All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.

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23 10, 2020

A New Model from Eofauna Scientific Research

By | October 23rd, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|5 Comments

A New Model from Eofauna Scientific Research

Those dedicated and talented team members at Eofauna Scientific Research will be introducing a new prehistoric animal model in 2021.  A teaser campaign has been launched.  As with previous product announcements from this amazing model-making company, there is no instant reveal, instead today, we see the start of a teaser campaign.

A Sixth Model from Eofauna Scientific Research – Can you Guess What it Might Be?

Teaser campaign launched for the next Eofauna Scientific Research figure.

A teaser campaign has been launched today for the sixth model in the Eofauna Scientific Research series.  The model will be available in early 2021.  Can you guess what it might be?

Picture Credit: Eofauna Scientific Research/Everything Dinosaur

Six of the Best!

At present, there are five prehistoric animal figures in the Eofauna Scientific Research range.  The first model to be introduced was the Steppe Mammoth (Mammuthus trogontherii) in the autumn of 2017.  This stunning 1/40th scale model was followed a few months later by a beautiful 1/35th scale replica of a Straight-tusked elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus).  Fans of dinosaur models did not have long to wait, as the third figure to be introduced was Giganotosaurus (Giganotosaurus carolinii), which came out in January 2019.  In October of that year, the third model of a prehistoric proboscidean was launched – a 1/35th scale model of a Deinotherium (Deinotherium giganteum).  The excitement had hardly subsided, when just a few weeks later, a fifth model was introduced, a replica of the Middle Jurassic sauropod Atlasaurus (A. imelakei).

The Current Range of Eofauna Scientific Research Models – Another Addition Coming Soon

Eofauna Scientific Research models (2020).

As of late October 2020, the Eofauna Scientific Research range consists of five figures, but a new model will be introduced in early 2021.

Picture Credit: Eofauna Scientific Research/Everything Dinosaur

Here is a summary of the figures introduced to date:

  1. Steppe Mammoth (Mammuthus trogontherii) launched autumn 2017.
  2. Straight-tusked elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) launched summer 2018.
  3. Giganotosaurus (Giganotosaurus carolinii) launched January 2019.
  4. Deinotherium (Deinotherium giganteum) launched October 2019.
  5. Atlasaurus dinosaur model (Atlasaurus imelakei) launched November 2019.

What is the sixth model in the series?  From the one image released so far there is not much to go on, but have a guess?

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We had known about this figure for some time, but it is always exciting for us when we can post up teaser images about a new introduction from this fascinating and highly detailed series.  We look forward to sharing more pictures with our fans and followers and of course participating in the “big reveal” in the very near future.”

In the meantime, fans of dinosaur models and collectors of prehistoric animal figures can find the current Eofauna Scientific Research range here: Eofauna Scientific Research Models.

22 10, 2020

PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus Dinosaur Model

By | October 22nd, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus Dinosaur Model

PNSO have added another replica of a famous North American duck-billed dinosaur to their mid-sized model range.  Recently, Everything Dinosaur revealed that a Lambeosaurus was being introduced.  Today we announce a figure named Caroline the Corythosaurus.  It has been revealed this morning with Everything Dinosaur and PNSO co-ordinating the release of images of this, the latest edition to the PNSO prehistoric animal model portfolio.  Everything Dinosaur will be stocking this model and we hope to announce very soon when this model will be available.

The PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus Dinosaur Model

PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus dinosaur model.

The new PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Graceful Dinosaur Model

This beautifully designed hadrosaur with its long slender legs gives the impression of a very graceful dinosaur.  The proportions of the forelimbs in relation to the hind legs reflect the extensive fossil material associated with this genus.  Regarded as a facultative biped (walking on all fours, but capable of adopting a bipedal stance when required, for example to flee from a predator), this dinosaur is estimated to have weighed more than three tonnes and reached a body length in excess of nine metres.

The New PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus Measures 27 cm Long

PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus model.

The PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus dinosaur model is approximately 27 cm long and that beautiful “helmet” is around 10.5 cm off the ground.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

As the PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus measures approximately twenty-seven centimetres long, it can be suggested that this figure is in approximately 1:33 scale, although PNSO does not officially declare a scale for their mid-sized model range.

A Stunning Replica of “Helmet Lizard”

The first species of Corythosaurus (C. casuarius), was formerly named and described in 1914 (Barnum Brown).  It is known from numerous skeletons including complete skulls, all of which are associated with Late Cretaceous (Campanian faunal stage) strata of Alberta, Canada.  That famous semicircular skull crest has been painted a combination of seafoam green and orange.  This is a stunning replica of “helmet lizard”.

A Close-up View of the Magnificent Head of the PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus Dinosaur Model

PNSO Corythosaurus dinosaur model.

A close-up view of the carefully crafted head of the PNSO Corythosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Eagle-eyed dinosaur model collectors will note that this model is number 28 in the series, whereas Gaoyuan the Microraptor, which will be available from Everything Dinosaur around mid-November is model number 29.  The PNSO Tuojiangosaurus replica we announced on October 16th, 2020 is model number 34.  From this, it can be deduced that more PNSO models are likely to follow.  Rest assured model collectors, Everything Dinosaur team members will do their best to keep you up to date with new PNSO figures.

The Packaging for the New PNSO Corythosaurus Dinosaur Model

PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus packaging.

The packaging for the PNSO Caroline the Corythosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur will be providing more information about when this exciting new figure will be in stock.

In the meantime, to view the current range of PNSO figures: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Models and Figures.

21 10, 2020

Remembering “Joe” the Baby Parasaurolophus

By | October 21st, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Remembering “Joe” the Baby Parasaurolophus

This week, seven years ago, a remarkable paper was published in the academic journal PeerJ.  The research centred upon a beautifully-preserved fossil specimen of a baby Parasaurolophus that at around two and a half metres in length, represented the smallest and most complete specimen described to date for this genus.  Nicknamed “Joe” this dinosaur that roamed southern Utah some 75 million years ago, demonstrated the astonishing growth rates of duck-billed dinosaurs.  Although approximately a quarter of the size of a fully grown Parasaurolophus, bone histology suggested that “Joe” was less than a year old when it died.

Interpretive Drawing and Right Lateral View of the Fossilised Remains  -“Joe” the Parasaurolophus

"Joe" the baby Parasaurolophus.

The skeleton of “Joe” the Parasaurolophus (specimen number RAM 14000), in right lateral view (A) interpretive drawing and (B) photograph.   Note scale bar = 10 cm.

Picture Credit: Farke et al (PeerJ)

A Baby Dinosaur Found by Students

The fossilised remains of the young Parasaurolophus were found in 2009 by a group of students on a field trip to the Kaiparowits Formation (Campanian faunal stage), exposures at the famous Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, with Andrew Farke of the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Palaeontology. When first shown a fragment of fossil bone eroding out of the surrounding sediment, Dr Farke dismissed it as an inconsequential piece of fossil rib.  It was only when they explored the area a little more closely did they realise the potential significance of the discovery.

The scientific paper on this remarkable specimen was published in October 2013.  The skull, measuring 24.6 cm in length showed signs of the tubular crest beginning to form, although a cross-section of bone from the tibia (lower leg bone), showed no lines of arrested growth (LAGs), implying that the Parasaurolophus may have been less than twelve months old when it died.  Based on a comparison with other Lambeosaurine fossils, the research team concluded that Parasaurolophus initiated development of its head crest at less than 25% maximum skull size, contrasting with 50% of maximum skull size in hadrosaurs such as Corythosaurus.

Parasaurolophus formed its unusual headgear by expanding some of its skull bones earlier and for a longer period of time than other closely related duck-billed dinosaurs.

An Interpretative Drawing of the Skull with Fossil Shown in Left Lateral View

Interpretive drawing and photograph of baby Parasaurolophus skull.

Left half of the skull of Parasaurolophus sp., RAM 14000, in lateral view. Interpretive drawing (A) and (B) photograph of the skull.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

“Joe” was named after Joe Augustyn, a patron of the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Palaeontology, where the fossils can be seen on display.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s original article on “Joe” the baby Parasaurolophus: Fossilised Remains of a Baby Parasaurolophus from Southern Utah.

The scientific paper: “Ontogeny in the tube-crested dinosaur Parasaurolophus (Hadrosauridae) and heterochrony in hadrosaurids” by Andrew A. Farke, Derek J. Chok, Annisa Herrero, Brandon Scolieri and Sarah Werning published in PeerJ.

20 10, 2020

Mapping the Genome of the Scimitar-Toothed Cat Homotherium latidens

By | October 20th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Mapping the Genome of Homotherium latidens

The diverse and geographically widespread machairodonts, a subfamily of the cat family (Felidae), have fascinated palaeontologists for a very long time and there is still a great deal of research directed towards these sabre-toothed predators.  Recently, Everything Dinosaur published an article that looked at how those enlarged canines might have been used by different types of sabre-toothed creature known from the fossil record: Sabre-toothed Predators Evolved Different Hunting Styles.  However, a team of international scientists led by researchers from the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), have taken a more holistic view when it comes to these long-fanged mammals.  They have mapped the entire nuclear genome of the machairodont Homotherium latidens and their research suggests that this tiger-sized carnivore was a highly social, pursuit predator.

A Pack of Homotherium Pursue a Prehistoric Horse

Homotherium latidens a cursorial pack hunter?

A pack of Homotherium latidens chasing a prehistoric horse.  What an amazing example of paleoart – our congratulations to the artist.

Picture Credit: Velizar Simeonovski/University of Copenhagen

Writing in the academic journal “Current Biology”, the scientists were able to extract DNA from a H. latidens specimen found in thawing Pleistocene permafrost near Dawson City in the Yukon Territory (Canada).  A variety of modern genomic sequencing strategies were applied to reveal a map of the entire genome of the fossil.  The data was then compared to living felids such as the domestic cat as well as lions and tigers.  The DNA study reveals what genes were highly selected upon and important in evolution of the species.

Commenting on the significance of this research, Michael Westbury, a co-author of the paper based at the University of Copenhagen stated:

“Their genetic makeup hints towards scimitar-toothed cats being highly skilled hunters.  They likely had very good daytime vision and displayed complex social behaviours.  They had genetic adaptations for strong bones and cardiovascular and respiratory systems, meaning they were well suited for endurance running.  Based on this, we think they hunted in a pack until their prey reached exhaustion with an endurance-based hunting-style during the day light hours.”

This type of hunting behaviour is sometimes seen in lions today, although they are mainly ambush predators and they also hunt at night.  Perhaps the most relevant modern analogue to the hunting behaviour proposed for Homotherium latidens is that of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), which is primarily a diurnal, pursuit predator of large prey.

The genome analysis also revealed that this scimitar-toothed cat was genetically very diverse when compared to extant cat species.

Doctor Westbury, a postdoctoral researcher in the GLOBE Institute at the University of Copenhagen also stated:

“We know that genetic diversity correlates to how many of a given species that exists.  Based on this, our best guess is that there were a lot of these big cats around.  This also makes perfect sense given that their fossils have been found on every single continent except Australia and Antarctica.”

To read a related article about the discovery of a treasure trove of prehistoric mammal fossils including machairodonts that have been found in Venezuela: Oil Companies Assist with Huge Fossil Discovery.

The Genome of the Extinct Machairodont Homotherium latidens has been Mapped

Mapping the genome of Homotherium latidens.

Researchers have mapped the genome of the prehistoric cat Homotherium latidens.  The analysis suggests that these cats were highly social and adapted to a long pursuit, endurance form of hunting.

Picture Credit: University of Copenhagen/Current Biology

Homotherium Distantly Related to Extant Felids

The study demonstrated that the Homotherium genus is only very distantly related to all modern cats.  This type of cat diverged from the Felidae lineage around 22.5 million years ago (early Miocene Epoch) and this conclusion supports the hypothesis that the Machairodontinae are a distinct subfamily within the Felidae.

The Demise of Homotherium

The fossil record demonstrates that Homotherium and related genera were extremely successful.  These cats were both geographically and temporally widely dispersed.  It remains a mystery as to why these carnivores were unable to survive to the present day.  The authors of the paper speculate that some of the adaptations/specialisations that led to Homotherium’s success could also have played a pivotal role in its demise and eventual extinction.

Toward the end of the Late Pleistocene, a decrease in large prey availability may have caused more direct competition with other cat species that were likely more effective at capturing the remaining smaller prey species.  The specific adaptations Homotherium had acquired would have suddenly become less advantageous, leading to an irreversible decline that ultimately resulted in extinction.

Fellow co-author Ross Barnett, (GLOBE Institute at the University of Copenhagen), explained:

“This was an extremely successful family of cats.  They were present on five continents and roamed the earth for millions of years before going extinct.  The current geological period is the first time in 40 million years that earth has lacked sabre-tooth predators.  We just missed them.”

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Copenhagen in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Genomic Adaptations and Evolutionary History of the Extinct Scimitar-Toothed Cat, Homotherium latidens” by Ross Barnett, Michael V. Westbury, Marcela Sandoval-Velasco, Filipe Garrett Vieira, Sungwon Jeon, Grant Zazula, Michael D. Martin, Simon Y. W. Ho, Niklas Mather, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Jazmín Ramos-Madrigal, Marc de Manuel, M. Lisandra Zepeda-Mendoza, Agostinho Antunes, Aldo Carmona Baez, Binia De Cahsan, Greger Larson, Stephen J. O’Brien, Eduardo Eizirik, Warren E. Johnson, Klaus-Peter Koepfli, Andreas Wilting, Jörns Fickel, Love Dalén, Eline D. Lorenzen, Tomas Marques-Bonet, Anders J. Hansen, Guojie Zhang, Jong Bhak, Nobuyuki Yamaguchi and M. Thomas P. Gilbert published in the journal Current Biology.

19 10, 2020

PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus Dinosaur Model

By | October 19th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus Dinosaur Model

Everything Dinosaur announces the introduction of a new model into the PNSO mid-size range of replicas – Audrey the Lambeosaurus dinosaur model.  In a co-ordinated media release with PNSO, our team members are able to post up pictures of this, a most impressive duck-billed dinosaur model, a representation of a hadrosaur that roamed North America during the Late Cretaceous.

The PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus Dinosaur Model

Audrey the Lambeosaurus dinosaur model.

The stunning new, duck-billed dinosaur figure to be introduced by PNSO.  Audrey the Lambeosaurus dinosaur model.  The model measures approximately 24.5 cm in length and that wonderful head crest is around 10 cm off the ground.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Complicated History

The Lambeosaurus genus was formally erected by the Canadian palaeontologist and geologist William Parks in 1923.  The genus name honours another famous Canadian pioneer of palaeontology in the province of Alberta – Lawrence Lambe, who inadvertently contributed to the rather puzzling and complicated assessment of the hadrosaurids of Laramidia, with a number of genera being erected in the early years of the 20th century.  This led to subsequent revisions and reassessments of the wealth of fossil material related to crested hadrosaurs.  Today, three species of Lambeosaurus are recognised by most palaeontologists.  The taxonomic history of the Lambeosaurini tribe is certainly complicated.

The PNSO Lambeosaurus Model (Audrey the Lambeosaurus)

Audrey the Lambeosaurus (PNSO).

A stunning replica of the Late Cretaceous hadrosaur Lambeosaurus from PNSO.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The PNSO Lambeosaurus has been painted in subtle green hues with orange and black on that striking head crest.  The body, side of the head, neck, flanks, tail and limbs have a reticulated pattern overlaying the countershading.  PNSO have produced an eye-catching replica of a huge herbivorous dinosaur.

A Close-up View of the Head of the New PNSO Dinosaur Model Audrey the Lambeosaurus

PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus.

A close-up view of the magnificent head crest of Audrey the Lambeosaurus.  The PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus dinosaur model has been beautifully painted.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Model Measures 24.5 cm Long (Approximately)

The mid-sized range of prehistoric animals made by PNSO has expanded rapidly.  Everything Dinosaur has already produced a number of blog articles announcing new figures in this very popular series.  Team members often get asked to provide a guide as to the scale of a dinosaur figure.  PNSO do not declare a scale for this particular part of their prehistoric animal portfolio and there is some confusion as to which fossil remains represent Lambeosaurus or other closely related genera.  Some scientists have previously stated that Lambeosaurus could have been as long as fifteen metres, but the largest species from Canada have led to more conservative estimates of around nine metres in length.  Based on a nine-metre-long adult specimen, it could be suggested that the PNSO Lambeosaurus is around 1:36 scale.

The Box Art for Audrey the Lambeosaurus (PNSO)

The box for the PNSO Lambeosaurus dinosaur model.

The packaging design for the PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur will announce shortly when this wonderful duck-billed dinosaur will be in stock.

In the meantime, to view the existing range of PNSO prehistoric animals available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

18 10, 2020

Everything Dinosaur Enters into Exclusive Territory Agreement with ITOY Studio

By | October 18th, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|4 Comments

Everything Dinosaur Enters into Exclusive Territory Agreement with ITOY Studio

Everything Dinosaur has been appointed the exclusive importer of ITOY Studio dinosaur and prehistoric animal models for the European Economic Area (EEA).

In a landmark agreement between ITOY Studio and the UK-based Everything Dinosaur, collectors of museum quality, detailed scale models of dinosaurs and other prehistoric animals will be able to purchase the ITOY Studio range directly from Everything Dinosaur.

The first shipment of models including the beautifully detailed ITOY Studio green T. rex complete with its display base are due to arrive at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse around the 10th of November.

The Stunning ITOY Studio Green T. rex Dinosaur Figure

The ITOY Studio Green T. rex Dinosaur Model.

The ITOY Studio Green Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur model with an articulated jaw and complete with display base.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Official Importer of ITOY Studio Prehistoric Animal Models

As Everything Dinosaur is the official importer with responsibility for selling ITOY Studio models in Europe, model collectors will be able to get access to this exciting range via an award-winning, five-star rated supplier.

The Stunning ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus Dinosaur Model with an Articulated Jaw

The ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus.

ITOY Studio Dilophosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

In addition, team members have been working closely with ITOY Studio and will be managing product testing for the model range.  Samples of the soon to be introduced Paraceratherium replica have been despatched to Everything Dinosaur’s offices and product testing will then commence.

The Exciting Paraceratherium Replica

ITOY Studio Paraceratherium.

The ITOY Studio Paraceratherium replica.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Once completed and pending statutory approval, customers of Everything Dinosaur will be able to purchase this figure directly from Everything Dinosaur’s website: Everything Dinosaur collectors can acquire top quality prehistoric animal models from a top quality supplier.

Commenting on the exclusive territory agreement, Sue Judd of Everything Dinosaur stated:

“We are very proud to have been appointed official importers into the European Economic Area for the ITOY Studio range.”

Sue, who is the Financial Director and nick-named “Tyrannosaurus Sue” added:

“Our customers can be assured that when they are buying from Everything Dinosaur, they are purchasing from one of the most highly rated companies in the world for customer service.  We are continually striving to improve and we are looking forward to the arrival of the first ITOY Studio shipment at our warehouse.”

The ITOY Studio range of prehistoric animal figures are collectables, they are display pieces suitable for 14+ and not dinosaur toys.

17 10, 2020

A News Species of Mosasaur from Morocco

By | October 17th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Gavialimimus almaghribensis – Specialised Piscivore from Morocco

An international team of researchers including scientists from the University of Alberta, the University of Cincinnati (USA) and Flinders University (Adelaide, Australia), have identified a new species of marine reptile from fossil remains found in Upper Cretaceous rocks from Morocco.  The animal, a new species of mosasaur has been named Gavialimimus almaghribensis, its long, narrow snout and interlocking teeth suggest that it specialised in hunting fast-swimming, bony fish.

These adaptations suggest that this carnivore, distantly related to modern snakes and lizards, occupied a specific niche in the Moroccan marine ecosystem.  Around a dozen different species of mosasaur are known from the Upper Cretaceous of Morocco, many with different shaped jaws and teeth.  This suggests that these reptiles diversified rapidly during the Late Cretaceous and adapted to differing roles in the ecosystem to avoid direct competition with each other.  The researchers writing in the “Journal of Systematic Palaeontology” suggest that these are examples of niche partitioning in the ancient environment.

A Life Reconstruction of the Newly Described Gavialimimus almaghribensis

Life reconstruction of Gavialimimus almaghribensis.

A life reconstruction of the newly described Moroccan mosasaur Gavialimimus almaghribensis which is thought to have been a specialised piscivore (fish-eater).

Picture Credit: Tatsuya Shinmura

Corresponding author for the scientific paper, Catherine Strong (University of Alberta), stated:

“Its long snout reflects that this mosasaur was likely adapted to a specific form of predation, or niche partitioning, within this larger ecosystem.  For some species, these adaptations can be very prominent, such as the extremely long snout and the interlocking teeth in Gavialimimus, which we hypothesised as helping it to catch rapidly moving prey.”

Resembling a Gavial (Gavial Mimic)

The genus name means “Gavial mimic”, a reference to the similarity between the jaws and dentition of this mosasaur to that of the extant long-snouted gavial (gharial).  Whilst the trivial or species name is derived from the Romanised version of the Arabic term for Morocco (al-Maghrib) paired with the Latin suffix “ensis”, thus denoting the country of origin of the holotype.

The Skull of a Gharial (Gavial)

The skull of a gharial.

The skull of a gharial (gavial) from the Grant Museum of Zoology (London).  The long snout and teeth superficially resemble the jaws and teeth of the newly described mosasaur Gavialimimus almaghribensis.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

From the Oulad Abdoun Basin

The fossils, including a metre-long skull come from the upper Maastrichtian deposits of the Oulad Abdoun Basin of northern Morocco.  The phosphate mines in this region are a rich source of mosasaur fossils and occasionally a dinosaur or two: The Last Dinosaur from Africa.

These sediments have revealed new species of pterosaur too: Pterosaurs More Diverse at the End of the Cretaceous than Previously Thought.

The Fossilised Skull of the Newly Described Gavialimimus almaghribensis

Gavialimimus almaghribensis fossil skull.

The fossilised skull of the newly described mosasaur G. almaghribensis.

Picture Credit: Catherine Strong (University of Alberta)

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Alberta in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “A new species of longirostrine plioplatecarpine mosasaur (Squamata: Mosasauridae) from the Late Cretaceous of Morocco, with a re-evaluation of the problematic taxon ‘Platecarpus’ ptychodon” by Catherine R. C. Strong, Michael W. Caldwell, Takuya Konishi and Alessandro Palci published in the Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.

16 10, 2020

PNSO Tuojiangosaurus

By | October 16th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

PNSO Tuojiangosaurus

Those dedicated and enthusiastic people at PNSO have been very busy over the summer months.  We are beginning to see the fruits of their labour, as over the next few weeks or so we will be sharing news about new model releases from this exciting company.  Gaoyuan, the iridescent Microraptor model is already on its way to us, we are expecting our next shipment of PNSO prehistoric animals to arrive at our warehouse next month and today, (October 16th, 2020), we can officially announce that we will be stocking a Tuojiangosaurus model.

The Latest Stegosaur Figure to Join the PNSO Range

PNSO Tuojiangosaurus model.

PNSO Tuojiangosaurus dinosaur model is part of what we refer to as the PNSO mid-size model range.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Tuojiangosaurus multispinus

This Late Jurassic herbivore was the first stegosaur to be discovered in China, it is wonderful to have a Chinese model manufacturer introducing some replicas of iconic Chinese dinosaurs.  The exact taxonomic position of Tuojiangosaurus within the stegosaur family tree has been controversial, but most palaeontologists recognise it to be a member (somewhat derived), of the Stegosauridae, the family named after Stegosaurus, one of the most instantly recognisable dinosaurs of them all!

The PNSO Tuojiangosaurus Dinosaur Model

PNSO Tuojiangosaurus model.

PNSO Tuojiangosaurus in lateral view.  The model is a fraction under 20 cm in length.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Introduced to Chinese distributors a few hours ago, Everything Dinosaur team members are happy to post up official pictures of this Chinese armoured dinosaur, a member of the Stegosauridae that was officially named and described in 1977, exactly 100 years after the American palaeontologist Othniel Charles Marsh erected the Stegosaurus genus.  The Morrison Formation of the western United States might have been home to Stegosaurus (as well as other types of armoured dinosaur, even basal ankylosaurs), but many academics believe that the Stegosauria clade originated in Asia.

Tuojiangosaurus Model (PNSO) Product Packaging

Tuojiangosaurus packaging.

The distinctive packaging of the PNSO Tuojiangosaurus dinosaur figure.  This new PNSO stegosaur figure is a fraction longer than the “Bieber” Stegosaurus that was introduced in 2019.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Not the First Tuojiangosaurus Model

This is not the first Tuojiangosaurus figure that PNSO have produced.  Collectors may be aware of the PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Tuojiangosaurus model, which was one of the original figures in this series launched by the Chinese company.

The PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Tuojiangosaurus Model

PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Tuojiangosaurus figure.

The PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Tuojiangosaurus figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The smaller figures tend to be more brightly coloured, whereas the mid-size models such as the new T. multispinus replica tend to have more muted colour schemes.

Heading Towards Everything Dinosaur

Tuojiganogosaurus (PNSO) dinosaur model.

Tuojiangosaurus PNSO dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur will post up more news about new model introductions in the near future, in the meantime, to purchase a PNSO dinosaur or prehistoric animal model including the PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Tuojiangosaurus: PNSO Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals.

15 10, 2020

Catching Up with Ordosipterus planignathus

By | October 15th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Ordosipterus planignathus – The First Pterosaur from the Ordos Region of Inner Mongolia

Time to catch up with developments in the world of the Pterosauria with a brief look at the recently described new dsungaripteroid pterosaur named Ordosipterus planignathus.  Researchers from the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences have described a new species of flying reptile from a partial lower jawbone found in the Ordos region of Inner Mongolia.  This is the first confirmed pterosaur discovery from the Lower Cretaceous deposits associated with this region.  The Dsungaripteridae are both geographically and temporally widespread, with taxa known from South America, Asia, North America and Europe as well as China and Mongolia.  However, Ordosipterus enlarges the geographical distribution of this kind of pterosaur, from north-western China (with western Mongolia), to central northern China.

A Life Reconstruction of Ordosipterus planignathus

Life reconstruction - Ordosipterus planignathus.

A life reconstruction of Ordosipterus planignathus.

Picture Credit: Ji/China Geology

Probing in the Mud for Crustaceans or an Insect Eater

Palaeontologists are uncertain as the trophic habits of these pterosaurs.  That is, it is hard to say what these animals ate.  Dsungaripteroid skulls are characterised by their stoutness and their study bones.  The skulls seem to be reinforced and strengthened to cope with disproportionately large bite forces.  These reinforced skulls in combination with the robust teeth associated with this family suggest that these types of pterosaurs might have probed in soft-mud to find molluscs such as snails and bivalves.  They may also have fed on hard-shelled insects.  The jaws and teeth of dsungaripteroid pterosaurs seem particularly suited to a durophagus diet.

To read a recent Everything Dinosaur blog post that looked at the evidence for probe feeding amongst flying reptiles: The Sensitive Beaks of Pterosaurs.

Only one tooth crown was found in situ, it appears to be short and blunt, perhaps, further evidence of durophagy in this type of pterosaur.

The Holotype Material for O. planignathus with Accompanying Line Drawings

Ordosipterus planignathus (holotype IG V13-011) with line drawings.

The incomplete but articulated lower jaw bones of Ordosipterus planignathus (Holotype IG V13-011) with accompanying line drawings.  Note scale bar equals 2 cm.

Picture Credit: Ji/China Geology

The picture (above), shows the anterior portion of the lower jaws of the recently described flying reptile (a) dorsal view, (b) left lateral view and (c) ventral view.  The genus name honours the Ordos region, whilst the species or trivial name translates from the Greek and Latin as “flat-jawed”, in reference to the shape of the lower jaws.

Evidence of a Unique Biota in Northern China/Mongolia during the Early Cretaceous

The finding of a new species of Early Cretaceous (Aptian faunal stage), pterosaur unique to this area of Asia further strengthens the idea that two distinct terrestrial faunas existed.  It has been suggested that during the Early Cretaceous, two separate dinosaur/pterosaur dominated biotas could be identified in China and Mongolia.  The northern fauna was characterised by the presence of Psittacosaurus and a number of pterosaur genera (including Ordosipterus), whilst the southern fauna was distinguished by an absence of psittacosaurs.

The scientific paper: “First record of Early Cretaceous pterosaur from the Ordos Region, Inner Mongolia, China” by Shu-an Ji published in China Geology.

14 10, 2020

PNSO Gaoyuan the Microraptor Model

By | October 14th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

PNSO Gaoyuan the Microraptor Model

Everything Dinosaur will be stocking the beautiful PNSO Gaoyuan Microraptor model.  This excellent dinosaur figure with its iridescent feathers will be in stock in a few weeks, around the middle of November (2020).  This is the first, of what will be a series of new prehistoric animals introduced by PNSO over the next few weeks and months.

The PNSO Gaoyuan the Microraptor Model Will Be in Stock at Everything Dinosaur in a Few Weeks

PNSO Gaoyuan the Microraptor model.

The PNSO Gaoyuan the Microraptor model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Spectacular Model of a Feathered Dinosaur

In 2019, PNSO introduced their first version of this feathered, flying (most probably) dinosaur.  The original Gaoyuan the Microraptor from PNSO is smaller than the new version, it measures a little under eleven centimetres long, whilst the 2020 Gaoyuan is around twenty centimetres in length.

Gaoyuan the Microraptor (2020) A Feathered Dinosaur Model from PNSO

PNSO Gaoyuan the Microraptor.

The PNSO Microraptor figure, new for 2020 swoops into view.  This is one of the official images sent to Everything Dinosaur by the Chinese company.  The new for 2020 PNSO Microraptor figure is around twice as long as the 2019 PNSO Microraptor model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

This figure is slightly longer than the CollectA Deluxe 1:6 scale Microraptor that came into stock at Everything Dinosaur earlier this year.  Both the CollectA Deluxe Microraptor and this new version from PNSO have a twelve centimetre wingspan.  Therefore, although the mid-size models from PNSO do not have a declared scale, it could be suggested that the PNSO Gaoyuan Microraptor model is also around 1/6th scale.

Showing the Back of the Figure to Highlight the Feather Details and the Iridescence of the Plumage

Gaoyuan the Microraptor (posterior view).

The beautifully crafted iridescent feathers on the back of the PNSO Microraptor figure (Gaoyuan the Microraptor).  The view of the back of the model with its outstretched wings showing the amazing feather details and that spectacular iridescence.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Iridescent Plumage

An analysis of Microraptor fossil feathers undertaken by a joint Chinese and American team in 2012 revealed that this small dromaeosaurid dinosaur had glossy, iridescent feathers, like that of a modern crow (Corvidae).  The study also demonstrated that the narrow tail was adorned with a pair of streamer feathers, suggesting feathers originally evolved for display, rather than flight.  This is the earliest record of iridescence in feathers.

The PNSO Gaoyuan the Microraptor figure reflects the very latest research into this enigmatic member of the Dromaeosauridae.

The PNSO Microraptor Reflects the Very Latest Research into this Dromaeosaurid

PNSO Gaoyuan Microraptor model.

The beautiful PNSO Gaoyuan Microraptor model.  The model reflects the very latest research on the Microraptor genus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Recently, a scientific paper was published postulating that Microraptor moulted, shedding and replacing its feathers in a very similar fashion to a modern bird.

To read an article about the evidence for sequential moulting in Microraptor (M. gui): Microraptor Moulted Just Like a Modern Bird.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We know that the enthusiastic team at PNSO are working on a number of new dinosaur and prehistoric animal figures at the moment.  With this new Microraptor figure, model collectors have the opportunity to add to their feathered dinosaur model collection.”

This model will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur around the middle of November (2020).

Everything Dinosaur stocks a huge range of PNSO figures, to view the models and to see the first PNSO Microraptor: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Models and Figures.

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