All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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24 09, 2020

“Dung and Dusted” – A Scatological Approach to Archaeology

By | September 24th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

Did Ancient Potters use Sheep Dung to Fire their Clay Pots?

A project is underway to provide “hands-on” information about how ancient Britons could have fired clay pots before the invention of kiln technology.  By undertaking practical experiments trying different sorts of fuel to fire clay vessels, archaeologists hope to find out more about the way our ancestors lived their lives.

A new study, with the catchy title “Dung and Dusted”, aims to do just that, specifically by examining whether sheep dung could have been used to fire pots before the widespread use of kilns.  Dr Michael Copper, from the School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences in the Faculty of Life Sciences (University of Bradford), hopes that these practical experiments will help researchers to gain a better understanding of how different, ancient communities were organised.

Dr Mike Copper – Part of the “Dung and Dusted” Project

Dr Mike Copper who will be part of the "Dung and Dusted" project.

Dr Mike Copper on location in Orkney.

Picture Credit: University of Bradford

Dr Copper explained:

“Despite considerable advances in our knowledge of how ancient pots were made and used, archaeologists still know remarkably little about how prehistoric pottery was fired before the introduction of the potter’s kiln, including what fuels were used.  One abundant and freely available fuel source in prehistory would have been animal dung.  Could it then have been the case that dried dung was used to fire pottery in prehistoric Britain and Ireland?”

A Six-month Project

The research project is funded by the Gerda Henkel Foundation and is planned to last around six months.  A series of firings of hand-built replica prehistoric pots using sheep dung and other fuels are planned.  The vessels and firing sites will then be analysed to see whether residues left behind can be matched to ancient pottery or can be used to help archaeologists identify dung firing evidence at archaeological digs.

Dr Copper, a specialist in prehistoric pottery and ancient ceramic technology, added:

“In terms of why it is significant, experimental projects such as this provide an important way for archaeologists to understand how prehistoric people went about tasks such as pot firing using materials and techniques with which we are no longer familiar.  Pottery is one of the most important finds made on archaeological excavations.  Its varied forms help us to date sites and analysis of burnt food residues can tell us about what the inhabitants ate.  If we find that animal dung was used to fire the pots then it could be that people were managing animals with one eye on using dung as a product.”

Dr Mike Copper Examining an Ancient Clay Pot

Dr Mike Cooper examines a prehistoric clay pot.

Dr Mike Copper, inspecting a prehistoric clay pot.

Picture Credit: University of Bradford

An Experimental Approach to Archaeology

The researchers, which include Dr Cathy Batt, an expert in magnetic studies with extensive experience of investigating ancient firing sites and Dr Gregg Griffin, a recent PhD graduate who looked at ways to identify fuels from residues discovered on archaeological excavations, hope to gain an understanding of how ancient societies were organised with pot-making and firing a central part of the community.  Variations in the use of technology, such as choice of fuel for pottery making, are passed down from one generation to another.  This can provide archaeologists with a lot of additional information about how a community organised itself.

We look forward to hearing more as this project concludes and we wonder whether the sheep will be cited in the subsequent paper as contributors…

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from the University of Bradford in the compilation of this article.

23 09, 2020

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Dinosaur Skulls

By | September 23rd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Dinosaur Skulls

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies dinosaur skulls, a set of three, amazing museum quality theropod skull models are available to pre-order from Everything Dinosaur.  The set referred to as “wave 1”, suggesting that more skull models are likely to be added to this range in the future, consists of replicas of the skulls of Carnotaurus (C. sastrei), Ceratosaurus (C. dentisulcatus) and Yutyrannus (Y. huali).  Each replica has been carefully crafted and give the impression that a complete skull has been lifted from the surrounding rock matrix.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Yutyrannus huali Skull Replica

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Y. hauli skull model.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Yutyrannus huali museum quality skull model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Tyrannosauroids, Abelisaurids and a Member of the Basal Ceratosauria Clade

Although each amazing figure represents a carnivorous theropod dinosaur, these three animals were very distantly related to each other. For example, Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus, regarded as one of the largest of the Ceratosaurus species, like all ceratosaurs, is part of a clade that diverged from the Coelurosauria Theropoda lineage that was ultimately to lead to the evolution of birds, during the Jurassic.  Carnotaurus (C. sastrei) is a Late Cretaceous representative of the Abelisauridae, a family of predatory dinosaurs mostly associated with Africa, South America, India and the island of Madagascar.  Although part of the Ceratosauria clade, Carnotaurus is both geographically and temporally very distant from Ceratosaurus.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Ceratosaurus Skull (C. dentisulcatus) Replica

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies C. dentisulcatus museum quality skull model.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus museum quality skull model.  The characteristic nasal horn associated with this genus is prominent in the Rebor figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Yutyrannus huali is known from the Liaoning Province of north-eastern China (Yixian Formation).  It lived during the Early Cretaceous, approximately 125 million years ago.  Many palaeontologists classify Yutyrannus as a member of the Proceratosauridae family and as such a member of the Tyrannosauroidea.  The proceratosaurs, despite their name, which translates as “before ceratosaurs”, are not members of the Ceratosauria.  The confusion arises due to the naming and description of Proceratosaurus bradleyi from a partial skull with a distinctive nasal horn associated with the Middle Jurassic Forest Marble Formation of Gloucestershire, England.  When Proceratosaurus was named in 1910, it was proposed that it was an ancestor of Ceratosaurus.  Research carried out some seventy years later demonstrated that this was incorrect and that Proceratosaurus is in fact a very early representative of that lineage of theropods that was to eventually lead to the evolution of the tyrannosaurs and that most famous dinosaur of all T. rex.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Carnotaurus sastrei Replica

Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies C. sastrei museum quality skull model.

The Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies Carnotaurus sastrei museum quality skull model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Although these three figures represent very different theropod dinosaurs, they all reflect the same high quality standards we have come to expect from Rebor.”

Pre-order with Everything Dinosaur

All three Rebor skull models are now available for pre-order from Everything Dinosaur.

  • No prepayment fees
  • No money up front
  • No deposit required
  • No payment required until the item is available for despatch
  • Orders can be cancelled at any time prior to payment becoming due on the release date

We are expecting these figures to be in stock around week commencing 2nd of November (2020)

Everything Dinosaur is also offering the set of three skulls at a special discount (whilst stocks last).

Buy All Three Rebor Skull Replicas Together!

A special offer on a set of Rebor fossil skulls.

Buy all three Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies museum class fossil skulls (whilst stocks last).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To find the Rebor Oddities Fossil Studies skulls visit this section of Everything Dinosaur’s website: Rebor Models and Figures.

22 09, 2020

“Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved”

By | September 22nd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Book Reviews, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

“Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved”

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have been re-reading the second edition of the excellent dinosaur book “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved”.  We reviewed this publication in the early summer, but as the autumn darkness descends we have been visiting once again its chapters on the dinosaur family tree and dinosaur biology, ecology and behaviour.  This really is an excellent and most informative dinosaur book.

A Book and One Model but Two Tianyulongs

Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved and a dinosaur model.

The front cover of “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved” features an illustration of the Jurassic dinosaur Tianyulong so we included a model of a Tianyulong in our photograph.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The front cover of “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved” features an illustration of the Jurassic heterodontosaurid Tianyulong munching on some ginkgo leaves.  This illustration was created by the very talented Bob Nicholls.  As this bizarre Chinese dinosaur is featured on the cover we included a model of a Tianyulong (PNSO) in our photograph.  The authors of this wonderful dinosaur book, much updated and revised from the first edition, are to be congratulated for compiling such a well-crafted book on the Dinosauria.

“Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved” is crammed full of fascinating facts and amazing information, all presented in a writing style that makes it easy for the general reader to follow.  The myriad of drawings, charts, maps, diagrams and prehistoric animal themed artwork help to illustrate key points in the story of the Dinosauria.

This book is highly recommended and would make an excellent gift for the festive season.

Co-author Darren Naish now sells copies of his books here (subject to availability), ask him nicely and he might include a special customised dinosaur illustration for you: Contact the Co-author to Purchase the Book.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s review of “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved” by Darren Naish and Paul M. Barrett: Everything Dinosaur Reviews “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved”.

19 09, 2020

Spinosaurus – Very Much at Home in the River

By | September 19th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Spinosaurus A River Monster

An examination of more than a thousand fossil dinosaur teeth collected from an ancient Cretaceous-aged riverbed in Morocco suggests that the giant theropod Spinosaurus was very much at home in an aquatic environment.  This new study, conducted by researchers from the University of Portsmouth, lends further support to the idea that Spinosaurus spent a great deal of time in water, that this enormous theropod, arguably one of the largest of all the carnivorous dinosaurs was a “river monster”.

More Evidence Suggests that Spinosaurus was an Aquatic Animal

Swimming Spinosaurus (2020)

View of the crocodile-like snout of Spinosaurus and the new interpretation of the tail.  This new paper supports the earlier hypothesis that Spinosaurus aegyptiacus was an aquatic animal.

Picture Credit: Davide Bonadonna/National Geographic

This new study builds on a research paper published in the journal “Nature”, earlier this year, which also involved co-author Professor David Martill (University of Portsmouth).  The May (2020) paper focused on the examination of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus caudal vertebrae, it was concluded that Spinosaurus had a wide, flexible, fin-like tail, ideal for helping the dinosaur to propel itself through the water.

To read more about the Spinosaurus tail bones: Spinosaurus – The River Monster.

A Study of Fossil Teeth from the Kem Kem Formation

Writing in the academic journal “Cretaceous Research”, the scientists conclude that Spinosaurus was a water-dwelling dinosaur, a giant “river monster”.

A total of 1,200 broken teeth were collected from the site of an ancient riverbed in the Kem Kem Formation of Morocco.  Each tooth was carefully analysed and documented and it was discovered that Spinosaurus teeth made up the majority of the fossil specimens.

Professor David Martill, Professor of Palaeobiology at the University of Portsmouth explained:

“From this research we are able to confirm this location as the place where this gigantic dinosaur not only lived but also died.  The results are fully consistent with the idea of a truly water-dwelling, “river monster”.”

Examples of Typical Fossils from the Kem Kem Formation (Morocco)

Fossil remains (Kem Kem beds).

Assorted vertebrate fossil remains from the Kem Kem beds of Morocco.  The elongated conical tooth (top left) and the large, slender conical tooth which is partially obscured (far left) are likely to be spinosaurid.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Around forty-five percent of all the teeth fossils were ascribed to Spinosaurus.

Professor Martill added:

“The huge number of teeth we collected in the prehistoric riverbed reveals that Spinosaurus was there in huge numbers, accounting for 45 per cent of the total dental remains.  We know of no other location where such a mass of dinosaur teeth have been found in bone-bearing rock.  The enhanced abundance of Spinosaurus teeth, relative to other dinosaurs, is a reflection of their aquatic lifestyle.  An animal living much of its life in water is much more likely to contribute teeth to the river deposit than those dinosaurs that perhaps only visited the river for drinking and feeding along its banks.”

Professor Martill worked alongside two students (Aaron Quigley and Thomas Beevor), studying for the Masters Degree in Palaeontology at the university.

Thomas Beevor commented:

“The Kem Kem riverbeds are an amazing source of Spinosaurus remains.  They also preserve the remains of many other Cretaceous creatures including sawfish, coelacanths, crocodiles, flying reptiles and other land-living dinosaurs.  With such an abundance of Spinosaurus teeth, it is highly likely that this animal was living mostly within the river rather than along its banks.”

Identifying Spinosaurus Teeth

Sorting fossil teeth can be quite a challenging process.  However, enough is known about the Kem Kem biota to enable most of the teeth remains to be assigned to a genus or at least at the family level.  Numerous theropod dinosaurs are known from this geological formation, but spinosaurid teeth are distinctive.  They are conical, lack serrations and are not recurved.  Aaron Quigley explained that the teeth of Spinosaurus have a distinct surface.  They have a smooth, round cross-section which glints when held up to the light.

A Model of Spinosaurus Introduced in 2019 (Papo Spinosaurus)

Papo Limited Edition Spinosaurus Model.

The Papo Limited Edition Spinosaurus dinosaur model (2019).  Depicting Spinosaurus as an aquatic animal with deep, fin-like tail.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Sigilmassasaurus Confusion

Whilst the prevalence of spinosaurid teeth in the sample might indicate that spinosaurids spent more time in close proximity to the ancient river than other dinosaurs, this research does not represent definitive proof that Spinosaurus was aquatic.  It lends weight to the idea.  A large amount of spinosaurid teeth associated with the site, could be a result of some form of depositional bias or general taphonomy.  In addition, the paucity of Spinosaurus remains from the Kem Kem Formation has led to controversy over the classification of fossil bones.  For example, in 1996 a second genus of spinosaurid was named and described from fossilised cervical vertebrae found close to the Tafilalt Oasis in eastern Morocco.  This dinosaur was named Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Russell), but its taxonomic validity remains in doubt.  Sigilmassasaurus may be a valid genus, if it is, then it was very closely related to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus.  Other scientists think that S. brevicollis is not a valid genus and a junior synonym of Spinosaurus.  It is possible that the teeth involved in this study could represent another type of spinosaurid, other than S. aegyptiacus.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Portsmouth in the compilation of this article.

16 09, 2020

CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia Video Review

By | September 16th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani Video Review

Everything Dinosaur has created a short video review of the new for 2020 CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani model.  As well as reviewing the figure, we have provided an outline of some of the science behind the discovery and naming of this huge, Late Triassic dicynodont.  In the video, (it lasts just over ten minutes), we also discuss a “secret” Placerias replica and pose the question which prehistoric animal models would you put in a diorama with these two members of the Dicynodontia?

Everything Dinosaur’s Video Review of the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani Model (Dynamic Dicynodonts)

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Dicynodont Duo

There are not that many dicynodont models made by mainstream manufacturers.  Creatures from the Triassic tend to be somewhat underrepresented in model ranges when compared to prehistoric animals that lived during the Jurassic or Cretaceous.  However, fans of the Dicynodontia have two protomammals to choose from.  There is the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani, which was introduced this year (2020) and an eye-catching Placerias replica to add to your collection.

A Dicynodont Duo – Lisowicia and Placerias

CollectA Lisowicia and a Placerias model.

The CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani model (background) and a Placerias replica (foreground).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The CollectA Deluxe 1:20 scale Lisowicia bojani model can be found in this section of our website: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life Models and Figures.

Model Measurements

In the short video review, we measure the two models and comment on their size and scale.  The CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia replica measures around nineteen centimetres in length, stands approximately 7 cm high at the shoulder and that high-arched back is more than 10 cm tall.  The Placerias figure, is smaller, it measures about 10 cm in length and it stands around 5 cm high.  The sizing is apt, as although Placerias was a large dicynodont, it would have been dwarfed by the elephant-sized Lisowicia, should a Placerias ever encounter one.

Measuring a Prehistoric Protomammal – The Tale of the Tape (Lisowicia bojani)

Measuring the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia model.

In the Everything Dinosaur video review the CollectA Lisowicia replica is measured.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Helping to Inform and Educate

One of the aims of our videos is to help explain some of the science behind the prehistoric animal that a particular figure might represent.  In our video review of the Lisowicia, we highlight where the fossils of this giant dicynodont were found and what other fossils were discovered in association with the remains.  Thanks to the thousands of bones that have been excavated from the Lisowicia dig site, researchers have been able to build up a comprehensive picture of the many different types of animals that co-existed with L. bojani.  For example, the narrator comments upon the discovery of the archosaur Smok wawelski and points out the difficulties in classifying this predator as either a member of the Theropoda or a rauisuchid – a diverse group of predatory archosaurs that sit on the crocodilian segment of the Archosauria family tree.

To view Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.  We recommend that you subscribe to our YouTube channel.

15 09, 2020

“Prehistoric Pets” – New Book Links Pets with Their Ancestors

By | September 15th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Book Reviews, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos, Press Releases|0 Comments

“Prehistoric Pets” – New Book Links Pets with Their Ancestors

A new book is due to be published shortly entitled “Prehistoric Pets”.  It has been written by the very talented palaeontologist Dr Dean Lomax, with illustrations by Mike Love.  This exciting forthcoming publication links pets with their prehistoric ancestors, helping to bridge a gap in children’s understanding about fossils and deep geological time.

The Front Cover of “Prehistoric Pets” by Dr Dean Lomax with Illustrations by Mike Love

The front cover of "Prehistoric Pets".

This colourful and well-written book takes the reader on a journey back in time, linking common household pets today with their prehistoric ancestors.  If you have ever wondered about the ancestors of cats, dogs and guinea pigs, then this exciting new publication will provide the answers.

Picture Credit: Templar Books/Everything Dinosaur

Highly Informative, Fact Filled and Humorous

Dr Dean Lomax is one of a very select number of academics who have the ability to communicate complex ideas in simple terms so that general readers can comprehend.  The book is crammed full of fascinating facts and snippets of information that children will relish.  Beautifully designed pop-ups feature amazing prehistoric creatures, animals such as the tiny Sifrhippus (siff-rip-uss), the oldest known ancestor of the modern horse.  A cat-sized creature that roamed Wyoming during the Eocene Epoch.

“Prehistoric Pets” – Tracing the Ancestry of the Modern Horse

Horses feature in the book "Prehistoric Pets".

One of the beautiful animal illustrations from the book “Prehistoric Pets” by Dr Dean Lomax (illustrated by Mike Love).

Picture Credit: Templar Books/Everything Dinosaur

This awesome book is due to be published next month (October 2020), it will make an ideal Christmas gift for a young palaeontologist.

When this book is available, Everything Dinosaur will be writing a review of “Prehistoric Pets”.

Well-written and Cleverly Designed – A Great Christmas Gift Idea “Prehistoric Pets”

"Prehistoric Pets" - brilliant bird facts.

Brilliant bird facts in the awesome new book written by Dr Dean Lomax and illustrated by Mike Love.  The book contains lots of amazing information and facts.  Written in a humorous style, “Prehistoric Pets” takes the reader on a journey back in time, linking familiar pets alive today with their prehistoric ancestors. 

Picture Credit: Templar Books/Everything Dinosaur

14 09, 2020

Pachycephalosaur Squamosals

By | September 14th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Pachycephalosaur Squamosals

As Everything Dinosaur team members prepare for the arrival of the new for 2020 Papo Stygimoloch dinosaur model, team members have been examining the scientific papers that led to the erection of this pachycephalosaur genus (Peter Galton and Hans-Dieter Sues in 1983).  An isolated fossil bone referred to as a left squamosal (a bone from the back part of the skull) was found in Hell Creek Formation deposits located in McCone County, eastern Montana.  This fossil bone was given the catalogue number UCMP 119433 and although its prominent horns and raised bony bumps were very distinctive, it was not formerly described until 1983.  This fossil bone became the holotype fossil for the new species of North American pachycephalosaur Stygimoloch spinifer.

Distinctive Squamosal Bones Attributed to S. spinifer

Squamosal Bones Associated with Stygimoloch spinifer

The holotype left squamosal (UCMP 119433) in (A) and a right squamosal (UCMP 131163) in (B) in posterior view.  Note scale bar equals 5 cm.

Picture Credit: Horner and Goodwin (published in PLOS One)

The picture (above), shows the holotype left squamosal (UCMP 119433) alongside a right squamosal which also comes from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana (UCMP 131163).   When first described, the flat-headed, narrow skull of Stygimoloch with its array of horns and bumps that were most prominent at the back of the skull, was thought to represent a different type of pachycephalosaur than the dome-skulled species such as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis.  Stygimoloch had been described from extremely scrappy fossil remains.  Although a more complete skull found in North Dakota was also assigned to this genus, Stygimoloch remained poorly known.

The New for 2020 Papo Stygimoloch Dinosaur Model

Papo Stygimoloch model.

A view of one of the production prototypes of the Papo Stygimoloch dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Stygimoloch is Probably a Subadult Pachycephalosaurus

A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology in 2007 challenged the validity of the Stygimoloch taxon.  Palaeontologists John (Jack) Horner of the Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University and Mark Goodwin of the Museum of Paleontology at the University of California, Berkeley published a paper in the on-line, peer reviewed journal PLOS One (2009), that proposed that both Dracorex hogwartsia and Stygimoloch spinifer represented younger individuals of the Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis species.

More recent fossil discoveries from the Hell Creek Formation and further analysis of existing pachycephalosaur fossil material from North America supports the idea that Dracorex hogwartsia, Stygimoloch spinifer and Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis are the same taxon.

Pachycephalosaur Ontogeny – Three Hell Creek Formation Taxa May Actually Represent Just One Taxon

Different skull shapes and ornamentation linked to different growth stages.

It has been proposed that the cranial ornamentation and skull shape of pachycephalosaurs changes as these animals grow and mature.  This can cause confusion when trying to identify species.

Picture Credit: Kari Scannella with additional annotation by Everything Dinosaur

When first described, (Galton and Sues), the suggested morphology of the skull of Stygimoloch (narrow and lacking a raised, thickened dome), led the researchers to propose that unlike other pachycephalosaurs Stygimoloch probably did not indulge in any head-butting behaviour.

To view the range of Papo figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur, including a Pachycephalosaurus figure (whilst stocks last): Papo Models and Figures.

The 2009 scientific paper: “Extreme Cranial Ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus” by John R Horner and Mark B Goodwin published in PLOS One.

13 09, 2020

A Dinosaur Water Bottle

By | September 13th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases, Product Reviews|0 Comments

A Colourful Dinosaur Water Bottle

The return to school for the start of the autumn term has been very strange for many children.  Thanks to the COVID-19 pandemic, some pupils in the UK have not been in school since March.  This term is likely to very different for children, teachers and teaching assistants alike.  Everything Dinosaur has seen sales of its dinosaur-themed water bottle surge as parents, grandparents, guardians and carers prepared for the start of the new school year.  Children are encouraged to bring their own reusable water bottles and our tough, robust, dishwasher safe, plastic dinosaur water bottle with its large 500 millilitre capacity, has proved to be very popular with young dinosaur fans.

The Dinosaur Themed Water Bottle from Everything Dinosaur

A 500 ml capacity dinosaur water bottle.

The plastic dinosaur drinking bottle available from Everything Dinosaur (whilst stocks last).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

An Ideal Water Bottle for School

The plastic water bottle is ideal for school.  It is dishwater safe and very sturdy.  The bottle has a large screw-on lid making it easy for little ones to top up and a secure flip cap top to permit no-spill drinking.  Just what a budding, young palaeontologist needs to quench their thirst.  The colourful dinosaur design in the front features a trio of dinosaurs, a Tyrannosaurus rex, a long-necked, plant-eating dinosaur with some prehistoric plants and trees to munch and a fabulous Triceratops.  There are even a couple of terrific pterosaurs to keep the dinosaurs company.

A Colourful Triceratops Features on the Front of the Dinosaur Water Bottle

A colourful Triceratops illustration.

A colourful Triceratops adorns the dinosaur water bottle.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The water bottle has been made from BPA-free plastic (free from bisphenol A or any other bisphenol compounds.  It is impact resistant and exceptionally tough, helping to extend the useful life of water bottles, potentially reducing plastic waste.  This product has exceptional dishwasher durability, encouraging proper sanitation and helping to keep plastic surfaces clean and free from bacteria and viruses.  With a substantial 500 ml capacity the bottle is big enough to provide plenty of refreshment, but it is lighter than glass, making it easier to handle for small hands without the fear of breaking.

By using this refillable bottle, you have will have helped to reduce the plastic pollution threat to oceans.

At just £4.16 plus tax (if applicable) and postage, this colourful dinosaur themed drinking vessel makes a welcome addition to a young person’s rucksack or school bag.  Prices accurate on date of publication (September 2020).

The dinosaur water bottle can be found (whilst stocks last), on this section of Everything Dinosaur’s website: Dinosaur Themed School Items (Back to School).

10 09, 2020

New Papo Models Feature in Newsletter

By | September 10th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

New Papo Models Feature in an Everything Dinosaur Newsletter

New Papo models feature in the Everything Dinosaur early September newsletter including the controversial Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur model.  The Papo Giganotosaurus is very well made and distinctly Papo, however, its anatomically inaccurate stance and unusual body proportions have led to criticism from some prehistoric animal model collectors.  This substantial dinosaur model has certainly divided opinions.  Some collectors might regard it as a throwback to much earlier dinosaur sculpts but there is no denying the quality of the finish and the excellent detailing, especially those carefully created skin folds and scales.

The Papo Giganotosaurus Dinosaur Model Features in the Everything Dinosaur Newsletter

Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur model.

The new for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur model headlines the latest Everything Dinosaur customer newsletter.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Chilesaurus and the New Colour Variant Papo Parasaurolophus

Such has been the excitement and controversy over the introduction of the Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur model, that the other recently introduced Papo models have been somewhat overlooked by dinosaur model fans and collectors.  However, Everything Dinosaur team members were eager to make amends and include the Papo Chilesaurus and the new colour variant of the Papo Parasaurolophus model in the company’s newsletter too.

Making Waves of Their Own (Papo Chilesaurus and the Papo Parasaurolophus Models)

Papo dinosaurs feature in an Everything Dinosaur newsletter.

The new for 2020 Papo Chilesaurus and the recently introduced Papo Parasaurolophus colour variant feature in the latest edition of the Everything Dinosaur company newsletter.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To pick up a new for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus or any of the other Papo prehistoric animal models including the Parasaurolophus and the Chilesaurus: Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models.

A Popular Postosuchus and a Rare Bullyland Ichthyosaur

Everything Dinosaur had received a number of enquiries about the popular, recently introduced Schleich Postosuchus figure.  More stock of this replica of a Late Triassic predator had recently arrived and team members were keen to communicate this information to our subscribers.  In addition, there were just a few of the very rare and now out of production Bullyland Ichthyosaurus models still available.  This Ichthyosaurus figure had been officially retired around seven years ago, it was first omitted from the Bullyland brochure back in 2013.  We know how collectors like to acquire rare models, so we included a mention of the Bullyland Ichthyosaurus in our newsletter, helping our customers to avoid paying exorbitant prices for the same figure on auction sites.

Promoting a Popular Postosuchus and a Rare Bullyland Ichthyosaur

Prehistoric Postosuchus and the Bullyland Ichthyosaurus feature in Everything Dinosaur newsletter.

The popular Schleich Postosuchus model is back in stock and there are a few limited edition Bullyland Ichthyosaurus models still available.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

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8 09, 2020

Eternal Sleeping Dinosaur Discovery

By | September 8th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Changmiania liaoningensis A New Basal Ornithopod from Liaoning Province

A new species of basal ornithopod dinosaur has been named and described from Liaoning Province in north-eastern China.  The dinosaur has been named Changmiania liaoningensis which translates from the Chinese as “eternal sleeper from Liaoning”.  The researchers which include Pascal Godefroit of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences and Paul-Emile Dieudonné (Universidad Nacional de Río Negro, Argentina), in collaboration with colleagues from Jilin University and Shenyang Normal University (China), postulate that Changmiania lived in burrows.

The Holotype of Changmiania liaoningensis (PMOL AD00114) and a Life Reconstruction

Changmiania liaoningensis fossil material and life reconstruction.

The perfectly preserved holotype fossil of Changmiania liaoningensis with a life reconstruction.  The very nearly intact, articulated specimens suggest that the dinosaurs were entombed in their burrows during a volcanic eruption.

Picture Credit: Carine Ciselet

From the Lujiatun Beds of the Yixian Formation

The pair of beautifully preserved fossils, like so many vertebrate fossils from this part of the world were acquired from farmers.  Many locals supplement their incomes by finding and excavating specimens.  Whilst welcoming the opportunity to be able to study the material, palaeontologists are often frustrated by the lack of information available to them pertaining to the fossil’s location and how it was preserved (taphonomy).  However, it is thought that the fossils herald from the Lujiatun Beds (Yixian Formation) of western Liaoning Province.  These three-dimensional fossils were formed when these dinosaurs were entombed in pyroclastic material created by a volcanic eruption.  Numerous dinosaurs are known from the Lujiatun Beds including the dromaeosaurid Graciliraptor (G. lujiatunensis), the troodontid Mei long, the small tyrannosauroid Dilong paradoxus along with psittacosaurs, neoceratopsians and the ornithopod Jeholosaurus (J. shanyuensis).

Scientists have been able to accurately date the volcanic ash layer to approximately 123 million years ago, which means this diverse dinosaur biota lived during the early Aptian faunal stage of the Early Cretaceous.   The hot, volcanic debris that covered these two dinosaurs may have perfectly preserved most of the skeleton but any evidence of an integumentary covering such as feathers was destroyed as these animals met their fate whilst fast asleep in their burrows.  The resting dinosaurs having been caught up and consumed in a violent pyroclastic flow is the scenario tentatively proposed by the research team in the scientific paper published in PeerJ.

The Two Fossils of Changmiania liaoningensis

Views of the holotype and a referred specimen of Changmiania liaoningensis.

The holotype fossil (A) and a close view of the anterior portion of the holotype (B), with a second referred specimen of Changmiania liaoningensis (C).

Picture Credit: Yang et al (PeerJ)

A Basal Ornithopod

The little dinosaur measured approximately 1.2 metres long, the tail representing fifty percent of the animal’s total body length.  The extremely short neck, consisting of just six cervical vertebrae, the robust forelimbs and stocky shoulder blades suggest that this dinosaur might have dug burrows.  This idea is supported by the position of the fossil specimens and the morphology of the front of the skull, which may have assisted with shovelling dirt aside.  The long hindlimbs and tail indicate that Changmiania was a fast runner, able to avoid trouble whilst away from its underground den.

This is not the first time fossorial behaviour has been inferred for a dinosaur.  For example, in 2007 Everything Dinosaur wrote a short post about another potential burrowing ornithischian, another basal ornithopod that was named Oryctodromeus cubicularis, remains of which come from the sandstones of the Blackleaf Formation of Montana (USA): A Burrowing Dinosaur from Montana.

Changmiania lived at least 10 million years earlier than O. cubicularis.  A phylogenetic analysis places Changmiania liaoningensis as the most basal ornithopod dinosaur known to science.

The scientific paper: “A new basal ornithopod dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of China” by Yuqing Yang, Wenhao Wu, Paul-Emile Dieudonné and Pascal Godefroit​ published in PeerJ.

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