In September 2014, a paper was published in the journal “Science” that reviewed the S. aegyptiacus fossil material and proposed that this large predator was essentially a quadruped that had adapted to a semi-aquatic existence.  Here was a meat-eating dinosaur that thought it was a crocodile.  There has been a spate of aquatic Spinosaurus models, and this new figure from Safari Ltd depicts Spinosaurus in a swimming posture.  In this short video from JurassicCollectables (the video review lasts approximately 6 minutes and 40 seconds), the narrator comments on the crocodilian appearance of this figure.

The Spinosaurus is Depicted in a Swimming Pose

A video review of the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Spinosaurus model.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Spinosaurus dinosaur model reviewed by JurassicCollectables.

Picture Credit: JurassicCollectables

A Close Look at a Swimming Spinosaurus

The Safari Ltd model is in a swimming pose and the narrator takes viewers on a detailed guided tour of the figure.  The webbed feet for example, are shown in close-up and there are numerous comments about the scales and the careful painting of the Spinosaurus.  The figure is described as being very crocodile-like in appearance, with particular praise for the beautiful head sculpt and the subtle use of airbrushing.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s blog article on the revision of Spinosaurus published in the autumn of 2014: Spinosaurus – Four Legs are Better Than Two

Size Comparison Time –  A Pair of Spinosaurs

One of the great benefits of the JurassicCollectables video reviews is that dinosaur fans and collectors get to see models in great detail, they also have the opportunity to compare figures.  In this well-crafted video review, the Papo green T. rex dinosaur model is compared with the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Spinosaurus.  Off-colour Alan makes his customary appearance and intriguingly the recently introduced Schleich Spinosaurus is compared with the Safari Ltd replica.

Comparing the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Spinosaurus to the Schleich Spinosaurus Model

Comparing two Spinosaurus dinosaur models.

Two Spinosaurus models are compared.  The Safari Ltd Spinosaurus (left) is compared with the Schleich Spinosaurus model (right).

Picture Credit: JurassicCollectables

The similarities and differences between these two Spinosaurus models are discussed.  It is interesting to hear how the narrator highlights the differences between these two figures.   For example, the Schleich Spinosaurus may have an articulated lower jaw but it is actually much smaller than the Safari Ltd Spinosaurus.  The Schleich Spinosaurus has a gloss sheen giving the model a “wet look”, quite apt for a semi-aquatic dinosaur, this contrasts with the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Spinosaurus that has more of a matt finish.

Our thanks to JurassicCollectables for posting up a most informative video review.

JurassicCollectables has an amazing YouTube channel we recommend readers visit and subscribe: JurassicCollectables YouTube Channel

To view the Wild Safari Prehistoric World model range including the new for 2019 Spinosaurus: Wild Safari Prehistoric World

17 04, 2019

Rebor Killer Queen T. rex Adjusting the Arms

By | April 17th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Adjusting the Arms on the Rebor Killer Queen T. rex Dinosaur Model

The recently introduced Rebor Killer Queen T. rex dinosaur models are proving to be very popular with collectors and dinosaur model fans.  This Tyrannosaurus rex figure is available in two colour variants (plain and jungle) and several parts of this dinosaur are poseable.  The lower jaw is articulated, the tail contains a flexible rod that enables it to be put into numerous poses and the arms move to.

Everything Dinosaur has created a short, helpful video that explains how to free up the arms on this Rebor replica.  When first unpacked, the forelimbs can be a little stiff and difficult to move.  However, give the joints a few seconds of heat, such as from a hairdryer and collectors will find that the warmed joints become easier to manoeuvre.  The video has been posted up on our Instagram page along with some more pictures and it is up on our YouTube channel as well.

An Easy Way to Adjust the Arms on the Rebor Killer Queen T. rex Dinosaur Model

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur on Instagram: Everything Dinosaur on Instagram (everythingdinosaur1)

Everything Dinosaur on YouTube: Visit Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube Channel

Helpful Videos for Model Collectors and Dinosaur Fans

At Everything Dinosaur, we use our various social media platforms, such as this blog, our Facebook page along with Instagram and our YouTube channel to post up helpful information about prehistoric animals and dinosaur models.  We will also be posting up videos in the near future that demonstrate the articulated jaw on the Rebor Killer Queen and a video that highlights the poseable tail.  We try our best to educate and inform our customers about the various prehistoric animal models and figures that we supply.  However, we can sometimes get our colour variants mixed up, for example, in the video highlighting how to free up the arms we referred to the figure as a “plain” variant, however, eagle-eyed viewers will spot that we were actually using the Rebor Killer Queen “jungle” colour variant in our video shoot.

The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex Dinosaur Models (Plain and Jungle Colour Variants)

Rebor Killer Queen - Plain and Jungle.

The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex is available in two colour schemes (jungle and plain).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Trade Mark for Everything Dinosaur

Eagle-eyed viewers to our various social media platforms will also notice some subtle changes to our themes and layout.  Everything Dinosaur has received a trade mark and our team members are slowly amending all our social media platforms to reflect this.  For example, our header image for the Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel has already been changed.

A New Banner for Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel

Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

The Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel header.  Note the ® symbol which denotes a registered trade mark.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Note the ® symbol associated with the Everything Dinosaur logo, Everything Dinosaur is now a registered trade mark (February 2019).

A spokesperson for the UK-based dinosaur company said:

“We try and post up helpful images, advice and videos for our customers.  Our YouTube channel contains a number of model reviews, competitions and helpful tips.  When it comes to the Rebor Killer Queen figures, our simple guide to freeing up the arms should help to prevent any unfortunate accidents.  In addition, we have commenced a programme to update our company visuals to reflect our trade mark status.”

To view the range of Rebor figures and models available from Everything Dinosaur, including both colour variants of the recently introduced Rebor Killer Queen models: Rebor Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures

16 04, 2019

JurassicCollectables Reviews a New Pteranodon Model

By | April 16th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon Model Review

The talented team at JurassicCollectables have posted up a short video review of the new for 2019 walking Pteranodon model from the Wild Safari Prehistoric World figure collection.  This video review really helps collectors and prehistoric animal model fans to appreciate the vivid colours that Safari Ltd chose for their new pterosaur figure.  Unlike most flying reptile figures, this new for 2019 introduction, depicts Pteranodon on the ground, after all, these members of the Pterosauria must have spent some time on “terra firma”.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon Video Review

Video Credit: JurassicCollectables

Fantastic Details Around the Skull and Eye

In the short video review, (the video lasts six minutes and thirty seconds), the narrator takes the Pteranodon model out of its wrapping and provides viewers with a guided tour of the figure.  Much of the video focuses on the beautifully-painted head, crest and beak.  In particular, the painting around the eye is praised.  Safari Ltd  have made Pteranodon figures before, but this is the first Pteranodon model that has been depicted in a walking pose and not with the wings stretched out in a flying position.

In the Video, the Quality of the Painting Around the Eye is Highlighted

A close-up view of the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon model.

The superbly painted Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon model.  In the video, viewers are given a close-up view of the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon model.

Picture Credit: JurassicCollectables

Pteranodon longiceps

The genus Pteranodon and the first species (P. longiceps), was erected in 1876 (Othniel Charles Marsh).  Numerous models of this famous Late Cretaceous pterosaur have been made, but few of them with the quality of sculpt and the paintwork of this Safari Ltd replica.  The shape of the crest denotes the species and the tiger colouration and the subtle airbrushing on the crest is admirable.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon (P. longiceps) Model

JurassicCollectables reviews the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon figure.

JurassicCollectables reviews the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon model.

Picture Credit: JurassicCollectables

This well-crafted figure measures over eight centimetres long and the head is some ten centimetres off the ground.  The Pteranodon model used in the review was one of the first of the production figures to be made.  In this most informative video review, the model is compared with the recently reviewed Kaiyodo Sofubi Toy Box T. rex figure .  The Papo green standing T. rex also features, along with a cameo appearance by off-colour Alan.  No JurassicCollectables video review would be complete without an appearance of the Alan Grant figure.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon Compared to the “Classic” Kaiyodo Sofubi Toy Box T. rex Figure

A Pteranodon model compared to a T. rex model.

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Pteranodon compared to the Kaiyodo Sofubi Toy Box T. rex.

Picture Credit: JurassicCollectables

Our thanks to JurassicCollectables for posting up such an interesting and helpful video review, of what is an excellent pterosaur model.

The YouTube channel of JurassicCollectables contains lots of informative and helpful dinosaur and prehistoric animal videos.  Everything Dinosaur recommends that readers subscribe to JurassicCollectables: JurassicCollectables YouTube Channel

To view the range of Wild Safari Prehistoric World models and figures including the 2019 Pteranodon model: Safari Ltd Wild Safari Prehistoric World

14 04, 2019

Rebor Killer Queen T. rex Models Imminent

By | April 14th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor Killer Queen T. rex Models Imminent

The eagerly awaited Rebor Killer Queen Tyrannosaurus rex models are due to arrive at Everything Dinosaur in the next few days.  Both versions of the Rebor T. rex are coming into stock, the brown/black-coloured model (plain) and the predominately green-coloured replica (jungle).  This is the second Rebor T. rex pairing after the successful launch of “Vanilla Ice” in the autumn of 2018.

Rebor Killer Queen T. rex Figures (Plain and Jungle) Coming to Everything Dinosaur

Rebor Killer Queen T. rex models.

The Rebor Killer Queen Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur models (jungle and plain colour variants).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Pair of “Killer Queens”

The Rebor Killer Queen models have articulated lower jaws, moveable forelimbs and a flexible tail so the tail can be posed in various positions.  When these figures arrive, Everything Dinosaur team members will be busying themselves by contacting all those who have reserved figures.  It is likely that these very collectable figures will feature in Everything Dinosaur’s next customer newsletter.

Each Tyrannosaurus rex figure measures approximately 40 centimetres in length.  At the hips, the models measure a fraction under 13 centimetres in height.

New for Spring 2019 The Rebor Killer Queen Tyrannosaurus rex (Plain)

Rebor Killer Queen Tyrannosaurus rex model (plain).

The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex dinosaur model (Plain).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Plain or Jungle Colour Variants

Collectors will have the opportunity to pick up two versions of this model.  Tyrannosaurus rex is known from Upper Cretaceous strata from the United States and Canada.  One fossilised footprint from Mexico, suggests that the “King of the Tyrant Lizards” lived in Mexico as well, but no body fossils have confirmed this assertion.  It has been suggested that T. rex was confined to more northern latitudes, even the most southerly portions of Laramidia could not be described as “jungle”, although the palaeoenvironment in the southern portion of Laramidia is regarded as sub-tropical.  T. rex would have been familiar with plains, although analysis of plant fossils indicates that the Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian faunal stage), deposits are representative of a riverine dominated system surrounded by forest.

Rebor Killer Queen Tyrannosaurus rex Model (Jungle Colour Variant)

Rebor Killer Queen T. rex dinosaur model.

T. rex Killer Queen (jungle).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur stated:

“Congratulations to Rebor for making two more excellent Tyrannosaurus rex models.  The different colour variants provide dinosaur fans and collectors with the opportunity to get two different versions of the same model and we have received lots of emails from customers asking us to reserve figures for them.  As soon as the shipment arrives at our warehouse, we will get the cartons unpacked and checked over as quickly as possible, then it is simply a question of getting the stock on-line and contacting all those people on our priority reserve list.  The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex figures could be stock as early as tomorrow.”

It has recently been confirmed that Everything Dinosaur will be offering both “plain” and “jungle” as a set at a specially discounted price.

Purchase the Pair of Rebor Killer Queen T. rex Models Together (Jungle and Plain)

Buy the Rebor Killer Queen T.rex models as a pair (jungle and plain).

Purchase the Rebor Killer Queen T. rex models as a pair (plain and jungle).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of Rebor prehistoric animal models and figures stocked by Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures

13 04, 2019

Dimetrodon Confrontation

By | April 13th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Dimetrodons Battle for Dominance

Today, we feature another of those wonderful prehistoric scenes created by Safari Ltd.  Safari Ltd have produced some superb images illustrating various models within their excellent Wild Safari Prehistoric World range and today, the sail-backed, pelycosaur Dimetrodon steps into the spotlight.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Dimetrodon Diorama

Dimtrodon confrontation.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Dimetrodon diorama.

Picture Credit: Safari Ltd

In the illustration (above), a pair of Dimetrodons confront each other.  Such intraspecific conflicts may have been relatively common as animals fought for dominance, mates and territory.

Predator of the Permian

Known from North America, Europe and Russia, several species of Dimetrodon have been named.  One of the largest (D. grandis) is estimated to have weighed around two hundred kilograms and measured in excess of three metres in length.  Dimetrodon grandis would have been an apex predator within its ecosystem and it is quite probable that these reptiles (distantly related to modern mammals), would have battled each other to win mates and to gain territory in which to hunt.  In the illustration created by Safari Ltd, we see a pair of Dimetrodons confronting each other against a backdrop of a conifer forest.  It is possible, that these large reptiles may have competed with each other for the best basking sites, an example of intraspecific competition.  After all, if that large sail played a role in thermoregulation, the best places to warm up in the morning would have been at a premium for these large animals.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Dimetrodon Model

Dimetrodon model.

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Dimetrodon model.  Introduced into the model range in 2018.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Evolving Dimetrodon Models

The latest incarnation of Dimetrodon by Safari Ltd was introduced into their model range in 2018.  It ostensibly replaced an earlier figure that had been part of the Carnegie Collectibles model series.  When the Carnegie relationship ended and this part of the Safari Ltd model portfolio was retired, the company had the opportunity to introduce several new figures in subsequent years.  For example, in 2018 the new Dimetrodon replica was one of fourteen new prehistoric animal figures launched.

The Earlier Carnegie Collection Dimetrodon Figure

Dimetrodon model.

Sail-back reptile with ferocious teeth.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Dimetrodon figure is approximately the same size as the earlier Carnegie Dimetrodon (approximately 19 cm long), but there are subtle differences between the two models.  The sails are different shapes, the supporting struts (elongated spines from the vertebrae), are more prominent in the most recently introduced version and the limbs in the 2018 model look more powerful and robust.  These changes reflect the changing interpretation of the fossil material associated with this genus.

To view the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Dimetrodon model and the rest of the figures and replicas in this range stocked by Everything Dinosaur: Safari Ltd/Wild Safari Prehistoric World Figures and Replicas

Our congratulations once again to the design team at Safari Ltd.  Not only has this company produced some excellent prehistoric animal figures, including monsters from the Palaeozoic like Dimetrodon, they have also produced fantastic promotional images of their creations.

12 04, 2019

A New Species of Therizinosaur from China

By | April 12th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Lingyuanosaurus sihedangensis – A New Species of Therizinosaur is Announced

Scientists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in collaboration with the University of Alberta, have announced the discovery of a new Therizinosaur based on fragmentary fossils from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of Liaoning Province (north-eastern China).   This is the third Therizinosaur to have been named from the Jehol Group, joining Jianchangosaurus and Beipiaosaurus.  These dinosaurs are approximately the same size, the researchers have put forward a number of theories to help explain why three similar-sized members of the Therizinosauridae could have potentially co-existed without directly competing.

The dinosaur has been named Lingyuanosaurus sihedangensis (pronounced: ling-you-an-oh-sore-us), the genus name honours the city of Lingyuan, whilst the trivial epithet refers to the town of Sihedang where the fossils were discovered.

Fossil Material Ascribed to Lingyuanosaurus sihedangensis Prior to Complete Preparation

Lingyuanosaurus fossils.

Lingyuanosaurus fossil material.

Picture Credit: Scientific Reports

The picture above shows some of the fossils used to name and describe this new species of dinosaur.  Top left (a), limb bones consisting of a right femur and left tibia, whereas, (b) contains ribs, part of the right humerus and the ischium.  Slab (c) consists of claw bones (manual unguals) and ribs, whilst (d), shows the right ankle bone (astragalus) and the left ilium.  Note the scale bar equals 5 cm.

An Intermediate Position within the Therizinosauria

Described from a single, disarticulated but associated partial skeleton, the exact age of the fossils is disputed.  The fossil-bearing strata at Sihedang have been assigned to the Yixian Formation in some studies but to the younger Jiufotang Formation in others.  A phylogenetic analysis carried out by the authors places Lingyuanosaurus in an intermediate position within Therizinosauria.  It has been placed between the early-branching Therizinosaurs such as Falcarius, Jianchangosaurus, and Beipiaosaurus and the late-branching ones such as Alxasaurus and Therizinosaurus.  Lingyuanosaurus sheds additional light on the evolution of major Therizinosaurian characteristics, including the distinctive pelvic girdle and hindlimb morphology seen in this group.

A Drawing of a Typical Therizinosaur

Drawing of a typical Therizinosaurus.

A drawing of a typical Therizinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Where Did Lingyuanosaurus Fit into the Jehol Biota?

Measuring around two metres in length, this is the third similar-sized Therizinosaur to be assigned to this Early Cretaceous biota of northern China.  The presence of three very similar types of dinosaur in the Jehol Group is unusual.  Unless the region was particularly rich in resources, these dinosaurs could have been in direct competition with each other.  The researchers put forward several possible explanations as to why three similar Therizinosaurs have been identified.

  • Firstly, the beds in which these Therizinosaurs (Jianchangosaurus, Lingyuanosaurus and Beipiaosaurus), have been found are not precisely dated.  The Yixian and the Jiufotang Formations were deposited over a span of at least 8 million years.  It is possibly that these three dinosaurs could have been separated from each other by a considerable period of time, hundreds of thousands or even millions of years.
  • Secondly, these three species are known from different parts of Liaoning Province.  Whereas, Jianchangosaurus and Lingyuanosaurus were found at sites just a few miles apart, Beipiaosaurus heralds from more than 200 miles further north.   There is some, albeit limited, evidence to suggest that during the Early Cretaceous the deposition of the Jehol Group occurred in multiple small basins, suggesting that the three Jehol Therizinosaurs might have been separated by geographic barriers even if they were mutually contemporaneous.
  • Thirdly, if these three Therizinosaurs did live at the same time, in the same habitat, they might have occupied different niches in the ecosystem.  The teeth of Jianchangosaurus are different (although the holotype represents a juvenile, so comparison with fully grown animals can be problematic), this suggests that Jianchangosaurus might have fed on different types of vegetation compared to Lingyuanosaurus and Beipiaosaurus.  In addition, the ratio of limb bones in Beipiaosaurus is different to the other two dinosaurs, it might have been relatively slow in comparison with Jianchangosaurus and Lingyuanosaurus and therefore it could have had a more limited range.

Claw Fossils (Manual Unguals) – Lingyuanosaurus sihedangensis

Manual unguals (Lingyuanosaurus).

Claw fossils of Lingyuanosaurus (manual unguals).

Picture Credit: Scientific Reports

The scientific paper: “A New Transitional Therizinosaurian Theropod from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota of China” by Xi Yao, Chun-Chi Liao, Corwin Sullivan and Xing Xu published in Scientific Reports

8 04, 2019

Praising the Pegasus Spinosaurus Model Kit

By | April 8th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Praising the Pegasus Spinosaurus Model Kit

At Everything Dinosaur, we get sent lots of pictures from model collectors and dinosaur fans of prehistoric animal landscapes, completed kits and dinosaur themed dioramas.  We always enjoy seeing how the items that we supply are used and we are amazed at how talented some of our customers can be when it comes to customising models and replicas.  Take for example, the Pegasus Spinosaurus model kit pictures sent into to us by model collector Martin.  We have been lucky enough to receive lots of photographs of finished kits, Martin’s beautifully crafted model took many hours to complete, but we think you will agree that the end result is stunning.

That’s a fantastic Spinosaurus replica Martin!

The Pegasus Spinosaurus Model Kit

The finished Pegasus Spinosaurus model kit.

The completed Pegasus Spinosaurus model kit.

Picture Credit: Martin

Pegasus Dinosaur Model Kits

There are three figures in the Pegasus Hobbies dinosaur model series, Triceratops, Tyrannosaurus rex and Spinosaurus.  All the kits comprise of PVC vinyl pieces, in the case of the Spinosaurus kit, there are eleven pieces that make up the Spinosaurus and a further six pieces that make up the unfortunate fish victim, plus a detailed display base.  Model collectors please note, paints and glue are not included in the kits.

The Assembled Kit Ready for Painting

Pegasus Spinosaurus model kit ready for painting.

Pegasus Spinosaurus model assembled ready to paint.

Picture Credit: Martin

When assembled the kit is ready for painting.  The Spinosaurus (S. aegyptiacus), has a stated scale – 1:24 and when it comes to painting and the use of washes, the model maker is free to choose any combination of colours they like, after all, no person has ever seen a living spinosaurid.

Highly Detailed Pegasus Model Kit (Spinosaurus)

Pegasus Spinosaurus model kit (front view).

The anterior portion of the Pegasus Spinosaurus model kit showing the partly painted Xiphactinus.

Picture Credit: Martin

The picture above, shows the anterior portion of the model, the skin of the Spinosaurus is finely detailed, even the morphology of the fingers and claws reflect what is known about spinosaurids and Theropods in general.  From this angle, the well-sculpted and detailed interior of the mouth can also be viewed.  Note, the subtle differences in the shape and size of the teeth in the lower jaw.

Catching a Xiphactinus

In Martin’s finished model, the fish that has been caught by the dinosaur has been beautifully painted too.  The delicate and astute brush work demonstrates the care and attention given to the painting, the pool of blood coalescing by the carcase provides a nice, gory touch.  Ironically, although Spinosaurus is often depicted as a piscivore, it would never have caught the fish represented in the Pegasus Hobbies model kit.  The fish is a Xiphactinus (pronounced Zee-fak-tin-us), a bony fish (Teleost) and although, the Teleosts have an extensive fossil record and evolved long before Spinosaurus, Xiphactinus is confined to the Late Cretaceous of North America.  With some Xiphactinus fossil specimens indicating a length of six metres or more, this fish would have made a sizeable meal for a hungry Spinosaurus.

The Finished Fish Victim Xiphactinus

Pegasus Spinosaurus model kit Xiphactinus.

Pegasus Spinosaurus model kit Xiphactinus fish accessory.

Picture Credit: Martin

A Close-up View of the Skilfully Painted Head of the Pegasus Spinosaurus Model

Pegasus Spinosaurus model.

A close-up view of the head of the Pegasus Spinosaurus model.

Picture Credit: Martin

Our thanks once again to Martin for sending in photographs of his splendid Spinosaurus.

To view the range of Pegasus kits available from Everything Dinosaur: Pegasus Dinosaur Model Kits

7 04, 2019

The First Alaskan Lambeosaurine Dinosaur Identified

By | April 7th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Lambeosaurine Reported from the Liscomb Bonebed (Alaska)

The first fossil evidence of a lambeosaurine duck-billed dinosaur has been reported from the Liscomb Bonebed (Prince Creek Formation) of Alaska.  Part of the top of a skull, a bone called the supraoccipital (it forms part of the braincase), has been found during field work on the famous Alaskan fossil site on the banks of the Colville River.  This discovery demonstrates that both lambeosaurine and hadrosaurine dinosaurs lived in the high Arctic during the Late Cretaceous.  It also suggests that the crested lambeosaurines may have preferred inland environments, whilst their cousins, the hadrosaurines dominated the ecosystem in coastal and low-lying, near shore environments.

Evidence to Indicate that Lambeosaurines Lived in the Arctic During the Late Cretaceous

Co-existing lambeosaurines and hadrosaurines (Liscomb Bonebed).

Hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines co-existed in low-lying, coastal areas of the Late Cretaceous of Alaska.

Picture Credit: Masato Hattori

Writing in the on-line, academic journal “Scientific Reports”, researchers from Hokkaido University (Japan) and the Perot Museum of Nature and Science (Dallas, Texas), confirm the discovery of a skull bone associated with a lambeosaurine (crested duck-billed dinosaur) in the hadrosaurine dominated Liscomb Bonebed, a site that has to date, yielded some 6,000 dinosaur bones.  The fossils exposed on the banks of the Colville River in a region of Alaska known as the North Slope, represent one of the most important Maastrichtian-aged dinosaur fossil sites in the world.  It has provided evidence of a high latitude Late Cretaceous dinosaur dominated ecosystem.  The bonebed is described as a monodominant, multitaxic unit as although 98.5% of all the fossils found represent just one species – the hadrosaurine Edmontosaurus* other types of dinosaur including three Theropods have been identified from fossils found at this site too.  The supraoccipital confirms the presence of lambeosaurines at this location as well, although, based on the ratio of hadrosaurine to lambeosaurine fossils found, crested duck-billed dinosaurs probably only made up a tiny portion of the entire plant-eating dinosaur community.

Views of the Single Skull Bone (Supraoccipital) Identified as Lambeosaurine

Lambeosaurine supraoccipital (DMNH 2014-12-266) from the Liscomb Bonebed.

Lambeosaurine supraoccipital (DMNH 2014-12-266) from the Liscomb Bonebed (a) dorsal view, (b) ventral view, (c) left lateral view, (d) posterior view, (e) anterior view and (f) right lateral view.  Note scale bar = 2 cm.  The dorsal (a) and posterior views (d) show the two, prominent bumps (squamosal bosses) that helps to identify this bone as lambeosaurine material.  Abbreviation sqb = squamosal bosses.

Picture Credit: Scientific Reports

The newly described supraoccipital differs from those of hadrosaurines as it has large, prominent bumps towards the back of the bone (squamosal bosses).  It is also a different shape when compared to supraoccipital bones associated with members of the Hadrosaurinae such as Edmontosaurus.  For example, it is proportionally shorter in length (when measured from the front to the back of the bone – anterior to posterior).

Lambeosaurine and Hadrosaurine

The dinosaur family known as the Hadrosauridae is split into two main, but closely related lineages, the Lambeosaurinae and the Hadrosaurinae.  Traditionally, these two groups have been distinguished by their skulls, lambeosaurines having hollow crested skull crests, whilst the hadrosaurines lack bony crests.  This assessment might prove too simplistic, but for the time being, the general classification of Hadrosaurs into these two sister lineages remains the consensus.

Classifying the Hadrosauridae (Duck-billed Dinosaurs)

The evolution of the duck-billed dinosaurs.

Tracing the Evolution of Duck-billed Dinosaurs.  Two distinct but sister lineages are recognised the non-crested Hadrosaurinae and the hollow crested Lambeosaurinae.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Co-author of the scientific paper, Dr Anthony Fiorillo (Perot Museum of Nature and Science) stated:

“This first definitive evidence of a crested hadrosaur in the Cretaceous Arctic tells us that we still have much to learn about the biodiversity and the biologically productive environments of the ancient north and that the story these fossils tell us is continually evolving.”

Field Team Members Excavating Part of the Liscomb Bonebed on the Banks of the Colville River (Alaska)

Excavating the Liscomb Bonebed.

Field team members excavating the Liscomb Bonebed.

Picture Credit: Dr Anthony Fiorillo (Perot Museum of Nature and Science)

A Link Between the Lambeosaurines of North America and Asia

The single fossil bone might not be sufficient to erect a new genus of lambeosaurine dinosaur, but the discovery is extremely significant as it links the dinosaur biota of the most northerly portions of North America to dinosaur faunas from the Late Cretaceous of northern Asia.  For example, Nipponosaurus (N. sachalinensis) from the North Pacific island of Sakhalin, is also a lambeosaurine.

Commenting on the connection between Arctic dinosaur faunas and those of the North Pacific, co-author Ryuji Takasaki (Hokkaido University) said:

“This new discovery illustrates the geographic link between lambeosaurines of North America and the Far East.  Hopefully, further work in Alaska will reveal how closely the dinosaurs of Asia and North America are connected.”

Known Geographical Distribution of Lambeosaurine Dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous

The known distribution of lambeosaurines during the Late Cretaceous

Palaeogeographical records of lambeosaurines during the Late Cretaceous.  The red star represents the Liscomb lambeosaurine fossil find.

Picture Credit: Scientific Reports

Hadrosaurines and Lambeosaurines Had Different Habitat Preferences

The Liscomb Bonebed might be dominated by fossil material assigned to the Hadrosaurinae, but the discovery of a single fossil bone indicates the presence of lambeosaurines.  This site is representative of a coastal, near-shore environment and it differs from the lambeosaurine dominant structures of localities in Russia and China interpreted as inland environments.  The researchers postulate that crested duck-billed dinosaurs (lambeosaurines), preferred inland habitats, whilst the non-crested duck-bills (hadrosaurines), favoured coastal habitats.   Different habitat preferences might have been a strategy to avoid excessive competition between these two groups of closely related dinosaurs.

Lambeosaurine and Hadrosaurine Habitats (Inferred from the Liscomb Bonebed)

Differential habitat preference between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines.

Hadrosaurines (grey) may have preferred lowland coastal habitats whilst the lambeosaurines (black) may have dominated faunal ecosystems further inland.

Picture Credit: Scientific Reports

Note: Edmontosaurus*

Things are never that straight forward in vertebrate palaeontology.  In 2015, a new taxon of hadrosaurine was erected based on the Liscomb duck-billed dinosaur bones.  The new species was named Ugrunaaluk kuukpikensis and although it was believed to be closely related to Edmontosaurus, it was established as a separate taxon.  However, in 2017 subsequent analysis challenged this conclusion.  Ugrunaaluk had been erected based on the study of fossil bones from immature individuals of various growth stages.  The hadrosaurine bones from the Liscomb Bonebed overwhelmingly represent the remains of juveniles.  The establishment of a unique duck-billed dinosaur taxon for northern Alaska remains controversial.  Many palaeontologists now consider Ugrunaaluk to be nomen dubium (not a valid genus).

To read Everything Dinosaur’s 2015 article about Ugrunaaluk kuukpikensisAlaska’s Latest Dinosaur Ugrunaaluk kuukpikensis

The scientific paper: “The First Definite Lambeosaurine Bone From the Liscomb Bonebed of the Upper Cretaceous Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, United States” by Ryuji Takasaki, Anthony R. Fiorillo, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, Ronald S. Tykoski and Paul J. McCarthy published in Scientific Reports.

6 04, 2019

Book Celebrates “Golden Age of Dinosaurs”

By | April 6th, 2019|Book Reviews, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

The Dinosaurs Rediscovered

The official press release to accompany the recently published “The Dinosaurs Rediscovered” by Professor Michael Benton (University of Bristol), states that we are “living in a golden age of dinosaur science“.  With so many new dinosaurs being named and described, the last one we blogged about was the small, Australian Ornithischian dinosaur Galleonosaurus dorisae, named just a few weeks ago, it is hard to disagree.

To read about Galleonosaurus: New Australian Ornithopod Described

The Front Cover of the Recently Published “The Dinosaurs Rediscovered”

"The Dinosaurs Rediscovered".

The jacket cover of the new book about dinosaurs “The Dinosaurs Rediscovered”.

Picture Credit: Thames and Hudson

The Press Release

The official press release states that over the past twenty years, the study of dinosaurs has changed from natural history to a true scientific discipline.  The utilisation of advanced technologies has revolutionised the study of prehistoric animals and life in the past.  This book, written by eminent palaeontologist Professor Mike Benton, combines first-hand accounts and anecdotes from a lifetime of fossil collecting with an updated review of Dinosauria research.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s review of the book: The Dinosaurs Rediscovered – a brief review

The press release goes on to state that “The Dinosaurs Rediscovered” presents all the latest palaeontological evidence which has transformed the study of dinosaurs.  Team members were asked the other day to select our favourite chapter.  This was not an easy task as all the chapters are beautifully compiled, but when pressed, we opted for chapter 9.  Chapter 9 outlines the reasons for the mass extinction event and explains in terms that the general reader can easily follow, the research into the Chicxulub impact crater.  This chapter also informs the reader that the extra-terrestrial bolide crashed into Earth probably in June – how can scientists make such an assertion; we suggest you read the book to find out!

Tale of the Tape

Title: “The Dinosaurs Rediscovered”

Author: Michael J. Benton

Publication: April 2019

Pages/Extent: 336

Illustrations: 163

Size: 23. 4 centimetres by 15.3 centimetres

ISBN: 978 0 500 052006

Published by: Thames & Hudson.

For further information visit the website of the publisherThe Dinosaurs Rediscovered can be found here

4 04, 2019

Spring Prehistoric Times Magazine (Issue 129)

By | April 4th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Magazine Reviews, Main Page|2 Comments

The Next Issue of Prehistoric Times Magazine is at the Printers

Spring is in the air, the frogspawn in our office pond has turned from black dots to commas and with the arrival of British Summer Time (BST), the days seem longer.  The next issue of “Prehistoric Times” magazine must be coming out soon and sure enough we received an email from the editor informing us that issue 129 (spring 2019), is at the printers.  This issue will commemorate the publication of one of the most important and influential papers on the Dinosauria ever produced.  It is fifty years since John Ostrom’s seminal paper on Deinonychus antirrhopus appeared in the scientific literature.

The Front Cover of “Prehistoric Times” Magazine (Spring 2019)

Prehistoric Times magazine (spring 2019).

Prehistoric Times magazine (issue 129).

Picture Credit: Mike Fredericks

Bulletin of the Peabody Museum

The front cover features a stunning illustration of D. antirrhopus.  Mike Fredericks (editor) wrote to us saying:

“The Deinonychus cover is by Kurt Miller, a super talented CG artist who did the Carnotaurus cover on issue #117.”

Inside the magazine, the excellent and most informative Phil Hore will discuss the anniversary of the ground-breaking paper.  Ostrom’s paper entitled “Osteology of Deinonychus antirrhopus, an unusual Theropod from the Lower Cretaceous of Montana”, was published in the Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History in July 1969.  The entire paper can be downloaded  (all 165 plus pages), as a pdf from the Museum’s archive.  It was this paper that defined Deinonychus as a fast-moving, agile predator and that demonstrated that birds evolved from members of the Dinosauria.

The 1969 paper features an illustration of Deinonychus, one that helped to redefine the way academics and the public view dinosaurs.  It was regarded as a “dinosaur renaissance”.

The Original “Dinosaur Renaissance”

The Dinosaur Renaissance - Deinonychus

The original “Dinosaur Renaissance” inspired by Bakker (Deinonychus).

Picture Credit: Robert T. Bakker (1969)

The Spring Issue of Prehistoric Times

The spring issue of “Prehistoric Times” includes an article on the enigmatic chalicotheres and it features the illustrations of the British artist and author Dougal Dixon.  The head of Edgar Rice Burroughs Inc, from Tarzana, California, writes an informative piece about Burroughs and the book that inspired numerous writers “The Land That Time Forgot”.   Philip J Currie returns for the second part of his feature on the dinosaurs of “The Land That Time Forgot” and Stephen Brusatte provides a review of the top palaeontology related news stories of the last twelve months.

The front cover of the magazine with its splendid Deinonychus artwork is certainly very eye-catching, as it that fuscia-coloured font.

Mike Fredericks confessed:

“A favourite magazine of mine as a kid, Famous Monsters of Filmland used neon colours like this pink for their cover login in the 1970’s and this logo is a bit of a tribute to it.”

We are looking forward to receiving our copy of “Prehistoric Times”, it should be with us very soon.

Want to subscribe to “Prehistoric Times”?   Click this link for more details: Subscribe to Prehistoric Times

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