All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
/Animal News Stories

News stories and articles that do not necessarily feature extinct animals.

12 08, 2018

In Praise of “Meg”

By | August 12th, 2018|Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Movie Reviews and Movie News, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Megalodon Makes it to the Big Screen

This weekend sees the opening of the summer blockbuster “Meg”, a prehistoric shark-based action movie featuring Jason Statham and a twenty-five-metre-long representation of Carcharocles megalodon – Megalodon, an extinct species of prehistoric shark, so famous that it is just known by its specific or trivial name.  With the film likely to make in excess of £30 million in box office receipts on just its opening weekend in the USA, the movie, which incidentally is the most expensive shark film ever made (estimated budget of around $130 million USD), is likely to be a runaway box office success.  However, this iconic marine monster is well and truly extinct, it really is “safe to enter the water” to borrow a strapline from perhaps, the best-known and best-loved shark movie of them all, the 1975 “Jaws”.

Warner Bros and director Jon Turteltaub may have resurrected Megalodon, but most palaeontologists will confidently tell you that, what was probably the largest carnivorous shark to have existed, died out around 2.6 million years ago.

When those talented people as Safari Ltd introduced a “Megalodon” model back in 2014, Everything Dinosaur put together a short video introduction to the model.

Everything Dinosaur’s Video Review of the Wild Safari Dinos Megalodon Model

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

We may have lacked the budget of the movie and unfortunately, we were unable to afford the services of Jason Statham, but our six minute video review set out to explain a little more about the science behind this prehistoric shark and to provide a guide to the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Megalodon model.

Carcharocles megalodon

Many marine biologists had believed that Carcharocles megalodon was closely related to the modern Great White Shark – Carcharodon carcharias (hence Everything Dinosaur’s original research into finding a suitable Megalodon model).  However, recent studies suggest that it was actually a member of another sub-branch of the Lamniformes Order and that Megalodon was a member of the Otodontidae family and not a member of the Lamnidae family as previously thought.  It may have had a similar lifestyle and habit to the Great White Shark and it was much bigger and heavier, but it was unlikely to have been around twenty-five metres in length, the size of Megalodon in the movie.

A Still from the Motion Picture “Meg”

Meglaodon from the movie "Meg".

A still from the 2018 summer blockbuster “Meg”.

Picture Credit: Warner Bros

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“If these giant, prehistoric sharks were still around today, then, as we suspect they were shallow water specialists living in the top two hundred metres of water, the upper portions of the epipelagic zone of the ocean, then they certainly would have been spotted by now.  The “Meg” is very much extinct and we are sure that the film will provide plenty of thrills and spills for cinema goers.  Perhaps, it will also raise awareness amongst its audience about the plight of many shark species today.  Over fishing, habitat loss and pollution are having a devastating effect on global shark populations.  It has been estimated that some 100 million sharks die each year, with luck this movie will raise awareness about shark species conservation.”

The Jaws of Megalodon

Megalodon jaws.

Reconstructed jaws of a Megalodon shark (human gives scale).

Picture Credit: Rex Features

Safari Ltd have produced an excellent replica of this prehistoric shark, to view the model and the rest of the amazing figures in the Wild Safari Dinos Prehistoric World collection: Safari Ltd. Wild Safari Prehistoric World

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Megalodon Figure 

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Megalodon model.

Fearsome C. megalodon

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

29 07, 2018

Gharial Evolution – A Fishy Business

By | July 29th, 2018|Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page|0 Comments

Convergent Evolution Thoracosaurs and Gharials

Crocodylians are a very ancient group of reptiles, sometimes these animals are referred to as living dinosaurs, that’s a mistake, they may be Archosaurs, the same as the Dinosauria, but they represent a different branch of the “ruling reptiles” clade.  However, just as with the dinosaurs, the ancient lineage of the crocodylians is full of intriguing taxonomic mysteries.  Back in 2017, Everything Dinosaur reported upon a new scientific paper that fundamentally re-wrote the dinosaur family tree, in recent weeks, a new scientific study has thrown light on the evolution of the gharials, specialist fish-eating crocodylians.  This new research into the gharials may not result in such a seismic shift that we saw with the 2017 dinosaur family tree, but it does help to explain an inconsistency that has puzzled palaeontologists for decades.

A Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus)

A Gharial.

An extant Gharial, note the long thin jaw lined with conical teeth, ideal for catching fish.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Thoracosaur Mystery

Late Cretaceous, long-snouted, fish-eating crocodiles known as Thoracosaurs had been thought to be closely related to modern-day gharials (Gavialis lineage).  However, fossils of these crocodylians are found in Upper Cretaceous/Lower Palaeocene strata, but analysis of the genome of the modern Indian gharial suggests that these crocodiles only evolved some forty million years ago.  In a new study, led by Flinders University (South Australia), it is concluded that the Thoracosaurus is not closely related to the Gavialidae, it just happens to look very similar and to share the same adaptations for life as a piscivore.

A Life Reconstruction of the Late Cretaceous Crocodylian Thoracosaurus

Thoracosaurus life reconstruction.

A life reconstruction of the fish-eating Thoracosaurus.

Picture Credit: Jacob Baardse

The Four-metre-long Thoracosaurus

Two species of Thoracosaurus have been described, one from North America with a second species known from Europe.  This freshwater crocodile could have grown to a length of four metres or more.  Writing in the journal “Proceedings of the Royal Society Biology”, a team of international scientists propose that the uncanny resemblance between the modern gharial and the ancient Thoracosaurus is due to convergent evolution, the process whereby two unrelated organisms end up looking similar as they adapt to similar environments and ecological niches.

The study shows that the prehistoric Thoracosaurs, that were around at the same time as the last of the dinosaurs, were not closely related to modern gharials at all.  They represent a separate and distinct group of reptiles that adopted a similar fish-eating habit, evolving long, narrow jaws with needle-like teeth, anatomical traits they share with gharials.  Therefore, as borne out by the DNA of modern-day gharials, members of the Gavialidae are relatively newcomers when it comes to crocodylian evolutionary history.  Gharials did not exist in the Mesozoic.

The Fossilised Skull and Upper Jaw of Thoracosaurus (Cast)

The skull of Thoracosaurus.

A cast of the fossilised skull and upper jaw of Thoracosaurus.

Picture Credit: Michael Lee (Flinders University and South Australia Museum

Confusion Over the Indian Gharial and the False Gharial

The False gharial of south-east Asia (Tomistoma schlegelii), has a similar long snout to the Indian gharial, however, as it is broader at the base it was thought that this species was not closely related to the true gharial.  However, genomic studies have revealed that it is the sister taxon and consequently, very closely related to Gavialis gangeticus. Many biologists now classify this species as a member of the Gavialidae.

Lead author of the study, Professor Michael Lee (Flinders University), commented:

“The DNA of living gharials indicates they are a young group, which evolved well after the dinosaurs, but then why are there gharial-like fossils older than T. rex?  Either the DNA evidence is wrong, or we’ve misinterpreted these ancient Thoracosaurs.  Our work suggests we have got the fossils wrong, after being misled by convergent evolution.”

The scientific paper:
“Tip Dating and Homoplasy: Reconciling the Shallow Molecular Divergences of Modern Gharials with their Long Fossil Record” by MSY Lee and AM Yates and published in Proceedings: Biological Sciences:

Everything Dinosaur’s article on the reassessment of the Dinosauria: Root and Branch Reform for the Dinosaur Family Tree

22 05, 2018

A Feature of the Archosauria – (Part 2)

By | May 22nd, 2018|Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Labelling the Fenestrae in a Diapsid Skull

Recently, Everything Dinosaur posted up a picture of the skull of a large gharial and discussed the teeth located in distinct sockets, an anatomical trait characteristic of that great group of reptiles the Archosaurs (Archosauria).  Today, we complete this very brief look at the Archosaurs by labelling the fenestrae (holes) in the skull that identify the gharial, all crocodiles and their close relatives, including the dinosaurs, that are classified as diapsid reptiles.

The Skull of the Gharial with the Eye Socket (Orbit) and Fenestrae Labelled

A gharial skull with the fenestrae and eye sockets labelled.

Labelling the skull of a diapsid reptile.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The gharial (a long-snouted, crocodilian), skull is from the Grant Museum of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy (London).  In the photograph (above), we have labelled the holes (fenestrae) in the skull, the left lateral side of the skull is seen and the lower (inferior) temporal fenestra has been labelled.  Behind the large orbits (eye sockets), on the top of the skull, the pair of upper (superior) temporal fenestrae have been labelled.  Please note each of the holes (singular) is termed a fenestra, but the plural is fenestrae.

The diapsid reptiles are an extremely diverse group that contains a number of extinct kinds of reptile as well as snakes, lizards, turtles, the last surviving member of the ancient order Ryhnchocephalia – the tuatara, crocodiles, dinosaurs and birds.  The last three listed, crocodiles, dinosaurs and birds are of course Archosaurs, and the Archosauria are characterised by a number of anatomical features including the two pairs of skull fenestrae.

The holes in the skull probably evolved to permit larger muscle attachments for the jaws, giving these animals a stronger bite.  The mouth could also be opened wider, a definite advantage of you are having to bolt down lumps of flesh or to cram into your stomach large amounts of nutritionally poor vegetation.

To read our article about another feature of the Archosauria – tooth sockets: A Feature of the Archosauria (Part 1)

21 05, 2018

A Feature of the Archosauria – (Part 1)

By | May 21st, 2018|Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Examining Teeth in Sockets – Crocodilians (Archosauria)

Team members at Everything Dinosaur were given the opportunity to examine the skull of a large Gharial recently.  The gharial (Gavialis gangeticus), has evolved a long, elongated snout and specialises in catching fish (piscivore).  These once widespread and diverse members of the Gavialidae are extremely rare in the wild.  They are restricted to a few fragmentary populations scattered amongst the river systems of the northern parts of the Indian sub-continent.

Examining the Skull of a Large Gharial

The skull of a gharial.

The skull of a gharial from the Grant Museum of Zoology (London).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The skull of this crocodilian portrays several characteristics that identifies it as a member of the Archosauria, the same clade of reptiles that includes dinosaurs, pterosaurs and birds.  The skull has a number of holes in it (fenestrae), these holes establish it as a member of the diapsid, one of three main groups of reptiles that can be distinguished from each other by the presence or absence of such fenestrae and their number.  Establishing shared characteristics between different species (synapomorphies), is the standard model for classifying organisms.   These shared characteristics, came from a shared, common ancestor.  Essentially, taxonomists are looking to identify similarities and differences.  The number of holes in the skull is one of the synapomorphies that establishes this gharial as a member of the Archosaurs (ruling reptiles).

Teeth in Sockets

Another synapomorphy shared amongst the Archosauria, (although derived members of this group such as the birds have subsequently lost this trait), can be seen in the jaw.  The teeth of the gharial are set in sockets.  These sockets are termed alveoli (singular alveolus).  Being strongly anchored in a bony socket allows the tooth to withstand greater forces.  It is less likely to be lost during predation and feeding.  This enabled many of the early Archosaurs to evolve powerful jaws, capable to tacking struggling prey or coping with tough, fibrous vegetation.  This evolutionary trait may help to explain their success.

On the Skull of the Gharial – the Teeth Sockets can be Easily Seen

Teeth in sockets - characteristic of the Archosaurs.

A defining characteristic of the Archosauria – teeth in sockets.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

8 05, 2018

Happy Birthday Sir David Attenborough

By | May 8th, 2018|Animal News Stories, Famous Figures, Main Page|0 Comments

Happy Birthday Sir David Attenborough

Many happy returns to Sir David Attenborough, broadcaster, naturalist and someone who has done so much to help the public understand the wonders of the natural world.

Happy Birthday Sir Attenborough

Sir David Attenborough.

Still enthusing about the Natural World – happy birthday Sir David.

The Plastic Age

Throughout a broadcasting career that has spanned more than sixty years, Sir David has played a prominent role in highlighting the plight of the natural world.  In the recent, BBC television documentary series “Blue Planet II”, the damage caused by plastic pollutants in marine environments was emphasised and this has led to a number of plans and initiatives to reduce plastic use, especially items that are classed as “single use plastics”, such as plastic drinking straws.

The team behind “Blue Planet II”, including the narrator, Sir David, has helped raise awareness about the dangers of plastic pollution.   In the highly praised television series, there was one particularly distressing scene where a mother pilot whale was filmed holding her dead calf, which is believed to have died after consuming the mother’s milk which had been contaminated with toxic chemicals resulting from the breakdown of plastic in the marine environment.

Nonagenarian and Still Campaigning for the Natural World

Sir David Attenborough

Sir David raising awareness about the problems of plastic pollution.

Sir David Attenborough was born on this day in 1926, all the team members at Everything Dinosaur would like to take this opportunity to wish Sir David many happy returns.

Keep on campaigning sir.

22 03, 2018

Frog spawn in the Office Pond

By | March 22nd, 2018|Animal News Stories, Educational Activities, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page|0 Comments

Frog Spawn in the Pond

After a false start, when we noticed one clump of unfertilised frog spawn in our pond, we are happy to announce that on the morning of the 17th March we spotted three clumps of newly laid frog spawn.  The first eggs were produced on the 20th of February, just prior to a sudden cold snap.  Whether a female frog had been stressed we don’t know, but despite our careful gathering of the tennis ball-sized clump of spawn and storing it in a goldfish bowl along with some of the pond water and pond weed, the eggs failed to develop.  Our intention was to protect the spawn from the extremely cold weather and then once the snow had melted, to re-introduce the spawn into the pond.

 Frog Spawn in the Office Pond (March 2018)

Frog spawn in the office pond (2018).

Frog spawn 2018, at least three clumps of spawn have been spotted.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Later Than Last Year

The spawning has taken place around a week later than last year.  We suspect the cold weather delayed the onset of breeding.  Hopefully, with the approach of warmer weather (no snow at least), this spawn will be able to develop and soon we will have tadpoles to observe.  The amount of spawn, is about average, we estimate that three females laid eggs.  Although the eggs tend to merge into one, single mat of jelly, if you can observe the egg masses before they swell you can get a reasonable idea of the number of fertile females present.

We Intend to Keep a Close Watch on the Frog Spawn

Frog spawn in the office pond (2018).

Frog spawn 2018.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Our pond is a haven for wildlife and we hope that at least some of the tadpoles make it to adulthood.   Common Frogs (Rana temporaria) inhabit our pond, although sadly, these animals like most of the native British amphibians are no longer common.  At least our little pond is helping with conservation efforts.

22 02, 2018

Ground-Dwelling Birds Provide Clues to Theropod Dinosaur Locomotion

By | February 22nd, 2018|Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Observe How Ground-Dwelling Birds Move to Learn About Theropod Locomotion

Just how fast could T. rex run?  Over the years, there have been a number of papers published that looked at the locomotion of big Theropod dinosaurs.  Computer models, three-dimensional analysis of trackways using state-of-the-art LIDAR (light detection and ranging), biomechanics, kinetic studies, so many disciples and so many areas of research.  One way of obtaining a better understanding of the movements of large, bipedal dinosaurs is to take a look at the dinosaurs that are still with us today, the birds.  By studying extant Aves, scientists can gain an insight into the locomotion of non-avian members of the Theropoda.

How Did Big Theropod Dinosaurs Move About?

Birds provide clues to Theropod locomotion.

T. rex locomotion.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Writing in the academic on-line journal PLOS One, a team of international scientists, which included Professor John Hutchinson from the Royal Veterinary College, Hertfordshire, set about gaining a greater appreciation of just how birds move by examining in detail the locomotion of twelve types of ground-dwelling bird, some of them flightless, such as the emu and ostrich, whilst others are accomplished flyers such as the Japanese quail and the Australian white ibis.  Aerial ability or the lack of it was not important, the team were interested in examining how birds of various sizes and body weights moved about, effectively recording their body movements using high speed cameras as these birds walked or ran across a track.  The species were selected based on the fact that these birds spend a lot of time on the ground.   By virtue of spending most of their lives (in the case of the emu and ostrich, all of their lives), on the ground, these feathered friends have well-developed hind limb locomotor systems.

Scaling Up to a Seven Tonne Theropod

There was a considerable variation in body size amongst the participants.  The smallest species represented being the Chinese painted quail, that weighed in at around 45 grammes, the largest being the ostrich which at 80 kilos represents a body mass some 1,780 times heavier.

The scientific paper deals with some of the problems of trying to use birds to test the locomotive abilities of big meat-eating dinosaurs.  Any studies using an 80-kg ostrich would require nearly a 100 fold extrapolation to equate to the body weight of a fully-grown Tyrannosaurus rex for example.  The researchers comment in the paper that the absolute range of body masses encompassed by modern birds is small compared to that encompassed by extinct, non-avian Theropod dinosaurs.  They postulate that whilst it may be reasonable to extrapolate to a 200-kilogramme flightless moa from New Zealand, is it reasonable to extrapolate to an eight tonne Tyrannosaur?

The Skeleton of an Ostrich (left) Compared to a Dinosaur Skeleton (right)

Ostrich skeleton compared to Guanlong dinosaur skeleton.

The skeleton of an extant ostrich compared to a Theropod dinosaur (Guanlong).

That point notwithstanding, birds are closely related to the likes of Tyrannosaurus rex and as such they make a better test subject than that other animal that is an obligate biped – us.  Data on how humans walk and run was also collated and studied, but Homo sapiens does move differently when compared to ground-dwelling birds, there are some very significant differences.   This research looked at the kinetics of bipedal movement, that is, those forces that cause motion (gravity, torque, friction and so forth).  It also examined the kinematics of motion, the study of describing movement, usually by measuring the precise motion of parts of the body such as the joints.  Kinematics involves looking at acceleration, velocity and braking.

When it comes to examining the differences in terrestrial motion between Aves and ourselves, perhaps the most significant difference is that in birds, all kinematic and kinetic parameters analysed changed continuously as velocity increased, whilst in humans all but one of those same parameters changed abruptly at the walk-run transition.  Think of it as birds being able to move through the gears a little more smoothly than their two-legged human counterparts.

The Locomotion of the Australian White Ibis was Examined

The Australian white ibis helps explain dinosaur locomotion

The Australian white ibis (Threskiornis molucca).

Ground Reaction Force

Particular attention was devoted to the ground reaction force (GRF), the force that the feet exert upon the ground.  The research team confirmed previous assessments of bird locomotion.  Birds have a highly continuous locomotor repertoire compared to humans.  Our discrete “walking” and “running” gaits are not easily distinguishable based on kinematic patterns alone.  If birds have a more continuous locomotion profile based on body mass and the speed of movement, then this means that scientists can develop equations that allows them to predict the potential locomotor capabilities of extinct creatures – Tyrannosaurus rex for example.

Lead author of the scientific paper, Peter Bishop (Queensland Museum) explained:

“Since birds, also known as “avian dinosaurs”, are actually just dinosaurs that didn’t become extinct, they were ideal models to study how their extinct cousins would have moved.  So, you’d be foolish to start anywhere else.”

The predictive model that the team has produced is able to explain 79–93% of the observed variation in kinematics and 69–83% of the observed variation in Ground Reaction Forces.  When used in extrapolation tests to examine the gaits of extinct animals, the results produced were within expected levels.  There are caveats however, this study also found that the location of the whole-body centre of mass may exert an important influence on the nature of the Ground Reaction Forces, some caution is needed before applying this model to a thirteen metre monster like T. rex, after all most extinct Theropod dinosaurs had substantial tails, whilst birds have a reduced tail in the form of a pygostyle and the presence/absence of a tail will have a bearing on locomotion.  The research team conclude that further investigation of the movement of dinosaurs is required.

A couple of years ago, a group of scientists mounted prosthetic tails on chickens and assessed how the presence of a tail altered their locomotion.

To read an article on this study: Walking Dinosaurs Chicken Run

Differences in Muscles and the Skeleton

Extant birds also have a very different skeleton compared to Theropod dinosaurs such as Allosaurus, Giganotosaurus, Megalosaurus and Tyrannosaurus rex.  The anatomy of birds varies considerable from that of a dinosaur, although there are striking similarities, the presence of a wish bone and a digitigrade stance for example.  Extinct non-avian Theropods have different limb proportions and their leg muscles and their position (as influenced, in part by that long tail), are different.  Theropod dinosaurs also had a different centre of gravity compared to birds.

For an article that looks at the evolution of the stance of birds from their dinosaur ancestors: Standing Dinosaur, Crouching Bird

The Research Will Help with the Locomotion of Extinct Flightless Birds (Sylviornis)

Sylviornis from New Caledonia.

Scale bar = 50 cm, a skeletal reconstruction of the giant, flightless bird from New Caledonia Sylviornis.

The Queensland Museum scientist Peter Bishop added that understanding the locomotion of giant, extinct Theropods such as the Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurids not only excited the curiosity of the public but was crucial to understanding a wide range of scientific questions.

He stated:

“Locomotion is important for understanding other parts of dinosaur ecology, how you find food, how you find mates, how you avoid becoming food yourself?  It could also help contribute to models of dinosaur migration and even help settle debates about whether they were warm-blooded.  But for me, the most interesting part of dinosaur locomotion is that it’s the most critical part of how dinosaurs evolved into birds.  There were a lot of changes in locomotion … including the development of powered flight.”

Next Steps

The research team hope to test their equations on more species of birds and also to develop computer programmes that can model how large bipedal dinosaurs would have moved.

An article published in 2013 that looks at the evolution of the gait of birds: Birds Have the Dinosauria to Thank for Their Crouching Gait

29 09, 2017

Everything Dinosaur Newsletter (Mid-September)

By | September 29th, 2017|Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Prehistoric Elephants and Extant Elephants et al

A few days ago, Everything Dinosaur sent out their latest newsletter to their customer database.  A number of recent product introductions and one eagerly anticipated new model were featured.  Linking these two parts of the newsletter was the elephant family (Elephantidae), as the newsletter focused on the beautiful Family Zoo animal models including the fantastic African elephant (Loxodonta) and updated subscribers on the museum quality Steppe Mammoth replica coming into stock (Mammuthus trogontherii).

The Everything Dinosaur Newsletter Featured the Eofauna Scientific Research Steppe Mammoth Model

Everything Dinosaur newsletter (Sept. 2017).

Everything Dinosaur newsletter (mid-September 2017).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Steppe Mammoth Strides into View

The Steppe Mammoth replica is in 1:40 scale and it is the first in a new line of museum quality replicas from Eofauna Scientific Research.  Everything Dinosaur has been given a degree of exclusive distributorship over the sales of this exciting prehistoric elephant model.  A reserve list has been opened which allows model fans to have one of these fantastic figures set aside for them.  There is no obligation to purchase, no deposit needed and no requirement to pre-order.  Customers know that there is a model allocated to them and one of our dedicated team members will email them to let them know that the model is available should they wish to buy it.

To enquire about the Eofauna Scientific Research Steppe Mammoth model and reserve a replica: Email: Everything Dinosaur

Living Members of the Elephant Family and Chums

The second part of the Everything Dinosaur newsletter focuses on the superb PNSO Family Zoo range of models.  Firstly, there is the fantastic collection of ten animals from Asia.  These ten figures represent animals that are culturally very important to our species.  The hand-painted models include pandas, tigers, horses, brown bears, goats, wolves and dogs.   This collection is known as the “PNSO Family Zoo Ten Most Popular Asian Animals” and they are extremely hard to obtain.  Thankfully, Everything Dinosaur has brought a number of sets over from China, our stock even includes the rare pig model and the Siamese crocodile.

The PNSO Family Zoo Asian Animals

PNSO Family Zoo Asian Animals

PNSO Family Zoo Ten Most Popular Asian Animals.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the PNSO Family Zoo range of models available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Family Zoo

Extant Animals Take Centre Stage in the Everything Dinosaur Newsletter

Promoting PNSO Family Zoo models.

Promoting PNSO Family Zoo Ten Most Poplar Asian and Ten Most Popular African Animals.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The second part of the PNSO Family Zoo range features those living creatures regarded as “free spirits”.  The models represent ten models of animals from the African Savannah.  The “PNSO Family Zoo Ten Most Popular African Animals” includes rhinos, lions, hyenas, cheetahs, zebras, wildebeest and of course a beautiful African elephant model.

The PNSO Ten Most Popular African Animals

PNSO Family Zoo Asian Animals.

PNSO Family Zoo Ten Most Popular Asian Animals.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Naturally, a newsletter from Everything Dinosaur also included dinosaurs, updates on the Rebor 1:35 scale King T. rex as this figure came back into stock, plus highlights of fossil and prehistoric animal news studies that we had covered on our various blogs and social media sites.

To subscribe to Everything Dinosaur’s regular newsletter, simply drop us an email: Email Everything Dinosaur

To see the full range of PNSO Family Zoo models including those wonderful elephants: PNSO Family Zoo Models and Figures

14 09, 2017

Everything Dinosaur Adds PNSO Family Zoo

By | September 14th, 2017|Animal News Stories, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

PNSO Family Zoo Models Added to Everything Dinosaur’s Range

Everything Dinosaur has added the PNSO Family Zoo range of animal models to its product portfolio.  The Family Zoo range currently consists of twenty animal models, representing extant creatures as diverse as tigers, pandas, hippos, horses and dogs. Each model is hand-painted and presented in its own blister packaging.  PNSO has built up a deserved reputation for the excellence of its prehistoric animal models, the “PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Toys”, now collectors have the chance to add the entire Family Zoo range to their collections.

The PNSO Family Zoo Ten Most Popular Asian Animals

The PNSO Family Zoo ten most popular Asian animals.

PNSO Family Zoo 10 most popular Asian animals.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Family Zoo Ten Most Popular Asian Animals

The ten animals in the Family Zoo Asian models range are: Brown Bear, Horse, Tiger, Goat, Wolf, Dog, Pig, Siamese Crocodile, Cow and a Panda.  This might seem like an eclectic mix of animals, however, the Family Zoo Asian models represent creatures that have had an intimate relationship with our own species.  Many animals have become domesticated whilst others have been revered in different Asian cultures, the choice of animal in this range reflects the impact that these animals have had and celebrates their importance and their significance to our own species.  The Family Zoo Ten Most Popular Asian Animals commemorates these creatures and their fascinating stories which are interwoven with our own history.

The Beautifully Painted PNSO Family Zoo Tiger Model

The PNSO Family Zoo Tiger figure.

PNSO Family Zoo Tiger model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture shows the wonderful PNSO Family Zoo Tiger figure.  Tigers are icons in both the East and the West (the oriental and occidental cultures).

To view the entire PNSO Family Zoo range of models available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Family Zoo Animal Models

Family Zoo Ten Most Popular African Animals

The animals that make up the PNSO Family Zoo ten most popular African animals in contrast, represent creatures that although very important to various human cultures, have never been successfully domesticated.  This model range (all mammals), consists of Wildebeest, African Buffalo, African Lion, Spotted Hyena, Cheetah, African Elephant, Giraffe, Zebra, Hippopotamus and a Black Rhinoceros.

The PNSO Family Zoo Ten Most Popular African Animals

PNSO Family Zoo Ten Most Popular African Animals.

The PNSO Family Zoo 10 most popular African animals.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Each skilfully, hand-painted animal figure represents an iconic wild animal from Africa.  In the PNSO product literature, this range is described as:

“There are many free spirits roaming the vast Savannah of Africa.  We have produced the Family Zoo range to express our love for nature.”

All the replicas in the “Asian” and “African” ranges show wonderful anatomical details and the colouration of the models is fantastic.  It is hard to choose a favourite, but the Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), is amongst our favourites, it is great to see a model of this critically endangered large mammal.

The PNSO Family Zoo Black Rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

PNSO Family Zoo Black Rhinoceros replica.

The PNSO Family Zoo Black Rhinoceros model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The PNSO Family Zoo Black Rhinoceros measures a fraction under eleven centimetres in length and this splendid figure is a marvellous companion to the large PNSO White Rhinoceros replica, one of three large-scale figures of iconic African mammals produced by PNSO.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“These figures are rare and difficult to obtain, so we are delighted to be able to offer the PNSO Family Zoo to collectors and animal model fans.”

The PNSO Family Zoo range available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Family Zoo Animal Models

7 09, 2017

National Thylacine Day

By | September 7th, 2017|Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

National Thylacine Day

Today, marks the 81st anniversary of the death of the last known Thylacine.  The animal, nick-named Benjamin, died this day (7th September 1936), at Beaumaris Zoo (Hobart, Tasmania).  The Thylacine (sometimes referred to as the Tasmanian Tiger, probably due to its prominent stripes), was the largest carnivorous marsupial of the Holocene Epoch.  It was the last member of the once diverse and numerous Thylacinidae family, which once ranged over Australia and New Guinea.

Over the last few years, Everything Dinosaur has been able to add a couple of Thylacine models to its extensive range of prehistoric and extinct animal replicas.  In 2016, CollectA added a female Thylacine model to its hugely popular CollectA Prehistoric Life model range.  The model can be clearly identified as a female because of the very obvious pouch.  The CollectA Thylacine model measures a fraction under twelve centimetres in length and the model’s head is some five centimetres off the ground.

The CollectA Thylacine Model

The CollectA Thylacine replica.

The CollectA Thylacine model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The distended pouch suggests that this particular Thylacine is carrying young.  This impressive, hand-painted model has received excellent reviews.  For example, a recent 5-star FEEFO review stated that this CollectA model was:

“Very high-quality product.”

Thylacinus cynocephalus

Aboriginal rock art records Thylacines and numerous fossil sites are known from Western Australia.  The Tasmanian Tiger ranged extensively over Australia and Tasmania, a mummified carcass was discovered in the famous Nullarbor Cave in 1969 by a field team from the Western Australian Museum.

Mojo Fun also has a Thylacine replica in its model range (Mojo Fun Prehistoric and Extinct Animals), this replica is approximately the same size as the CollectA model and just like the CollectA replica, it is hand-painted.  Everything Dinosaur added this model range to its portfolio as part of plans to expand the company’s extensive model range.

The Mojo Fun Thylacine Model

The Mojo Fun Thylacine.

The Mojo Fun Thylacine model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Mojo Fun Thylacine has also received excellent reviews from collectors, such as this 5-star FEEFO rating – “Well-made model, exactly as presented on your web site.”

Quality Thylacine Models

Such is the quality of these two figures, that we have supplied numerous scientists, academics and museum staff with these models.

To view the range of prehistoric and extinct animal replicas available from Everything Dinosaur: The Models Available from Everything Dinosaur

September 7th is “National Threatened Species Day” in Australia.  This day is dedicated to acknowledging the efforts of those hard-working conservationists who strive to protect Australia’s flora and fauna.  It is also a day for remembering the Thylacine, our species Homo sapiens, was responsible for the extinction of this beautiful and little understood predator.

There have been several credible sightings in recent years, and prompted by some plausible eye-witness accounts, scientists from James Cook University have set up camera traps in a remote part of northern Queensland in a bid to capture irrefutable evidence that this enigmatic marsupial still exists.  Everything Dinosaur featured the plans to hunt for Thylacines in a blog article published in the spring: Hunting for Tasmanian Tigers.  The idea that a handful of “Tigers” might be still in the outback, is a very intriguing idea, however, scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, put together a mathematical model to assess the probability of the Thylacine still existing.  Having assessed all the sightings and other evidence, the most optimistic view is that the Thylacine might have persisted to around 1950 but the chances of finding a Thylacine alive today are extremely remote.  How remote?  About 1 in 1.6 trillion according to the mathematicians.

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