All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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22 07, 2020

PNSO “Wilson” T. rex Dinosaur Model Reviewed

By | July 22nd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|2 Comments

A Video Review of the new for 2020 PNSO “Wilson” T. rex Dinosaur Model

Everything Dinosaur team members have been busy in the studio producing a YouTube video review of the new for 2020 “Wilson” the Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur model from PNSO.  This new, free-standing replica replaces the original “Wilson” T. rex figure from PNSO and Everything Dinosaur took the opportunity to compare and contrast these two models.

Everything Dinosaur’s Video Review of “Wilson” the PNSO T. rex Dinosaur Model

Video credit: Everything Dinosaur

PNSO T. rex Wilson Video Review

In Everything Dinosaur’s short video review (the YouTube video lasts 9:43), the new 2020 Tyrannosaurus rex model is introduced and the articulated jaw is demonstrated and commented upon.  The beautifully detailed head of the theropod dinosaur is discussed and the bony crests over the eyes highlighted.  These crests may have served a variety of functions, helping to protect the eyes during intraspecific combat or whilst attacking prey, shading the eyes and helping T. rex to see in bright, sunny conditions and the potential role in visual communication.  The video narrator provides further information and explains some of the science behind the interpretation of the tyrannosaur skull morphology.

A Closer View of the Head of the New for 2020 PNSO “Wilson” T. rex Dinosaur Model

Highlighting the eye crests in the new PNSO T. rex figure

The new for 2020 PNSO “Wilson” T. rex dinosaur model has prominent eye crests which reflect skull morphology seen in the fossils.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view “Wilson” and all the other PNSO prehistoric animal figures available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Models and Figures.

Looking at the Packaging and Artwork

The video examines the dinosaur model in detail, but also provides information on how the packaging and box contents between the first “Wilson” figure produced by PNSO and this new version has changed.  The 2020 figure is presented in a beautiful box adorned with the artwork of Zhao Chuang one of the co-founders of PNSO.  The video also looks at the product leaflet that accompanies the model and comments on the contribution of Yang Yang, the other co-founder of this Chinese company.

The Box Art is Commented Upon in the Video Review

PNSO "Wilson" box art.

The new for 2020 “Wilson” T. rex dinosaur model box art.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Comparing the 2020 “Wilson” with the Original PNSO Model

The video review also permits Everything Dinosaur team members to compare the new figure from PNSO with the earlier Tyrannosaurus rex “Wilson” model, the figure that was supplied with a base.  In the video, we demonstrate how to convert the new for 2020 model so that it can be displayed on the base which was provided with version 1.

Comparing Two PNSO “Wilson” T. rex Dinosaur Figures in the Video Review

Comparing T. rex dinosaur models.

Comparing the new for 2020 PNSO “Wilson” T. rex dinosaur model to the original figure.  The original figure can be seen on the right of this screen capture from the video review.  The new for 2020 PNSO “Wilson” is shown on the left.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Subscribe to Everything Dinosaur on YouTube

This video review of a Tyrannosaurus rex figure is one of a series of videos posted on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel showcasing different replicas.  To view these videos check out our YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

We recommend that readers subscribe to Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

21 07, 2020

Preparing for the New CollectA Invertebrates

By | July 21st, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Preparing for the New CollectA Invertebrates

Everything Dinosaur team members are busy making space in their warehouse for the arrival of the new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animal models.  The new CollectA releases were exclusively revealed in a series of blog posts and YouTube videos in the autumn of 2019.  Unfortunately, the COVID-19 global pandemic has interrupted production plans and many new models and figures have been delayed.  In total, CollectA planned to introduce eighteen new replicas in 2020.  Everything Dinosaur was able to secure release and delivery of six figures earlier this year (1:6 scale Protoceratops, 1:40 scale Fukuisaurus, 1:40 scale Bajadasaurus, 1:6 scale Microraptor, Prehistoric Life Baryonyx and the rearing Diplodocus colour variant).

Six of the planned new figures are invertebrates, namely a nautilus, a horseshoe crab, a belemnite, an example of a straight-shelled nautiloid cephalopod – Orthoceras, an ammonite, specifically Pleuroceras and a replica of a large trilobite – Redlichia rex.  Everything Dinosaur team members are optimistic about having these superb figures in stock soon.

The New for 2020 CollectA Models (including Invertebrates) are on Their Way

CollectA Arthropods and Cephalopods new for 2020.

New CollectA Arthropods and Cephalopods.  Everything Dinosaur hopes to have in stock in the next few weeks (as of late July 2020), all six of the new for 2020 CollectA invertebrate figures.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Unfortunately, the planned release of many new for 2020 figures and replicas have been seriously compromised due to the global coronavirus pandemic.  The CollectA range has been affected too.  We are doing all we can to keep our customers informed and updated with regards to developments and we hope that these exciting figures, the remaining new prehistoric animals from CollectA, will be available from Everything Dinosaur in the very near future.”

CollectA and Everything Dinosaur Previewed the Extensive Range of New Figures in Late 2019

What a collection? The new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animals.

Some of the illustrations we used in our recent videos (autumn 2019), announcing the new for 2020 CollectA prehistoric animal models.  Some of the new models expected in 2020 from CollectA.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Preparing Fact Sheets for New Figures

As part of the company’s preparations as they anticipate the arrival of the new models, several new fact sheets have been added to the database.  In addition, scale drawing for a number of these new figures have been commissioned and completed.

An Orthocone/Orthoceras Scale Drawing an Early Design for the New Everything Dinosaur Fact Sheet

Orthocone/Orthoceras scale drawing.

An early scale drawing design for the Orthoceras/Orthocone fact sheet.  The straight-shelled nautiloids show an enormous variation in size with giants such as Cameraceras with a shell length of up to 10 metres and a total body length approaching 12 metres.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of CollectA Prehistoric Life figures available from Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Prehistoric Life Models and Figures.

To view the range of scale models (CollectA Deluxe range): CollectA Deluxe Scale Models of Prehistoric Animals.

14 07, 2020

Reviewing New PNSO Dinosaurs

By | July 14th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

New PNSO Dinosaurs Video Review

Everything Dinosaur has posted up a short video review of the two, new for 2020 PNSO young dinosaurs.  Our review focuses on Aaron the young T. rex and its counterpart figure, A-Qi the young Sinoceratops.  These PVC models arrived at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse a few days ago and team members were keen to post up a review as these baby dinosaur figures as they are very different from other PNSO prehistoric animals.

A Focus on Two Very Cute and Adorable PNSO Dinosaurs

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Focus on Aaron and A-Qi

The video review lasts four minutes and twenty four seconds.  It begins with an introduction and then the two figures are shown and compared.  Aaron the Tyrannosaurus rex model is highlighted first and the narrator comments that PNSO have taken great care to make the body proportions of their baby tyrannosaurid as scientifically accurate as possible.  The awkward-looking long hind limbs and the big feet are very reminiscent of a young bird and the colouration reminded the reviewer of the countershading associated with the Chinese compsognathid Sinosauropteryx.   To read more about this: Sinosauropteryx article.

Comparing the Two PNSO Models Together

PNSO young dinosaur models.

The pair of PNSO young dinosaur models that feature in Everything Dinosaur’s short video.  Aaron the young T. rex and A-Qi the young Sinoceratops.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The video goes on to provide an overview of the Sinoceratops figure (A-Qi), before highlighting the product leaflet that can be found in each box.

To purchase PNSO models and figures from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Models and Figures.

Photographs Taken by Fans of PNSO

The short video review also permitted team members to post up some of the amazing photographs sent into the company by fans of the PNSO model range.  Prior to the summary section, concluding the review, we were able to feature a few of the numerous photos that we had been sent by customers.  Our thanks to all those who gave us permission to use their images.

Two Very Photogenic Dinosaur Figures from PNSO

Sharing pictures of the two new for 2020 PNSO young dinosaur models.

Sharing customer photographs of the two new PNSO dinosaur figures.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Aaron and A-Qi are certainly two very photogenic dinosaur models.  We really do enjoy receiving these pictures and where possible we like to share photographs and images with our Facebook fans and Instagram followers.

The YouTube channel of Everything Dinosaur contains over 175 videos featuring lots of prehistoric animal models.  The company aims to post up at least one new video each week and our YouTube presence has already attracted thousands of followers and subscribers.

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel: Visit Everything Dinosaur on YouTube and Subscribe.

12 07, 2020

Deciding on the Scale for a Prehistoric Animal Model

By | July 12th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Deciding on the Scale for a Prehistoric Animal Model

Here is our eagerly awaited YouTube video which explains how the scale for a dinosaur model is decided.  We look at the pros and cons of the 1:40 scale declaration for dinosaur models.  Determining the scale for any given prehistoric animal can be tricky and our video helps to illustrate some of the factors that need to be considered.  Tyrannosaurus rex, Edmontosaurus, Ankylosaurus, Megalosaurus and lots of other prehistoric animal figures are featured.

Determining the Scale for a Prehistoric Animal Model

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Outlining the Pitfalls when it comes to Dinosaur Scale Models

In our video, (it lasts 12 minutes), we explain some of the difficulties that manufacturers have when it comes to determining the declared scale size for a dinosaur model.  We illustrate this point using the CollectA 1:40 scale roaring feathered T. rex figure and compare it to the much smaller, but still in the declared 1/40th scale, Natural History T. rex replica.

Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube Video Compares Two Popular Dinosaur Models

Two Tyrannosaurus rex models are compared.

Comparing the declared scales (both 1/40th scale), of two popular dinosaur models.  The CollectA roaring T. rex is in the foreground with the Natural History Museum T. rex model in the background.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The CollectA roaring, feathered T. rex figure measures around 34 cm long, whilst the Natural History Museum model, also in the declared 1:40 scale size, is actually smaller, measuring about 26 cm in length.  Our video explains some of the problems that can occur when deciding on a scale model size for any particular prehistoric animal and outlines some of the decisions taken by model makers when it comes to deciding the appropriate scale for a figure.

Most Dinosaurs are Only Known from Fragmentary Remains

Although amazing dinosaur skeletons and exhibits adorn the halls of museums all over the world, the majority of the Dinosauria have been scientifically described from limited fossil remains, often fragmentary specimens representing a single individual.  Estimating the adult size of a dinosaur based on this evidence is challenging.  Even in those genera where palaeontologists have a relative abundance of fossils to study, problems over determining the maximum possible size for a given species can occur.

Allosaurus and Stegosaurus are Well-known Dinosaurs with Numerous Fossil Specimens to Study

Stegosaurus and Allosaurus fossils.

Allosaurus and Stegosaurus fossil material.  Even with a relative abundance of fossils to study, determining the size of an adult dinosaur and subsequently calculating the scale of any dinosaur model is a challenge.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Indeterminate Growth Complicates the Issue

Non-avian dinosaurs, as members of the Class Reptilia may have exhibited a biological phenomenon called “indeterminate growth”.  When a dinosaur reached adult size, its growth slowed down but it did not stop.  A section of our video explains the impact of indeterminate growth when it comes to determining the size of any dinosaur scale model.

For Example:

A sauropod reaches an adult size of 12 metres long, but it goes on to live for a further sixty years and over that time it grows at an average of just ten centimetres per year.  By the time it dies some six decades later, it is 60 x 10 cm longer (six metres) with a total body length of 18 metres.  It is fifty percent longer than when it first reached adult size.

The Effect of Indeterminate Growth on Dinosaur Body Size

Estimating the size of dinosaurs.

How indeterminate growth effects the estimation of dinosaur size.  If the size of an adult dinosaur remains uncertain, it can be difficult to assign a scale size to a scale model of that animal.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur’s examination of how scale sizes for prehistoric animals is calculated is just one of over 170 different videos on the company’s YouTube channel.

For dinosaur and prehistoric animal related videos and reviews: Subscribe to Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

11 07, 2020

New PNSO Models Feature in Newsletter

By | July 11th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|1 Comment

Wilson, Aaron and A-Qi Make Their Debuts in Everything Dinosaur Newsletter

The first Everything Dinosaur newsletter for July featured some old and new friends.  Our shipment of PNSO prehistoric animal figures had arrived so we were able to feature the new Tyrannosaurus rex colour variant “Wilson” along with the new pair of young dinosaur figures – Aaron and A-Qi.  In addition, the shipment contained several lines that had been out of stock, including the Giganotosaurus, the Amargasaurus and the Eurhinosaurus models.

A Headline Act – “Wilson” the New Colour Variant T. rex Model Features in the Everything Dinosaur July Newsletter

PNSO Wilson in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

The new Wilson T. rex dinosaur model from PNSO is in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Two Young Dinosaur Models

Our newsletter also trumpeted the arrival of two new figures from PNSO.  Aaron the young T. rex and A-Qi the adorable young Sinoceratops.  These two figures are the only new models to be released by PNSO this year, as far as we at Everything Dinosaur are aware.  In our regular conversations with PNSO, we have been informed that although the company has plans to release more new models in the future, it is unlikely that they will be bringing out anything else until after Christmas.  Naturally, should the position at PNSO change, we shall make sure that we inform all our fans and followers.

Two New PNSO Models in Stock Aaron the Young T. rex and A-Qi the Young Sinoceratops

Aaron the young T. rex and A-Qi the young Sinoceratops.

Two young dinosaurs from Everything Dinosaur.  Aaron the young T. rex (left) and the very cute A-Qi the young Sinoceratops (right).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the new PNSO prehistoric animal figures and to check out what else has arrived at Everything Dinosaur from PNSO: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

The Return of Some Favourites

Lots of old PNSO favourites are back in stock at Everything Dinosaur too.  All the waitlists have been activated for the PNSO products.  Customers wanting to know about the arrival of “Lucas” the Giganotosaurus, “Er-ma” the Mamenchisaurus and “Nick” the Ceratosaurus have received priority emails to help them keep informed of product developments.  Customers on our newsletter subscription database were also informed swiftly.

The 1:35 scale Giganotosaurus and “Duke” the Stunning Spinops are in Stock at Everything Dinosaur

 

"Lucas" and "Duke" from PNSO.

“Lucas” the Giganotosaurus and “Duke” the Spinops.  Both these PNSO models are now back in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

 

“Levy” the PNSO Eurhinosaurus and Lots of Other Models Available

Prehistoric animal models from PNSO.

PNSO prehistoric animal models.  Lots of PNSO products are back in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Eurhinosaurus Swims into View

The amazing “Levy” a beautiful model of a marine reptile (ichthyosaur), is also available along with both C. megalodon figures and “Sede” the Ankylosaurus.  There is also a limited supply of “Essien” the 1:35 scale Spinosaurus available too.

The Magnificent PNSO Spinosaurus Figure – “Essien”

PNSO Spinosaurus model "Essien".

The PNSO Spinosaurus measures around 49 cm long.  It’s a fantastic model of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Subscribe to Everything Dinosaur’s Newsletters

Subscribing to Everything Dinosaur’s newsletters is really easy, to get updates, information about new releases, dinosaur discoveries and fossil news, just drop us an email.

To request to join the Everything Dinosaur newsletter subscribers list just email: Email Everything Dinosaur.

6 07, 2020

“Dinosaurs How they lived and evolved” Book Review

By | July 6th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Book Reviews, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A Review of “Dinosaurs How they lived and evolved”

Time to sink our teeth into “Dinosaurs – how they lived and evolved”, the second edition of this comprehensive account of the Dinosauria written by Darren Naish and Paul  M. Barrett.  This book was first published four years ago but this is a much revised edition with a soft cover.  Conveniently split into six broad chapters, it is aimed at the general reader as well as the dedicated dinosaur enthusiast and student of the Earth Sciences.  The authors possess a rare gift, sadly often lacking in other science communicators, that is, the ability to convey complex ideas and information in an entertaining and coherent manner.

The text is supported by a small glossary, a section directing the reader to further sources of information and a comprehensive index.  In addition, the carefully selected illustrations, diagrams, stunning photographs and artwork help to acquaint the reader with new ideas and developments in vertebrate palaeontology.

The Front Cover of “Dinosaurs How They Lived and Evolved”

The front cover of the dinosaur book.

The front cover of the revised and updated second edition of “Dinosaurs How they lived and evolved” by Darren Naish and Paul. M. Barrett.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

What’s New in this Edition?

Originally published in 2016, this second edition is described by the publishers as a “fully revised and updated version”, suffice to say this expression probably undersells this new edition somewhat.  Such is the nature of palaeontology that our knowledge of the Dinosauria is constantly changing, new ideas are being put forward and long established mindsets challenged.  This publication updates the general reader and incorporates some substantial changes.  There’s much more to this book than just a new cover!  Although we have to congratulate the authors for selecting renowned palaeoartist Bob Nicholls and his interpretation of the Chinese heterodontosaurid Tianyulong, it is an inspired choice (see above).  This stunning artwork dramatically sums up how what we know about dinosaurs has changed and the way in which these “fearfully great lizards” are depicted.

In the second edition a number of images have been changed and several of the simplified cladograms have been revised to incorporate new research.

For example, in Chapter 2 “The Dinosaur Family Tree” this chapter has been rewritten and includes the controversial reassessment of the Dinosauria by Baron et al that was published in 2017.

To read more about the scientific paper: Root and Branch Reform of the Dinosaur Family Tree.

Many new taxa are included with illustrations and the sections covering the origin of birds and their relationships within the Maniraptora have been revised and updated.

Simple, Easy to Understand Diagrams

Ornithopoda cladogram.

Simplified cladograms provide information and many have been updated to reflect new research.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Beautiful Photographs of Famous Museum Exhibits

Throughout this beautifully illustrated publication there are lots of full colour photographs of famous dinosaur fossils and museum exhibits to enjoy.  Credit to the authors for concluding this excellent book with a final chapter that not only details the mass extinction event that marks the end of the Mesozoic but looks at how the Aves faired during this period of dramatic turmoil and their continuance of the theropod line into modern times.

The Book Features Detailed Images of Iconic Dinosaur Fossils and Museum Exhibits

Coelophysis dinosaur fossil.

The book contains beautiful photographs of some of the most iconic dinosaur fossils.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

This dinosaur book is highly recommended.

5 07, 2020

Preparing for Chilesaurus

By | July 5th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Preparing for Chilesaurus

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have been busy making plans for the arrival of the Papo Chilesaurus dinosaur model.  The COVID-19 pandemic severely disrupted the production plans of Papo and Chilesaurus, although not planned to be one of the first new for 2020 model releases, it now looks like Chilesaurus will be coming into stock at Everything Dinosaur before the Stygimoloch and the Megaloceros figures.

The Chilesaurus Scale Drawing Commissioned by Everything Dinosaur

Chilesaurus scale drawing.

A scale drawing of the bizarre Late Jurassic dinosaur Chilesaurus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Chilesaurus and the controversial Giganotosaurus are due to arrive first, with the Stygimoloch following a few weeks later. The new Papo Parasaurolophus and feathered Velociraptor colour variants are now scheduled for an early autumn release, although we do stress, that this itinerary is liable to change.

To view the range of Papo dinosaurs and prehistoric animal figures available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Figures.

The First Jurassic Body Fossils Known from Chile

Although several dinosaur tracks and footprints that date from the Jurassic have been found in Chile, when the first fossils of Chilesaurus were discovered by a seven-year-old boy on the 4th of February 2004, these were the first dinosaur body fossils to have been found in Chile.

A Fossilised Jaw with Strange Square-shaped Tooth Tips

The fossilised jaw of Chilesaurus.

Teeth adapted for cropping plants.  A partial jawbone attributed to Chilesaurus diegosuarezi.

Picture Credit: Dr Fernando Novas (Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales (Buenos Aires, Argentina)

This bizarre dinosaur, when first formally named and described (2015), was regarded as a tetanuran theropod.  The tetanurans are the largest clade of theropod dinosaurs and include all members of the Theropoda more closely related to modern birds than they are to Ceratosaurus.  Chilesaurus demonstrated a highly unusual combination of anatomical characteristics that could be interpreted within phylogenetic studies in numerous ways, depending on the data set used.  Following a controversial scientific paper published in 2017 entitled  “A New Hypothesis of Dinosaur Relationships and Early Dinosaur Evolution”, written by Matthew Baron and David Norman (Cambridge University) along with Paul M. Barrett (London Natural History Museum), this little biped has taken up a prominent position within Dinosauria research.

A paper published a few months after the controversial publication that challenged the traditional view of dinosaur classification, suggested that Chilesaurus with its strange suite of features, was not a theropod at all.  It was suggested that it was the earliest diverging member of the Ornithischia.  It was proposed that Chilesaurus was a “transitional taxon”, bridging the morphological gap between the Theropoda and the Ornithischia.

This little, unassuming dinosaur might just prove to be one of the most significant dinosaur discoveries of the 21st Century.

The Papo Chilesaurus Dinosaur Model

Papo Chilesaurus dinosaur model.

The Papo Chilesaurus dinosaur model (available in the next few weeks from Everything Dinosaur).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

4 07, 2020

Looking at Scale Model Dinosaurs

By | July 4th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Looking at the Declared Scale for Prehistoric Animal Models

As collectors, we may be very familiar with many different product lines having a declared scale of 1:40 for dinosaur figures and a scale of 1:20 for prehistoric mammals such as Woolly Mammoths and Sabre-toothed cats, but not all manufacturers use these scales.  Even if two dinosaur models from two different manufacturers are in 1:40 scale, this does not necessarily mean that these models are going to be the same size.

The Manufacturer CollectA Declares a Variety of Scale Sizes for its Prehistoric Animal Models

CollectA scale models of prehistoric animals.

Many model manufacturers declare a scale for their prehistoric animal figures.  What do these scales mean?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

What Do These Declared Scales Mean?

Everything Dinosaur team members have been busy working on a short YouTube video that looks at how model manufacturers use varies scales in relation to their prehistoric animal replicas.  In this video, we intend to explain how scale sizes are calculated and we urge caution when looking at any declared scale for a given prehistoric animal figure.  A myriad of declared scales are used.  For example, the Bullyland “Museum Line” range has a declared scale of 1:30, whereas Rebor and PNSO tend to use 1:35 scale, especially for some of their larger models.  Papo in contrast, tend not to declare a scale for their “Les Dinosaures” at all.

Even when manufacturers claim the same scale for their figures, the actual models within those ranges can be very different sizes.

In our informative video, scheduled to be around twelve minutes long, we explore this theme and compare the 1:40 scale Natural History Museum Tyrannosaurus rex model with the CollectA Deluxe roaring, feathered T. rex which also has a declared scale of 1:40.

The London Natural History Museum T. rex Figure is Compared to the CollectA Roaring, Feathered T. rex Model

Comparing dinosaur models.

Comparing T. rex dinosaur models.  Although both the CollectA roaring, feathered T. rex and the Natural History Museum T. rex are in 1:40 scale, these models are different sizes.  The Natural History Museum T. rex figure is on the left, whilst the CollectA model is shown on the right.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Our YouTube video looking at how the scale for dinosaur and prehistoric animal models is calculated, aims to help collectors to appreciate some of the difficulties behind working out just how big some dinosaurs were.  If palaeontologists are uncertain as to just how big a dinosaur could grow, then it is very challenging for a model manufacturer to accurately scale a figure.  The manufacturer has to consider other factors too and we outline some of the issues that need to be considered before deciding how big to make a prehistoric animal model.”

Everything Dinosaur on YouTube

The YouTube channel of Everything Dinosaur was started nearly ten years ago.  It aims to provide product reviews, hints and tips as well as useful and informative videos to help model collectors make the most of their prehistoric animal collections.

The Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel has over 170 dinosaur and prehistoric animal related videos and reviews: Subscribe to Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

3 07, 2020

Preparing for Sinoceratops

By | July 3rd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Preparing for Sinoceratops

Everything Dinosaur is expecting its latest shipment of PNSO products to arrive at the company’s warehouse in the next few days.  The products have cleared customs and inspection and team members are awaiting to hear the scheduled time of delivery from the transport company.  The two new for 2020 baby dinosaur figures (young T. rex and the young Sinoceratops), will be in stock very soon at Everything Dinosaur.

A-Qi the Baby Sinoceratops Figure from PNSO

PNSO baby Sinoceratops dinosaur model.

A-Qi the baby Sinoceratops model (PNSO).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

PNSO Aaron the Baby T. rex Dinosaur Model

Aaron the baby T. rex dinosaur model (PNSO).

Aaron the baby Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur model (PNSO).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Sinoceratops Fact Sheet

Just like the vast majority of prehistoric animal models that Everything Dinosaur supplies, we intend to provide a free Sinoceratops fact sheet with the PNSO A-Qi Sinoceratops figure.  Our team members have been busy preparing for the arrival of the PNSO figures by researching and writing a fact sheet on the only undisputed ceratopsid known from Asia – Sinoceratops zhuchengensis.  Just where within the Ceratopsidae family of horned dinosaurs does Sinoceratops fit remains uncertain.  Although classified as a member of the Centrosaurinae, it shares a number of anatomical traits with the chasmosaurs too.  At around six metres in length and weighing two tonnes, it is much larger than other basal centrosaurines, more the size of some of the earliest members of the Chasmosaurinae such as Utahceratops (U. gettyi) from Utah and the geologically older Judiceratops (J. tigris) from Montana.

The Scale Drawing of Sinoceratops (S. zhuchengensis) Prepared for the Everything Dinosaur Fact Sheet

Sinoceratops scale drawing.

Sinoceratops scale drawing prepared for the Everything Dinosaur fact sheet.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Splitting the Ceratopsidae – Chasmosaurs and Centrosaurs

The Ceratopsidae family of horned dinosaurs is further divided into two broad sub-families, the Chasmosaurinae and the Centrosaurinae.  In general terms, chasmosaurs are distinguished by their long brow horns with reduced nose horns and tall neck frills.  The centrosaurs, in contrast, have large nose horns, reduced brow horns and smaller neck frills.  As more and more horned dinosaurs have been discovered and described including basal members of each sub-family, this rather simplified approach has fallen out of favour, the anatomical traits between the Chasmosaurinae and the Centrosaurinae becoming somewhat blurred.

Simplified Illustration Defining Ceratopsid Sub-families

Chamosaurine compared to centrosaurine.

A simplified comparison between the Chasmosaurinae and the Centrosaurinae.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

In the scientific paper describing Sinoceratops (Xu Xing et al 2010), the authors commented that the Sinoceratops taxon was considerably larger than most other centrosaurines but similar in size to basal chasmosaurines.  In addition, the researchers stated that Sinoceratops is more similar to chasmosaurines than to other centrosaurines in several features, thus blurring the distinction of the two ceratopsid subgroups.

The discovery of the first member of the ceratopsids known from outside North America provided significant information on the morphological transition from non-ceratopsid to ceratopsid dinosaurs, but also complicated the biogeography of the Ceratopsidae family as a whole.

1 07, 2020

Guineafowl Contribute to a Better Understanding of Early Jurassic Dinosaur Tracks

By | July 1st, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Guineafowl – Walking Like Dinosaurs

Researchers from Brown University (Rhode Island, USA) and Liverpool John Moores University, have plotted the tracks made by living birds in a bid to reveal new information about how some of the early theropod dinosaurs walked.  In a paper, published today in Biology Letters, the scientists describe how they analysed the locomotion of guineafowl (Order Galliformes) and discovered that dinosaurs may have moved in a similar way, despite the absence of a long, counter-balancing tail in modern Aves.

A X-ray Imagery was Used to Map the Movement of Bones in the Foot of Guineafowl

Modern birds help to interpret dinosaur tracks.

Plotting the foot movements of extant Guineafowl to help interpret Early Jurassic dinosaur footprints.

Picture Credit: Turner et al/Liverpool John Moores University

Retaining Features of Their Non-avian Dinosaur Ancestors

The researchers used X-rays to image and plot the bird tracks in three-dimensions, as the guineafowl walked through a variety of substrates with different properties.  The feet of ground-dwelling birds retain many features of their dinosaurian ancestors, after all, living birds are members of the Order Theropoda along with famous dinosaurs such as Velociraptor and Tyrannosaurus rex.  The locomotion of the guineafowl permits insights into the complex interplay between anatomy, foot motion (kinematics) and substrate.  The results can then be used to assess the tracks made by dinosaurs.

Studying Avian Dinosaur Tracks Provides a Fresh Perspective on Ancient Non-avian Dinosaur Fossil Tracks

Dinosaur footprint.

A dinosaur footprint from the Isle of Skye.  This new study can shed light on ancient dinosaur trackways.

Picture Credit: Scottish National Heritage

A Looping Pattern Below the Ground Identified

Despite substantial step-to-step variability, the foot consistently moves in a looping pattern below the ground, matching the “looping motion” of dinosaur feet captured in the fossil record from the Early Jurassic.

One of the scientific paper’s authors, Dr Peter Falkingham, a senior lecturer in vertebrate biology at Liverpool John Moores University stated:

“Dinosaurs were moving in very similar ways to modern birds even 200 million years- ago (many millions of years before birds evolved), even though they were quite different, having long, muscular tails, for instance.  The similarity of motion, and the similarity of foot shape (three-toed) between dinosaurs 200 million years ago and birds today tells us how successful and versatile that foot has been evolutionarily.”

A Lateral View Showing the Foot Movement and the Looping Pattern of the Toes

The consistant looping pattern.

Plotting the movement of digit III through a variety of substrates revealing the consistent looping pattern identified below the ground.

Picture Credit: Turner et al/Liverpool John Moores University

The scientists report that when a foot sinks into the sediment, a) the sub-surface motion gets recorded and b) the foot has to get out again.  Where it exits relative to where it went in can tell us how the foot was moving.  Despite substantial kinematic variation, the foot consistently moves in a looping pattern below ground.  As the foot sinks and then withdraws, the claws of the three main toes create entry and exit paths in different locations.  Sampling these paths at incremental horizons captures two-dimensional features just as fossil tracks do, allowing depth-based zones to be characterised by the presence and relative position of digit impressions.

Analysis of Early Jurassic Theropod Tracks

Analysis of Early Jurassic dinosaur tracks.

Exit features and depth zone attribution in Early Jurassic theropod fossil tracks.

Picture Credit: Turner et al/Liverpool John Moores University

When the fossilised tracks of a small, theropod dinosaur were examined, the scientists found an equivalent looping response to soft substrates.  This study, comparing extant and extinct track-makers provides important new data on substrate properties and will assist with the interpretation of dinosaur tracks providing a fresh perspective on these important trace fossils.

This paper provides a new theoretical framework and vocabulary for describing relative positions of entry and exit traces, offering a new way of studying fossil footprints.

For a related article where researchers from Brown University in collaboration with international colleagues conducted earlier research on dinosaur footprints using guineafowl: Walking with Dinosaurs – the Birth of a Dinosaur Footprint.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of Liverpool John Moores University in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “It’s in the loop: shared sub-surface foot kinematics in birds and other dinosaurs shed light on a new dimension of fossil track diversity” by Morgan L. Turner, Peter L. Falkingham and Stephen M. Gatesy published in Biology Letters.

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