All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
/Adobe CS5

Everything Dinosaur’s work with photoshop and other platforms.

24 02, 2020

Everything Dinosaur will be Stocking the Wild Past Protoceratops Model

By | February 24th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur will be Stocking the Wild Past Protoceratops Dinosaur Model

Everything Dinosaur will be stocking the Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model, the first dinosaur figure to be introduced in this exciting range.  Stock is due to arrive at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse in just a couple of weeks or so and a reserve list for this limited production run model has now been opened.

Everything Dinosaur will be Stocking the New for 2020 Wild Past Protoceratops Dinosaur Model

Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model.

The new for 2020 Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model will be stocked by Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A New 1:35 Scale Replica of Protoceratops andrewsi

The carefully crafted Protoceratops replica is the first model to be introduced in the Wild Past range, this is quite appropriate as the genus name translates from the Greek as “first horn face”.  Two species are placed within this genus, Protoceratops andrewsi, which was named and described in back in 1923 and the larger Protoceratops hellenikorhinus, known from the Bayan Mandahu Formation of Inner Mongolia (China), which was named and described in 2001.

Arguably, Protoceratops is one of the most important dinosaurs ever discovered.  Hundreds of fossil specimens have been found ranging in size from embryos to fully mature and elderly adults.  In some sites, Protoceratops andrewsi fossil material represents around three-quarters of all the vertebrate fossil material associated with that location.

The Wild Past Protoceratops Dinosaur Model

The Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model.

Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model what a “hand”some figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

When American palaeontologists William King Gregory and Walter Granger (American Museum of Natural History, New York), produced the first scientific description (1923), they commented on the remarkable number of fossils found, including complete skulls representing small juveniles to large adults.  Some of these skulls depicting the growth stages of Protoceratops were put on display at the Museum and as far as Everything Dinosaur team members are aware, the exhibit is still there.

The Wild Past Protoceratops and Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model available from Everything Dinosaur.

Everything Dinosaur will be stocking the new for 2020 Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Past Protoceratops Complete with a Nest of Dinosaur Eggs

Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model complete with a nest of dinosaur eggs.

Wild Past Protoceratops model with nest.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Small Production Run

It is official, Everything Dinosaur will be stocking the new Protoceratops in the Wild Past range.  The production run for this exciting new replica, complete with a nest of dinosaur eggs, is small, but stock will be available from Everything Dinosaur in just a couple of weeks (as of end February 2020).

The Wild Past Protoceratops will cost £11.99 including tax (if applicable) plus P+P.

To join our priority reserve list for this fantastic figure: Email Everything Dinosaur to Reserve the Wild Past Protoceratops.

18 02, 2020

In Praise of a Polish Giant – Lisowicia bojani

By | February 18th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

CollectA and a Prehistoric Giant from Poland – Lisowicia bojani

To celebrate the production of the CollectA Deluxe 1:20 scale model of Lisowicia bojani, a prehistoric animal from Poland, Everything Dinosaur has prepared a special blog post in Polish for all our Polish customers and friends.

Those clever and talented people at CollectA have created the biggest dinosaur line in the world, but they don’t just make models of dinosaurs, there are lots of other prehistoric animals too and later on this year (mid 2020), Polish model collectors will be able to get their hands on their very own Polish prehistoric animal model.  A figure that represents one of the most important discoveries made in Europe by vertebrate palaeontologists this century.

CollectA will be introducing a 1:20 scale replica of Lisowicia bojani, a giant herbivore that roamed Silesia, southern Poland, more than 200 million years ago.

A Photograph of One of the Production Figures of the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani Model

CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani.

The CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani 1:20 scale model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Late Triassic Dicynodont

A clay pit (the Lipie Śląskie clay pit), close to the village of Lisowice, has provided scientists with thousands of fossil bones to study.  The fossils represent a wide variety of vertebrates including predatory dinosaurs, pterosaurs and large amphibians that once lived in a low-lying, wetland environment.  Polish scientists have played a prominent role in excavating the site and describing the fossil discoveries.  When giant limb bones were unearthed, researchers thought that they had found the remains of a long-necked, plant-eating dinosaur (sauropod), but it was soon realised that these colossal and robust bones came from an enormous dicynodont (die-sigh-no-dont), an animal more closely related to us (Homo sapiens), than to any dinosaur!

The CollectA Deluxe 1:20 Scale Lisowicia bojani Model

Lisowicia bojani model (CollectA Deluxe).

CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani model.  Like most dicynodonts, Lisowicia was toothless and it had a large beak for cropping vegetation.  The articulated jaw on the CollectA Deluxe model helps to show these features.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Defining Dicynodonts

Dicynodonts are a group of extinct quadrupeds which are distantly related to modern mammals.  They first evolved in the Permian geological period, more than 70 different genera have been named and described.  Although the strata in which the fossils of Lisowicia were found have proved very difficult to date, they could be at least 10 million years younger than any previously described dicynodont fossil material known to science.

Not only was Lisowicia one of the last dicynodonts to have roamed our planet, it was by far the biggest.  Scientists have estimated that Lisowicia measured 4.5 metres long and had a hip height in excess of 2 metres.  Lisowicia is believed to have been at least 40% bigger than any other known dicynodont.  Intriguingly, this elephant-sized animal was the largest animal known from the Late Triassic of Poland, and to date, no fossils of big, plant-eating dinosaurs have been found in this part of Europe, although their fossils have been found in similarly aged rocks elsewhere.

A Geological Ruler Helps to Show the Size of the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia Model

The CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani model.

The ruler helps to show the size of the CollectA Lisowicia model.  The CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia measures just under 20 cm long.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Formally named and described in 2018, the genus name honours the Polish village of Lisowice, whilst the species name honours the German-born comparative anatomist Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“It is great to have a model of a Polish prehistoric animal such as Lisowicia bojani added to the CollectA Deluxe model range.  We are sure that collectors in Poland are going to be delighted with this new replica, the beautiful and very detailed model depicts an extinct, giant dicynodont that is known only from Poland.  It is a model of an animal that was a large as an elephant, a long extinct creature that has helped palaeontologists to better understand Late Triassic ecosystems of Europe.”

To view the range of CollectA Deluxe prehistoric animals and dinosaurs available from Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life.

17 02, 2020

New Papo Prehistoric Animal Model Measurements (Part 2)

By | February 17th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

New Papo Prehistoric Animal Model Measurements (Part 2)

Everything Dinosaur recently published the official measurements for two of the brand new prehistoric animal models from Papo.  Today, we conclude our blog posts in relation to the measurement of the brand new Papo figures and our comments on scaling these figures by publishing the official measurements for the Papo Stygimoloch dinosaur model and the Papo Megaloceros.

Whilst Papo may not produce scale models of prehistoric animals, we know how keen dinosaur fans and model collectors are for any guidance as to the approximate scale of a replica.  To this end we have put together this short blog posts that concludes our foray into this area.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s earlier post about the Papo Chilesaurus and the Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur models: New Papo Prehistoric Animal Model Measurements (Part 1).

The Official Model Measurements for the New Papo Stygimoloch Dinosaur Model

Official measurements for the new for 2020 Papo Stygimoloch dinosaur model.

The official measurements for the new for 2020 Papo Stygimoloch dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Stygimoloch – Tale of the Tape

Everything Dinosaur has been informed that this new model stands around eight centimetres tall and that it is approximately seven centimetres in length.  Calculating the scale for this pachycephalosaur (bone-headed) dinosaur is a little tricky, as most palaeontologists believe the fossils ascribed to Stygimoloch (S. spirifer), actually represent, juvenile, immature specimens of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis.

Dracorex (D. hogwartsia) and Stygimoloch (S. spirifer) are regarded as “nomina dubia”, that is to say, that the validity of both these two genera are now in doubt.

The reasons for the uncertainty of the Dracorex and Stygimoloch taxa can be summarised as follows:

  • In 2007, at the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), palaeontologist John R. Horner (Jack Horner), presented evidence that the holotype Dracorex specimen might represent Stygimoloch.  He further proposed that Dracorex and Stygimoloch represented juvenile or possible female P. wyomingensis specimens.
  • In 2009, Horner in collaboration with Mark Goodwin, published further evidence suggesting that the cranial spikes and bumps on the skulls of these three dinosaurs showed considerable variation but within a range expected for a single species.  In addition, they concluded that whilst P. wyomingensis was known from adult specimens, both Dracorex and Stygimoloch fossil material represent juveniles.  As all three “species” are known from the Hell Creek Formation, then all the pachycephalosaur fossils could be associated with a single genus.  As these types of dinosaurs grew and matured they lost their spikes and developed thick, dome-shaped skulls.
  •  More recently, other scientific papers have been published that conclude that the so-called “unique” characteristics of Stygimoloch and Dracorex are morphologically consistent traits that would be expected if a Pachycephalosaurus growth curve was plotted.

Calculating the Scale for the Papo Stygimoloch Model

If it is proposed that Stygimoloch represents a juvenile specimen of Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis, then what growth stage does this model represent?  If we assume that the Papo figure represents a half-grown animal, then we can speculate that the body length would be around two to three metres.  Based on these assumptions, a model that is seven centimetres long would be in scale 1:28.5 for a two-metre-long animal or approximately 1:42 scale for a three-metre-long animal.

One of the Prototype Production Models (Papo Stygimoloch)

Papo Stygimoloch model.

A view of one of the production prototypes of the Papo Stygimoloch dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Official Model Measurements for the Papo Megaloceros Model

Official measurements for the new for 2020 Papo Megaloceros prehistoric animal model.

The official measurements for the new for 2020 Papo Megaloceros prehistoric animal model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Megaloceros Model – Tale of the Tape

The Papo Megaloceros model is the only non-dinosaur figure to be introduced by Papo in 2020.  The information received by Everything Dinosaur indicates that this figure will measure some 16 centimetres in length, stand around 6 cm high at the shoulders with an overall height of 13.5 cm.  When all the new Papo figures are in stock, Everything Dinosaur team members will carefully measure each model and publish the details in the “additional information” section of the relevant product pages.

If it is assumed that this figure represents an example of the largest species of Megaloceros (M. giganteus), then with the type species having an estimated body length of 3.2 metres this figure could be in 1:20 scale.

A Papo Megalosaurus Figure on Display

Spotted a Papo Megaloceros model on display.

A pre-production Papo Megaloceros model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Delays in Production due to the COVID-19 Outbreak

As Papo’s production is based in China, the company is currently experiencing difficulties scheduling manufacturing due to the continuing COVID-19 (Coronavirus) outbreak.  Everything Dinosaur will keep social media followers and our blog readers informed of developments and when more information becomes available regarding the availability of these models, we will publish it.

To see the range of Papo dinosaurs and prehistoric animal models in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models.

16 02, 2020

New Papo Prehistoric Animal Model Measurements (Part 1)

By | February 16th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Official Measurements for the Papo Chilesaurus and the Papo Giganotosaurus Models

Everything Dinosaur has published details of the official measurements for the four, brand new prehistoric animal figures expected later in the year from Papo.  In today’s blog post, we will provide information on the Chilesaurus and Giganotosaurus figures, a second post will follow which will provide measurement details of the other new dinosaur replica (Stygimoloch) as well as the eagerly anticipated Papo Megaloceros.

Although Papo does not produce scale models, our team members have provided an approximation of scale for each of these figures in order to assist dinosaur fans and collectors with their prehistoric animal collections.

The Official Model Measurements for the Papo Chilesaurus Model

Official measurements for the new for 2020 Papo Chilesaurus dinosaur model.

The official measurements for the new for 2020 Papo Chilesaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Chilesaurus – Tale of the Tape

The Papo Chilesaurus figure measures around fifteen centimetres in length and the tail is approximately eight centimetres off the ground.

A Photograph of One of the Production Figures (Papo Chilesaurus)

Papo Chilesaurus dinosaur model (new for 2020).

The New for 2020 Papo Chilesaurus dinosaur model (the pen helps to show the size of this replica).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

With an estimated adult animal total length of 3 to 3.2 metres, Everything Dinosaur team members estimate that this figure is in approximately 1:20 to 1:22 scale.

The Official Measurements for the New for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus Dinosaur Model

Official measurements for the new for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur model.

The official measurements for the new for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Papo Giganotosaurus Dinosaur Model

The official measurements for the Giganotosaurus model are length eighteen centimetres, with an overall height of twenty centimetres.  The unorthodox pose of this figure makes an assessment of scale quite a challenge for this particular model.  However, if we apply the Pythagoras theorem which states that the square of the length of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of squares of the lengths of other two sides of a right-angled triangle, (a² + b² = c²), we can approximate the length of the head, body and tail if the model was put in a more anatomically correct pose.

By drawing a right-angled triangle over the body plan of the figure, an approximation for the length of the head, body and the tail can be calculated.

Team members calculated the length of the hypotenuse to be approximately 27 cm, which, when compared to the estimated length of the adult dinosaur at around 13.2 metres, equates to a 1:48 scale figure.

Estimating the Scale of the Papo Giganotosaurus Figure

Estimating the approximate scale of the new for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur model using the Pythagoras theorem.

Estimating the approximate scale of the new for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur model using Pythagorean theorem.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Production Delays due to COVID-19 Outbreak

Due to the Coronavirus outbreak in China, there has been an unavoidable delay on the production of these new Papo models.  Everything Dinosaur will, of course, keep our blog readers and social media followers updated and provide further information as and when we receive it.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Whilst there is a lot of uncertainty with regards to the production of the new models and figures, Everything Dinosaur has built up considerable stock of Papo models and we are confident that the vast majority of the Papo figures, including some quite rare and retired replicas will still be available from us for a considerable time to come.  If a model should be temporarily unavailable, customers always have the option to join a waitlist.  As and when we receive updates on Papo prehistoric animal production, we will provide this information to our social media followers and blog post readers.”

To view the range of Papo prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models.

14 02, 2020

Win, Win Win with Everything Dinosaur

By | February 14th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|5 Comments

Fantastic Mojo Fun Models Giveaway

WIN! WIN! WIN! with Everything Dinosaur!

Everything Dinosaur has teamed up with those clever, creative people at Mojo Fun and to celebrate the roll out of the new for 2020 Mojo Fun dinosaurs, Everything Dinosaur is giving away two very special Mandschurosaurus models.

We have one of the production models for the new Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus, the one that collectors will find in the new Mojo Fun 2020 catalogue AND a second Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus, the original prototype figure, one with a different colour scheme.

A Pair of Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus Dinosaur Models to Give Away

Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus dinosaur models.

Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus dinosaur model giveaway.  A pair of Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus dinosaur models to give away- courtesy of Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Win the two marvellous Mandschurosaurus models in Everything Dinosaur’s Competition.

All you have to do is “Like” Everything Dinosaur’s FACEBOOK page, then comment on the “Mojo Fun Competition” picture, perhaps you could tell us your favourite dinosaur, or maybe suggest a name for these two rare figures and we will enter you into our free prize draw.

Everything Dinosaur on FACEBOOK: “LIKE” our Facebook page and enter the competition!

We will draw the lucky winners at random and the “Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus” competition closes on midnight Friday 28th February.  Good luck, we hope you win this pair of highly sought after dinosaur models.

The new for 2020 Mojo Fun Prehistoric Life models are due in stock shortly, to view the Mojo Fun range: Mojo Fun Prehistoric and Extinct Animals.

Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus

The genus Mandschurosaurus was erected ninety years ago, the species name Mandschurosaurus amurensis translates as “Chinese lizard from the Amur River”, given the current difficulties in China due to the COVID-19 outbreak it seems appropriate to express our support and sympathy for all those people affected and to celebrate the Mojo Fun factory’s excellent production values by giving away these two very special dinosaur models.

Win the Pair of Special Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus Dinosaur Models

Two Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus models to win in Everything Dinosaur's giveaway.

Win the pair of special Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus dinosaur models.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Terms and Conditions of the “Everything Dinosaur Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus” Competition

Automated entries are not permitted and will be excluded from the draw

Only one entry per person

The prize is non-transferable and no cash alternative will be offered

The “Everything Dinosaur Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus” competition runs until midnight Friday 28th February 2020.

Winner will be notified by private message on Facebook.

Prize includes postage and packing

This giveaway is in no way sponsored, endorsed, administered by or associated with Facebook

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges a complete release of Facebook by each entrant/participant

For full terms and conditions contact: Contact Everything Dinosaur

Win, Win, Win with Everything Dinosaur!

Win a Wonderful Pair of Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus Dinosaur Models with Everything Dinosaur

Win a pair of dinosaur models.

Win a pair of Mojo Fun Mandschurosaurus dinosaur models from Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s website: Everything Dinosaur.

12 02, 2020

“Cracking” the Mystery of Dinosaurs Being Warm-Blooded

By | February 12th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|2 Comments

Eggshell Geochemistry Suggests Endothermy Deeply Rooted in the Dinosauria

The puzzle of dinosaur metabolism has been a subject of debate amongst vertebrate palaeontologists for a very long time.  Numerous studies have been published, drawing on a variety of research methods and lines of enquiry to determine whether the non-avian dinosaurs were warm-blooded like their avian (bird) relatives, or whether they were cold-blooded like today’s crocodilians.  A study published in the journal “Science Advances”, one that looked at the geophysical and chemical properties of dinosaur eggshell, has concluded that non-avian dinosaurs had the ability to metabolically raise their temperatures above their environment – in essence they were endothermic, that is to say “warm-blooded”.

A Thin Cross-section of Fossilised Eggshell Viewed under Cross-polarising Light to Reveal Internal Structure

Dinosaur eggshell fossil in cross-section under a microscope using cross-polarising light.

A dinosaur eggshell fossil in cross-section under a microscope using cross-polarising light.  Eggshell analysis has provided compelling evidence to suggest that dinosaurs were endothermic.  Note scale is 500 microns.

Picture Credit: Robin Dawson/University of Yale

Cold-blooded or Warm-blooded – A Quick Explanation

The terms cold-blooded and warm-blooded are found frequently in articles about dinosaurs.  These terms are very misleading and have been disregarded for a long time by most of the scientific community.  For example, most lizards, regarded as cold-blooded, actually maintain a surprisingly high body temperature in their normal environment during the daytime.  Internal body temperatures around 42 degrees Celsius have been recorded in some species, much higher than the normal 37˚ Celsius associated with our own “warm-blooded” species.  In simple terms, cold-blooded animals (ectotherms), are largely unable to regulate their own body temperature without the assistance of external sources.  Lizards bask in the early morning sun to warm up and then during the heat of the day, they seek shade to help them to keep cool.  In contrast, “warm-blooded” organisms such as mammals and birds (endotherms), are able to maintain a body temperature that is higher than the temperature of the environment.  They can generate their own body heat.  This heat comes from the animal’s metabolism, the chemical reactions that take place in the body (although there are other methods of keeping cool and warming up).

The Debate over Endothermic or Ectothermic Dinosaurs

warm-blooded or cold-blooded dinosaurs?

Where on the spectrum between endothermic and ectothermic are the Dinosauria?  Organisms can demonstrate a range of adaptations to assist them in maintaining an optimal body temperature.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Understanding the Metabolism – So What?

Understanding the metabolism of a long extinct group of animals such as the non-avian members of the Dinosauria, can provide valuable insight into all sorts of areas, such as energy requirements, food consumption, behavioural traits and activity levels.  It can also help scientists to understand how extinct animals adapted to a wide range of environments, such as dinosaurs being found at high latitudes, dinosaur fossils being discovered in Antarctica for example.

In this newly published study, the researchers used a technique known as clumped isotope palaeothermometry.  It is based on the fact that the ordering of oxygen and carbon atoms in a fossil eggshell are determined by temperature.  Once the order of the atoms has been plotted, the scientists can calculate the internal body temperature of the egg-layer.

Based on this analysis, the research team were able to demonstrate that potentially, the three major clades of dinosaurs, Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha and Theropoda, were characterised by warm body temperatures.

Commenting on the significance of this study, lead author of the research Robin Dawson, who conducted the research while she was a doctoral student in geology and geophysics at Yale University stated:

“Dinosaurs sit at an evolutionary point between birds, which are warm-blooded, and reptiles, which are cold-blooded.  Our results suggest that all major groups of dinosaurs had warmer body temperatures than their environment.”

Eggshell ascribed to a troodontid (theropod) tested at 38˚, 27˚, and 28˚ Celsius (100.4, 80.6, and 82.4 degrees Fahrenheit).  Eggshells from the large, duck-billed dinosaur Maiasaura (an ornithischian dinosaur), yielded a temperature of 44˚ Celsius (111.2 degrees Fahrenheit).  Both the troodontid and Maiasaura eggshells were collected from Alberta, Canada.

In addition, the fossilised eggs associated with the oospecies Megaloolithus from the Hateg Formation of Romania tested at 36˚ Celsius (96.8 degrees Fahrenheit).  The taxonomy of the Romanian material remains uncertain.  The eggshells could represent the dwarf titanosaur Magyarosaurus, the much larger titanosaur Paludititan or indeed, the dwarf hadrosauroid Telmatosaurus.  If this fossil material does represent a Sauropodomorph, then these results could suggest that metabolically controlled thermoregulation was the ancestral condition for the Dinosauria.

The Taxonomic Relationships of the Taxa Involved in the Study

Simplified phylogeny of the archosaur taxa involved in the study.

The phylogeny of the taxa involved in the study.

Picture Credit: Science Advances

The picture (above), shows living ectotherms in blue, whilst extant endotherms (birds) are shown in orange.  The Maiasaura silhouette represents the major dinosaurian subclade Ornithischia.  The asterisk (*) indicates the uncertainty over the taxonomy of the oospecies Megaloolithus, but the fossil eggshells could represent the dwarf sauropod Magyarosaurus.  The troodontid material is assigned to the Theropoda.

The researchers conducted the same analysis on cold-blooded invertebrate shell fossils (molluscs) from the same locations as the dinosaur eggshells.  This helped the scientists determine the temperature of the local environment — and whether dinosaur body temperatures were higher or lower.

Dawson, now a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst, explained that  the troodontid samples were as much as 10˚ Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit), warmer than their environment, the Maiasaura samples were 15˚ Celsius warmer (59 degrees Fahrenheit) and the Megaloolithus samples were 3 to 6˚  Celsius (37.4-42.8 degrees Fahrenheit) warmer.

She added:

“What we found indicates that the ability to metabolically raise their temperatures above the environment was an early, evolved trait for dinosaurs.”

This new research may have other implications as well.  For instance, the study shows that a dinosaur’s body size and growth rate may not necessarily be a good indicator of body temperature.  The researchers also stated that their findings might add to the ongoing discussion about the role of feathers in early bird evolution.  Dense coats of feathers may have evolved to help insulate the bodies of dinosaurs, secondary functions such as for use in visual displays or as part of adaptations towards powered flight occurred later.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from Yale University in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Eggshell geochemistry reveals ancestral metabolic thermoregulation in Dinosauria” by Robin R. Dawson, Daniel J. Field, Pincelli M. Hull, Darla K. Zelenitsky, François Therrien and Hagit P. Affek published in the journal Science Advances.

10 02, 2020

The First Non-pterodactyloid Pterosaur Tracks

By | February 10th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Rhamphorhynchids – “Good Climbers and Rare Walkers”

One of the great mysteries regarding the Pterosauria may have finally be solved.  Palaeontologists are one “step” closer to better understanding how these flying reptiles moved about on the ground.  Researchers studying six pterosaur trackways preserved in the sandstone that once comprised part of a Late Jurassic beach have been able to examine the locomotive abilities of non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs for the first time.

This is a big deal, tracks of pterosaurs have been known about for some time, but all the trace fossils suggesting tracks up until now were believed to have been made by pterodactyloid pterosaurs, (Pterodactyloidea), essentially flying reptiles with short tails, relatively long metacarpal bones and a fifth toe that is greatly reduced or absent.  Virtually nothing was known about the terrestrial abilities of other types of pterosaur that dominated the skies of the Jurassic, the dimorphodonts, Anurognathidae and the rhamphorhynchids for example.

However, scientists from the remarkable Musée de la Plage aux Ptérosaures, writing in the academic journal “Geobios”, describe six trackways related to three non-pterodactyloid new ichnotaxa and determine that these animals moved quadrupedally and that they were quite at home on the ground.

A Life Reconstruction of a Rhamphorhynchid Pterosaur Walking Across a Beach

Rhamphorhynchus walking on a beach.

The long-tailed Rhamphorhynchus leaves a series of five-toed tracks on the Jurassic beach.

Picture Credit: Mark Witton

“Good Climbers and Bad Walkers”

Over the last two hundred years or so, a variety of theories have been put forward by palaeontologists regarding the way in which these flying reptiles moved about on the ground.  For most of that time, these ideas were based on anatomical analysis of fossil bones.  Trackways preserving evidence of a flying reptile moving about on the ground were exceptionally rare.  Ironically, when such evidence did come to light, such as the trackway found in Wyoming in 1952 (Sundance Formation), these trace fossils received little scientific scrutiny.

The lack of tracks from non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs preserved in the fossil record, led many palaeontologists to believe that these animals rarely left the trees or the water and moved around on land.  When they did, it was thought that they would have been clumsy and slow-moving, very vulnerable to predation.

A Non-pterodactyloid Trackway from the Upper Jurassic (Plage aux Ptérosaures)

Non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs were very much at home on the ground.

Pterosaur trackway (non-pterodactyloid) from south-western France.

Picture Credit: Musée de la Plage aux Ptérosaures/Geobios

“The Pterosaur Beach of Crayssac”

The fossil finds come from the remarkable “la Plage aux Ptérosaures” (the pterosaur beach), located close to the village of Crayssac in the Occitanie region of south-western France.  The site provides a trace fossil record of activity on a Late Jurassic beach around 150 million years ago (lower Tithonian faunal stage).  Both dinosaur and pterosaur trackways are preserved.  The authors of the scientific paper, conclude that the tracks may have been made by rhamphorhynchids and they propose that non-pterodactyloids, at least during the Late Jurassic, were quadrupedal with digitigrade hands and plantigrade to digitigrade feet.  Analysis of the tracks indicates that these animals were good walkers, even if their hind legs were hampered by the uropatagium (the membrane of skin that spanned the back legs).  The idea that these types of flying reptiles were “good climbers but bad walkers”, seems to have been refuted.

The authors state that based on this new study and contrary to current hypotheses, non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs seem to have been good walkers even though their trackways are very rare or unidentified to date.  Each of the trackways is around a metre in length, the individual prints measuring approximately three centimetres long.  Jean-Michel Mazin and his co-author Joane Pouech (from the museum at la Plage aux Ptérosaures), were aware of the significance of these trace fossils as pterodactyloids tracks tend to produce four toe marks in the trace fossil, whereas, non-pterodactyloids had five toes, so five toe marks would be expected in the majority of the hind prints.

Pterosaur expert Mark Witton provides a well-written and comprehensive overview of pterosaur anatomy and discusses the theories associated with their terrestrial locomotion in his excellent book simply entitled “Pterosaurs”.

A review of this publication can be found here: Pterosaurs by Mark Witton – a book review.

The Front Cover of the Comprehensive Book on Pterosaurs by Mark Witton

Pterosaurs by Mark Witton.

A very well researched and documented publication from an authority on the Pterosauria.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The scientific paper: “The first non-pterodactyloid pterosaurian trackways and the terrestrial ability of non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs” by Jean-Michel Mazin and Joane Pouech published in Geobios.

8 02, 2020

How to Assemble the Rebor X-REX (Broodlord)

By | February 8th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

How to Assemble the Rebor X-REX (Broodlord)

The 1:35 scale Rebor Broodlord figure, a cross between an alien and a tyrannosaurid, has wowed collectors and model fans.  It is the first of four figures to be introduced in this series.  A second Broodlord is planned, the second model will have an “organic” colour scheme.  The other two figures will be known as “Swarm” and just like Broodlord, two colour variants will be offered “plague” and “radioactive”.

In order to protect the carefully sculpted back spikes, the typically tyrannosaurid arms and that beautiful, intricate extended jaw, during transit, Rebor has not attached them to the replica, the model has to be assembled, but this does not take too long.  Everything Dinosaur has created a short video that explains how to assemble the model and provides a few tips and tricks along the way.

How to Assemble the 1:35 Scale Rebor Broodlord X-REX

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

An Impressive Extra-terrestrial Figure

The model measures an impressive 43 cm in length and Broodlord stands around 14 cm high at the shoulders.  In our video, (it lasts a fraction over 9 and 1/2 minutes), we examine the model in detail, discuss the other figures in this xenomorph/tyrannosaurid line and explain how to fix the four back spikes into their slots behind the animal’s shoulders without them wobbling.  We also demonstrate how to insert the two-fingered, small arms and then we show how the top of a ballpoint pen can be used to help secure the jaw extension into the lower jaw.

The Rebor Broodlord X-REX Model (Metallic Variant)

Measuring the Rebor Broodlord X-REX model.

The Rebor 1:35 scale Broodlord X-REX replica is one of the biggest figures that Rebor has made to date.  The figure measures approximately 43 cm long.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Insert the Tail Before Adding the Arms

The narrator provides plenty of help and advice to assist with figure assembly.  For example, it is recommended that the tail is inserted in place prior to adding the arms.  To secure the tail requires a firm push and by not adding the arms you can give yourself a greater purchase on the body to help you ensure that the flexible tail piece is inserted neatly and securely into place.

It is fitting that we have made one of our longest videos featuring one of Rebor’s longest (if not the longest replica) produced by this exciting company to date.  This video is available on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel, a channel dedicated to dinosaur and prehistoric animal model collecting.

Visit Everything Dinosaur on YouTube here: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

To purchase the fantastic Rebor 1:35 Broodlord X-REX model and to see the rest of the Rebor range: Rebor Models, Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals.

7 02, 2020

New for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus (Sneak Peek)

By | February 7th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

New for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus (Sneak Peek)

Everything Dinosaur team members have been busy over the last few days posting up pictures of the new for 2020 Papo prehistoric animal models.  They have featured the new colour variant feathered Velociraptor, Chilesaurus, the pachycephalosaur Stygimoloch, Megaloceros and have even made a short video featuring the new colour variant Parasaurolophus dinosaur model.  The largest dinosaur figure to be introduced this year by Papo is the Giganotosaurus, naturally our staff have posted up plenty of pictures of this new replica too.

In addition, we have produced a short video on this new model, a dinosaur replica that has divided opinions.  In our video (it lasts three minutes), we show the prototype production model and then discuss some of the features of this new sculpt.

The New for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus Dinosaur Model (Sneaky Peek)

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

How to Pronounce Giganotosaurus

Named and described in 1995, this South American theropod (Giganotosaurus carolinii), is regarded as one of the largest, if not the largest, meat-eating dinosaurs known to science.  Whilst waiting for news of this Papo figure, our team members checked the correct pronunciation of the genus name.  Thanks to the scientists who specialise in the Dinosauria from the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), we can confidently state that the accepted scientific pronunciation is Gig-ah-note-oh-sore-us, think of terms like gigabyte or for that matter, gigametre.

The Papo Giganotosaurus (Gig-ah-note-oh-sore-us) Dinosaur Model

Papo Giganotosaurus Dinosaur Model

The new for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur model.  It has an articulated lower jaw.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Controversial Dinosaur Model

When the first images of this new model were released, the pose of this dinosaur attracted a lot of comments.  In Everything Dinosaur’s brief video review, we look at the prototype figure and then discuss some of the other features of the sculpt, such as the detailed paint scheme and the quality of the skin tone and texture.  The detail on the head of the dinosaur is remarked upon.  The narrator comments on the skull shape and the attention to detail that can be seen in the depiction of the skull fenestrae.

A View of the Papo Giganotosaurus Dinosaur Model (Prototype)

The new for 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus dinosaur model.

A photograph of the Papo Giganotosaurus prototype model in a display case.  Can you see the head of the new for 2020 Papo Chilesaurus by the right foot of the theropod?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The video can also be found on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel.  Our YouTube channel contains lots of helpful videos about prehistoric animal models and figures.  To visit our YouTube channel and to subscribe: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

To see the range of Papo prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Prehistoric Animal Models.

6 02, 2020

Rhamphorhynchus Fed on Squid

By | February 6th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Pterosaur Tooth Discovered in Jurassic Squid Fossil

The pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus, probably fed by grabbing soft-bodied creatures such as squid as it flew close to the surface of the sea.  That is the conclusion made by a group of researchers reporting on the remarkable fossil of a squid-like animal with a pterosaur tooth embedded in its body found in Germany.  Writing in the academic journal Scientific Reports, the authors of the paper, describe the beautifully preserved remains of the octobrachian (eight-armed) cephalopod Plesioteuthis subovata which has a pterosaur tooth embedded in its left flank.

Reconstruction of the Hunting Behaviour of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri

Rhamphorhynchus hunting behaviour.

Reconstruction of the hunting behaviour of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri.

Picture Credit: C. Klug and Beat Scheffold

Discovered in 2012

The cephalopod fossil was found in 2012 and it heralds from the world-renowned Solnhofen Lagerstätte in south-eastern Germany.  The strata from which the remarkable specimen was gathered has been dated to the Upper Jurassic Altmühltal Formation (lower Tithonian faunal stage – ammonite Hybonoticeras hybonotum biozone).  The fossil is kept at the Paläontologisches Institut und Museum, Universität Zürich, Switzerland (PIMUZ 37358).

Views of the Plesioteuthis subovata Specimen Showing the Pterosaur Tooth

Pterosaur tooth embedded in the fossilised remains of Plesioteuthis.

Views of the Plesioteuthis subovata specimen in natural and UV light showing the embedded pterosaur tooth.

Picture Credit: R. Hoffmann et al (Scientific Reports)

The picture above shows (A), the 28 cm long fossil of the coleoid Plesioteuthis subovata with highlighted areas (B and D).  The pterosaur tooth measures 19 mm long and picture (C) shows the tooth viewed under ultraviolet (UV) light.  The tip of the tooth is partially covered with phosphatised mantle tissue, thus ruling out the association of the tooth during the fossilisation process.  Insert (D), shows the posterior portion of the mantle with faint imprints probably representing a terminal fin.  Under UV light analysis no evidence of fin musculature could be identified (E).

Direct Evidence of Hunting/Feeding Behaviour

Such direct evidence of hunting/feeding behaviour is rarely preserved in the fossil record.  The authors of the scientific paper, which include a researcher from the University of Leicester (UK), suggest that the adult Plesioteuthis subovata was swimming close to the surface when a pterosaur (suspected of being Rhamphorhynchus muensteri), made a grab for it.  It is not known whether the injury sustained to the squid proved fatal, or whether the animal lived for a period of time before finally dying and becoming preserved in the fine-grained sediments associated with the Solnhofen Archipelago.

The tooth most likely came from the front or middle regions of either the upper or lower jaw.  As rhamphorhynchid teeth associated with very young or juveniles tend to be much smaller and straighter, the researchers conclude that the tooth came from a mature adult pterosaur with a wingspan of at least one metre.

A Model of Rhamphorhynchus (Wild Safari Prehistoric World)

Rhamphorhynchus model

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Rhamphorhynchus figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Helping to Construct Ancient Food Webs

The coleoid/pterosaur fossil will help scientists to better understand the palaeo-ecosystem associated with the Solnhofen Lagerstätte.  Whilst it is true that many different types of predator may have fed upon Plesioteuthis subovata, the size, shape and the lack of longitudinal ridges discounts marine reptiles such as ichthyosaurs, pliosaurs and crocodyliformes.  The tooth coming from a type of predatory fish has also been discounted.

The single tooth is most likely from a mature Rhamphorhynchus in a failed hunting attempt.  This seems to be the most plausible interpretation of the fossil evidence.  Furthermore, several Rhamphorhynchus fossils are known where the pterosaur is entangled within the jaws of the predatory fish Aspidorhynchus.  It has been assumed that these types of fish hunted close to the water surface and would have grabbed pterosaurs as they swooped to feed.  These fossils indirectly corroborate the suggestion that this pterosaur-cephalopod interaction occurred near the water surface.

Sometimes the Hunter Became the Hunted (Rhamphorhynchus Entangled with the Jaws of Fish)

Rhamphorhynchus and fish fossil.

A fatal encounter between two Jurassic hunters.  The Rhamphorhynchus is entangled within the jaws of a predatory fish (Aspidorhynchus acutirostris).

Picture Credit: PLOS One

Skim-feeding had been proposed for marine pterosaurs such as Rhamphorhynchus but subsequent studies suggested that this was too energy expensive.  It is more likely that Rhamphorhynchus captured prey on the wing just above the water surface or while floating on the water surface.

The scientific paper: “Pterosaurs ate soft-bodied cephalopods (Coleoidea)” by R. Hoffmann, J. Bestwick, G. Berndt, R. Berndt, D. Fuchs and C. Klug published in Scientific Reports.

Load More Posts