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25 09, 2019

Stiff Skull Helped T. rex Crush Bones

By | September 25th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Stiff Skull Helped T. rex Crush Bones

Numerous research papers have been published about those monstrous jaws and huge skull of Tyrannosaurus rex.  Many of the studies have examined the biomechanics in a bid to better understand the bite forces that this Late Cretaceous terror could generate.  It is widely accepted that T. rex had a bone crushing bite, but just how it managed to crush the bones of a Triceratops or an unfortunate Edmontosaurus without damaging itself, has puzzled palaeontologists.  A new study, published in the journal “The Anatomical Record”, suggests that the T. rex skull was much stiffer than previously thought, much more like a crocodile skull or that of a hyena than a scaled-up, flexible bird skull.

New Study Suggests T. rex Had a Stiff Skull

"Scotty" the Tyrannosaurus rex.

A reconstruction of the skeleton of “Scotty” the T. rex.  Regarded as the heaviest specimen of T. rex known to science.   A new study suggests that like other bone-crushing tetrapods, the skull was functionally akinetic.

Picture Credit: Amanda Kelley

One of the co-authors of the study, Kaleb Sellers of the Missouri University School of Medicine explained:

“The T. rex had a skull that’s about six feet long, five feet wide and four feet high and bites with the force of about six tons.  Previous researchers looked at this from a bone-only perspective without taking into account all the connections, ligaments and cartilage that really mediate the interactions between the bones.”

Computer Generated Models Examined Stresses in the Upper Skull with a Focus on the Palatal Area

T. rex skull stress test.

Computer generated models were created to assess the stresses placed on an adult T. rex skull.

Picture Credit: University of Missouri

Looking at the Roof of the Mouth (Palatal Area)

The scientists, which included Kevin Middleton of the Missouri University School of Medicine, M. Scott Echols of The Medical Centre for Birds, Lawrence Witmer of Ohio University and Julian Davis (University of Southern Indiana), used a combination of anatomical study, computer modelling and biomechanical analysis assessing the skulls of a gecko and a parrot to examine how the skull of this apex Late Cretaceous predator was adapted to deliver such powerful bites.

Casey Holliday, from the University of Missouri, who also helped to write the scientific paper commented:

“Dinosaurs are like modern-day birds, crocodiles and lizards in that they inherited particular joints in their skulls from fish — ball and socket joints, much like people’s hip joints — that seem to lend themselves, but not always, to movement like in snakes.  When you put a lot of force on things, there’s a trade-off between movement and stability.  Birds and lizards have more movement but less stability.  When we applied their individual movements to the T. rex skull, we saw it did not like being wiggled in ways that the lizard and bird skulls do, which suggests more stiffness.”

A Functionally Akinetic Skull

Tyrannosaurus rex is considered to have one of the strongest bites of any terrestrial tetrapod.  There are lots of scientific papers and other literature that document this evidence.  Over the years, Everything Dinosaur have produced many articles on this subject area, including a blog post that summarised research published in “Biology Letters” – T. rex had a Bite More Powerful than any Other Land Animal.

The Skull and Jaws of Tyrannosaurus rex

A close-up view of a Kaiyodo Sofubi Toy Box Tyrannosaurus rex "classic" colour.

A close-up view of the head of the Kaiyodo Sofubi Toy Box T. rex “classic” colouration.  T. rex is famous for its huge and powerful jaws.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Biomechanical Paradox

The skull of T. rex has been regarded as quite flexible by palaeontologists, that is, it exhibits a degree of cranial kinensis.  The joints in the skull are quite mobile and flexible in relation to each other and the animal’s braincase.  This contradicts with what is seen in many extant tetrapods who are known to have a powerful, bone smashing bite.  Alligators and hyenas for example, have relatively robust and inflexible skulls, when compared to the skull of a bird or a lizard.  If the T. rex skull was flexible but still capable of delivering an enormous bite force, this is a biomechanical paradox, it defies a logical explanation.  Furthermore, the greatest bite forces measured for crocodilians and hyenas (ourselves for example too), are detected towards the back of the jaws, whereas, in Tyrannosaurus rex, the largest bite forces that have been calculated are recorded at the front of the jaws.

This New Analysis Suggests that the T. rex Skull was Functionally Akinetic

T. rex upper skull diagram.

Lateral and ventral views of a T. rex skull. The skull may have been more robust and stiffer than previously thought.

Picture Credit: University of Missouri

The researchers identified a number of adaptations in the cranium of T. rex to support the idea that the skull was not as flexible as previously thought.  The scientists postulate that the skull was functionally akinetic (much stiffer than previously surmised).

Research that Provides a Better Understanding of Our Own Joints and Bones

This study will help palaeontologists to better understand the function of tyrannosaurid skulls and the researchers postulate that their findings can help advance human and veterinary medicine.

The study, “Palatal biomechanics and its significance for cranial kinesis in Tyrannosaurus rex”, was published in The Anatomical Record.  Authors include Kevin Middleton of the Missouri University School of Medicine; M. Scott Echols of The Medical Centre for Birds; Lawrence Witmer of Ohio University and Julian Davis of University of Southern Indiana.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from the University of Missouri in the compilation of this article.

24 09, 2019

Dust from a Giant Asteroid Collision Caused Ordovician Ice Age

By | September 24th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Global Climate Change in the Ordovician Caused by Dust from a Giant Asteroid

Scientists have been aware for some time that during the Middle Ordovician, our planet endured a prolonged but gradual period of global cooling.  The average temperature on Earth fell and this opened up new ecological niches that permitted those animals and other organisms around at the time to adapt and to become more specious.  The cause of this world-wide ice age, one that started around 466 million years ago, is a mystery, but a team of scientists writing in the journal “Science Advances” think that they may have found the answer.  They postulate that the global cooling was triggered by huge amounts of dust deposited in the atmosphere from an extraterrestrial asteroid collision.

An Enormous Impact in Outer Space

Colliding asteroids in outer space.

An artist’s impression of an extraterrestrial asteroid impact.  Excessive amounts of dust in the atmosphere may have contributed to global cooling.

Picture Credit: Don Davis, Southwest Research Institute

Dust from Outer Space

The Earth’s atmosphere is constantly bombarded by extraterrestrial space dust, but normally it only makes up a tiny proportion of all the dust in the atmosphere.  Most of these tiny particles come from other sources such as volcanoes, forest fires, fine sand grains from deserts, pollution or from sea salt.  However, the research team, which included scientists from the University of Chicago and Sweden’s Lund University postulate that the break-up of a 93-mile-wide asteroid in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter led to the deposition of much more than just the normal background dosage of space dust.  Large amounts of dust would have interrupted the filtering of solar radiation to the surface of our planet and led to a period of dramatic global cooling.

Philipp Heck (University of Chicago), one of the co-authors of the paper published in “Science Advances” explained:

“Normally, Earth gains about 40,000 tons of extraterrestrial material every year.  Imagine multiplying that by a factor of a thousand or ten thousand.  Our hypothesis is that the large amounts of extraterrestrial dust over a timeframe of at least two million years played an important role in changing the climate on Earth, contributing to cooling.”

If large amounts of ice were formed due to this cooling effect, then sea-levels would have fallen as evidenced by the geological record of strata that was formed during this time in Earth’s turbulent history.  Falling sea levels would have changed ecosystems, potentially opening up new environments for organisms to exploit.

Lead author of the research paper, Birger Schmitz of Sweden’s Lund University added:

“Our results show for the first time that such dust, at times, has cooled Earth dramatically.  Our studies can give a more detailed, empirical-based understanding of how this works, and this in turn can be used to evaluate if model simulations are realistic.”

Searching for the Evidence

The researchers analysed Ordovician rocks looking for rare Earth particles that could be associated with cosmic dust.  Tiny micrometeorites collected from Antarctica were used to provide a base level of normal cosmic deposition.  Evidence of rare helium isotopes along with other rare Earth metals confirmed that dust deposits were extraterrestrial in nature.  The Middle Ordovician cooling period could therefore have been caused by this excessive dust.  The amount of water in the Earth’s oceans influences the way that rocks on the seabed form, and the rocks from this time period show signs of shallower oceans, an indication that some of the Earth’s water was trapped in glaciers and sea ice.  Schmitz and his colleagues are the first to show that this ice age correlates with the extra dust in the atmosphere.

A Fragment of a Meteorite Preserved in Ordovician-aged Rock (Note the Orthocone Fossil)

Fragment of a meteorite preserved in sandstone dating from the Ordovician. Note the orthocone fossil (above).

A fragment of a meteorite preserved in red sandstone dating from the Ordovician.  Note the orthocone fossil (above).

Picture Credit: John Weinstein/Chicago Field Museum

Gradual Climate Change Could Have Benefitted Life on Earth

Whilst the authors note that sudden and dramatic climate change can be very detrimental to ecosystems, the Middle Ordovician cooling could have proved to have been extremely beneficial.

Associate Professor Heck argues:

“In the global cooling we studied, we’re talking about timescales of millions of years.  It’s very different from the climate change caused by the meteorite 65 million years ago that killed the dinosaurs, and it’s different from the global warming today—this global cooling was a gentle nudge.  There was less stress.”

Rocks from Southern Sweden Record the Dramatic Increase in Cosmic Dust

The grey horizontal line marks the deposition of the cosmic dust from the asteroid collision in outer space.

These are cliffs made of sedimentary rock that was once an ancient seabed.  The grey horizontal line in the rock shows where the dust from the asteroid collision fell.  These deposits provide “smoking gun” evidence of the outer space asteroid collision.

Picture Credit: Philipp Heck (University of Chicago)

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from the University of Chicago in the compilation of this article.

23 09, 2019

Papo Models on Display

By | September 23rd, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Papo Prehistoric Animal Models on Display

At Everything Dinosaur, we are always keen to see how the prehistoric animal models that we supply are displayed.  Our staff are constantly amazed by the incredible dinosaur dioramas and prehistoric landscapes that are built by our customers.  Take for example, Donovan from Canada.   An enthusiastic collector of Papo figures “Les Dinosaures”, Donovan has built a substantial display case for the Papo models within his collection.

A Prehistoric World Dominated by Papo Prehistoric Animals

A fantastic display of Papo dinosaurs and prehistoric animal figures.

A fabulous display of Papo prehistoric animal figures.

Picture Credit: Donovan

A Splendid Dinosaur Display!

The recent Everything Dinosaur purchases have been added to Donovan’s dinosaur diorama.  The new for 2019 Papo Pentaceratops can be seen on the left of the picture (above),  in between the huge Papo Brachiosaurus and just behind the Papo Ankylosaurus model.  It had better look out as emerging from the trees we can see a Papo running T. rex model lurking, perhaps getting ready to ambush the unwary horned dinosaur!

Papo Prehistoric Animal Models on Display

A wonderful display of prehistoric animal models featuring Papo dinosaurs and othe models.

Papo models on display.  A wonderful display featuring Papo dinosaur models and a number of other prehistoric animal models.  Can you spot the Papo Dimetrodon?

Picture Credit: Donovan

Clever Use of Silhouettes

Providing a backdrop to the model display are some excellent silhouettes that help to provide an illusion of depth.   They are very well drawn and we congratulate our Canadian customer for such a creatively constructed prehistoric landscape.  There is certainly plenty of detail to admire, including a Therizinosaurus defending itself from an attacking Acrocanthosaurus and an unfortunate Styracosaurus that has been grabbed by a crocodile.

After providing permission for Everything Dinosaur to post up some pictures of his handiwork, Donovan explained that his personal prehistoric park took many hours to plan and to build, he commented:

“It took a lot of hard work for me to build that toy box/ display case.  I hope to finish the bookshelf case this winter that will go with the toy box and display the other half of our Papo figures.”

A Variety of Landscapes Feature in the Display Including a Desert and a Watering Hole

A desert scene featuring some Papo prehistoric animal models.

A desert scene has been incorporated into the Papo model display.  Note the rare, original Papo Oviraptor model in the foreground.

Picture Credit: Donovan

We congratulate Donovan on his fine prehistoric animal display, the diorama even has lighting to showcase his model collection.

Beware of the Dinosaur!  The Fantastic Prehistoric Animal Model Display Case

Papo prehistoric animal models on display at night.

A beautifully lit Papo prehistoric animal display case.

Picture Credit: Donovan

To view the Papo prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals.

22 09, 2019

The Second Velociraptor Species – Velociraptor osmolskae

By | September 22nd, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

The Second Velociraptor Species – Velociraptor osmolskae

The second Velociraptor species to be scientifically described – V. osmolskae, is very similar to V. mongoliensis.  However, the known fossil material has sufficient autapomorphies to support the erection of a separate species.  It is intriguing that the Djadochta and Bayan Mandahu Formations have yielded a very similar dinosaur fauna.  For example, Velociraptor mongoliensis, Protoceratops andrewsi, and Pinacosaurus grangeri are synonymous with the Djadochta Formation.  In contrast, V. osmolskae is associated with the Bayan Mandahu Formation, and this member of the Velociraptorinae subfamily shared its environment with Protoceratops hellenikorhinus, and Pinacosaurus mephistocephalus.

These differences in the biota associated with each geological formation might be due to some form of natural barrier separating the regions where these two deposits were formed.  Evidence for any substantial barrier that would deter the movement of animals from one area to another has proved elusive.  It might be and indeed, many palaeontologists favour this hypothesis, that the different faunas can be explained by there being a temporal difference between the two formations, i.e. one formation is younger than the other.

Everything Dinosaur’s Scale Drawing of Velociraptor osmolskae

Drawing of Velociraptor osmolskae.

A drawing of Velociraptor osmolskae.  It is estimated that this little “raptor”  measured around 1.8 metres in length (mostly tail), stood approximately 1 metre high and weighed around 15 kilograms.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

21 09, 2019

PNSO Box Art

By | September 21st, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page|0 Comments

The Fantastic Box Art on the PNSO Megalodon Figure (Patton)

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have received a lot of very positive comments about the cover sleeve artwork on the PNSO Megalodon model.  The company has gained a tremendous reputation for its artwork, thanks largely to the input of famous Chinese palaeoartist Zhao Chuang, who has illustrated numerous scientific papers highlighting fossil discoveries.  The artwork, showing a large shark breaking the surface with its huge teeth-lined jaws gaping has received lots of praise.

The Beautiful and Highly Detailed Cover Sleeve Artwork – PNSO Megalodon Model “Patton”

Brilliant artwork on the PNSO Megalodon model cover sleeve.

The amazing, colourful sleeve artwork on the PNSO Megalodon figure.  A fantastic illustration of the giant prehistoric shark Megalodon.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

PNSO have lots of other prehistoric animal figures in the pipeline, we look forward to seeing the box art that will accompany these models.

20 09, 2019

Japan’s Greatest Fossil Dinosaur Gets a Name

By | September 20th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Kamuysaurus japonicus – Japan’s Newest Dinosaur

Earlier this month, a scientific paper was published providing details of Japan’s most complete dinosaur fossil known to science.  The dinosaur, a member of the Hadrosauridae, has been named Kamuysaurus japonicus, with the Rugby World Cup starting today in the “land of the rising sun”, we thought it appropriate to feature this new species of Late Cretaceous duck-billed dinosaur in today’s blog post.

A Life Reconstruction of the Newly Described Japanese Dinosaur Kamuysaurus japonicus

Kamuysaurus life reconstruction.

A herd of Kamuysaurus wander along a beach.   In the illustration by Masato Hattori, a trio Kamuysaurus wander across a beach some 72 mya, the fossilised remains, representing a single animal was discovered in marine strata.

Picture Credit:  Kobayashi Y., et al, Scientific Reports

The fossils come from the part Cretaceous to Palaeocene-aged Hakobuchi Formation, specifically from outcrops close to the town of Mukawa on the island of Hokkaido.  Despite the semi-articulated and nearly complete nature of the fossil material, some bones are heavily damaged and show signs of extensive bioerosion (damage caused by marine invertebrates boring into the bones), prior to burial.  The strata associated with the fossil material has yielded ammonites, mosasaurs and the remains of a sea turtle, it is correlated to the lowest Maastrichtian (faunal stage).

At Everything Dinosaur, we have followed the research into this new species of duck-billed dinosaur with eager anticipation.  We first wrote about this fossil discovery some years ago, when tail bones discovered eroding out of a hillside hinted at a very special dinosaur fossil find:  Japan’s Most Complete Dinosaur Discovery

Assigned to the Edmontosaurini Clade

In the current study, a group of researchers led by Professor Yoshitsugu Kobayashi of the Hokkaido University Museum conducted comparative and phylogenetic analyses on 350 bones and 70 taxa of hadrosaurids, which led to the discovery that the dinosaur belongs to the Edmontosaurini clade and is closely related to Kerberosaurus unearthed in Russia and Laiyangosaurus from China.  This herbivorous dinosaur was named after the indigenous people of Hokkaido, the specific name refers to Japan.  It translates as “the deity of Japanese dinosaurs”.

The Holotype Skeleton of Kamuysaurus

Holotype specimen of Kamuysaurus.

Holotype skeleton of Kamuysaurus japonicus (a). Reconstructed skeleton showing recovered elements in white (b).  Its unique characteristics include the anterior inclination of neural spines of the sixth to twelfth dorsal vertebrae.

Picture Credit: Kobayashi Y., et al Scientific Reports

The researchers found that Kamuysaurus has three unique characteristics that are not shared by other dinosaurs in the Edmontosaurini clade: the low position of the cranial bone notch, the short ascending process of the jaw bone, and the anterior inclination of the neural spines of the sixth to twelfth dorsal vertebrae.  The histological analysis revealed that the animal was a fully grown adult at least nine years of age and it measured 8 metres in length with a body mass of around 4,000 kilograms.

The frontal bone, a part of its skull, has a big articular facet connecting to the nasal bone, possible evidence that Kamuysaurus may have had a crest.  The crest, if it existed, is believed to resemble the thin, flat crest of Brachylophosaurus subadults, whose fossils have been unearthed in North America.

Selected Skull Elements of Kamuysaurus japonicus

Selected skull elements of Kamuysaurus.

Selected skull elements of Kamuysaurus japonicus.  Its unique characteristics include the low position of the cranial bone notch (quadratojugal notch, qjn) and the short ascending process of the jaw bone (surangular, acp)

Picture Credit: Kobayashi Y., et al Scientific Reports

The study also shed light on the origin of the Edmontosaurini clade and how it might have migrated.  Its latest common ancestors spread widely across Asia and North America, which were connected by what is now Alaska, allowing them to travel between the two continents.  Among them, the clade of Kamuysaurus, Kerberosaurus and Laiyangosaurus inhabited the Far East during the Campanian faunal stage, the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous, before evolving independently.

The research team’s analyses pointed to the possibility that ancestors of hadrosaurids and its subfamilies, Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae, preferred to inhabit areas near the ocean, suggesting the coastline environment was an important factor in the diversification of the hadrosaurids in its early evolution, especially in North America.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from Hokkaido University in the compilation of this article.

The “A New Hadrosaurine (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae) from the Marine Deposits of the Late Cretaceous Hakobuchi Formation, Yezo Group, Japan” by Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, Tomohiro Nishimura, Ryuji Takasaki, Kentaro Chiba, Anthony R. Fiorillo, Kohei Tanaka, Tsogtbaatar Chinzorig, Tamaki Sato and Kazuhiko Sakurai published in the journal Scientific Reports.

19 09, 2019

Saturnalia Gets Its Head Examined

By | September 19th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

New Study Suggests Saturnalia Had a Small Head

The South American sauropodomorph Saturnalia (S. tupiniquim) lived some 233 million years ago.  As dinosaurs go, this 1.4 metre long animal might not be regarded as a superstar of the Dinosauria, it is not likely to be offered a starring role in any new instalment of the Jurassic Park movie franchise, but for palaeontologists, Saturnalia is a very significant dinosaur indeed.  Described twenty years ago, the skeleton of this little dinosaur demonstrates both sauropod and theropod traits and as such, any additional information gleaned about it can cause quite considerable shock waves in palaeontological circles.

A Life Reconstruction of Saturnalia tupiniquim

A life reconstruction of Saturnalia.

New study on the skull Saturnalia suggests it had a disproportionately small head.

Picture Credit: Rodolfo Nogueira

New Study Published in the Journal PLOS One

Scientists from the Universidade de São Paulo in collaboration with a colleague from the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria have published a new study of the skull shape and size of Saturnalia in the on-line academic journal PLOS One.  The research team conclude that Saturnalia had a skull less than 10 centimetres in length, quite small in relation to the size of the animal.  Because it had a long neck and a small, lightweight skull, Saturnalia may have been able to move its head very quickly, helping it to secure tiny, elusive prey.  This idea is also supported by a study of the teeth of this dinosaur and brain shape inferred from an analysis of the skull bones.

The Skull of Saturnalia

Analysing the skull of Saturnalia.

The skull of Saturnalia was examined using computerised tomography.  The picture shows the skull elements that were subjected to the CT scan and a line drawing shows a lateral view of the proposed skull of Saturnalia (known fossil elements in green).

Picture Credit: Rodolfo Nogueira

A Reduced Skull

Computerised microtomography was used to assess the shape and structure of the delicate skull fossils still entombed inside their rock matrix.  This non-destructive technique enabled the research team to reconstruct the skull of this dinosaur and to identify the reduced skull.

One of the authors of the scientific paper, Mario Bronzati, postdoctoral fellow at the Department of Biology at the Ribeirão Preto School of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters (Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil) commented:

“It was very difficult to remove the fossil from the sediment in which it was trapped.  Doing so in the traditional way by scraping the sediment could break these bones because they were so fragile.”

Although numerous papers on Saturnalia tupiniquim have been published, little was known about the morphology of the skull.  The three-dimensional images that were created as a result of this analysis provided the researchers with the opportunity to study the head of this dinosaur in detail and the reconstruct the skull of this Late Triassic dinosaur.

A Diagram Showing the Skull of Saturnalia

Saturnalia skull diagram.

A diagram of the skull of Saturnalia (lateral view and dorsal view).

Picture Credit: PLOS One

The skull is disproportionately small when compared to the size of the dinosaur’s body.  It is thought that Saturnalia was carnivorous, eating small prey items  such as lizards, mammals and insects, but the consumption of plants cannot be ruled out.  The reduced skull is a characteristic of the Sauropodomorpha lineage and demonstrated in later sauropods such as Diplodocus and Brachiosaurus.  The specialisation of the skull and neck of Saturnalia has implications for the evolution of these lizard-hipped dinosaurs as later forms became entirely herbivorous.  Skull reduction significantly reduced the biomechanical contraints for the development of long necks, in turn, longer necks permitted access to food resources that were unreachable for other plant-eating dinosaurs.  This would have helped to provide a competitive advantage and might explain why later sauropods grew to such large sizes.  Thus, the idea that skull reduction was first acquired in a likely predatory member of the sauropodomorph lineage (i.e. Saturnalia) implies a scenario where a trait related to one habit (faunivory) was crucial for the evolution of a completely different lifestyle (herbivory) in a subsequently different selection regime.

18 09, 2019

Everything Dinosaur Handling UK and European Beasts of the Mesozoic Kickstarter Rewards

By | September 18th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur Handling UK and European Kickstarter Action Figure Rewards

With the launch of the Kickstarter campaign for the Beasts of the Mesozoic Ceratopsian series, these are exciting times for model collectors and dinosaur fans.  Everything Dinosaur, the UK-based, specialist prehistoric animal mail order company is proud to have been associated with the Beasts of the Mesozoic range of collectable figures for several years and will be handling the fulfilment of all the Kickstarter action figure rewards for this prestigious campaign for Ceratopsian Kickstarter backers within the UK and European Union.

The Beasts of the Mesozoic Ceratopsian Series Kickstarter Has Launched

Ceratopsian series - Beasts of the Mesozoic

Beasts of the Mesozoic Ceratopsian Series.  An exciting new range of articulated horned dinosaur figures.

Everything Dinosaur’s Involvement

The involvement of Everything Dinosaur in the fulfilment aspect of the campaign further cements the close working relationship between the talented team behind Creative Beast Studio and the logistics experts at an award-winning company.  Dinosaur fans are going to be elated about this new Kickstarter project, but the design and build process is just one phase in meeting the needs of model collectors.  Followers of the previous “Raptor” Kickstarter project will be all too aware of the difficulties that can arise during the production process.  Once produced, other issues can be encountered as these models are despatched to project supporters.  By involving Everything Dinosaur in the fulfilment, supporters within the UK and Europe can be assured that their figures will be despatched by Everything Dinosaur from their European base.  This substantially reduces the risk of customers incurring additional taxes, custom duties and tariffs.

What a Line Up!  A Cornucopia of Ceratopsians

A selection of some of the amazing Beasts of the Mesozoic Ceratopsians.

A selection of Beasts of the Mesozoic horned dinosaur models.  The Kickstarter campaign outlines a schedule of ten models being released in September 2020, with a further eight new figures in March 2021.  If all goes to plan, a third wave consisting of seven more dinosaurs will be available in September 2021.

Ceratopsian Figures Coming into Stock

As well as handling the fulfilment for European and UK customers, Everything Dinosaur will be bringing in their own bulk stock of these figures, this should ensure a swift and trouble free route for the models from the factory to UK warehousing without customs delays, thus ensuring that Kickstarter backers can receive their pledged items promptly.

In addition, as  Everything Dinosaur will be carrying stocks of the Beasts of the Mesozoic ranges, fans can add to their figure collection easily and conveniently via Everything Dinosaur’s own website.

The Beasts of the Mesozoic Xenoceratops Figure

Beasts of the Mesozoic Xenoceratops.

The Beasts of the Mesozoic Xenoceratops figure, part of this exciting new model range.

 

Mike Walley from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Fulfilment operations on a global scale can be quite a tricky business.  Fans of the excellent Beasts of the Mesozoic model range want to get these models without any additional burdens.  At Everything Dinosaur, our warehouse team despatch parcels to Europe and the UK all the time, our customers are well-used to our seamless and efficient delivery service.  Whilst we cannot guarantee that customers may incur additional expense in the form of duties and taxes, or indeed that international trading terms and conditions may change, in our experience when supplying European and UK customers from our UK warehousing we are have not heard of any problems arising .  We take great care to ensure that parcels are labelled correctly and despatched appropriately, after all, we have a 5-star customer service rating from Feefo as well as an award for Gold Standard service.”

To visit the new Beasts of the Mesozoic Kickstarter site: Ceratopsian Kickstarter Campaign

To view the existing range of Beasts of the Mesozoic prehistoric animal figures available from Everything Dinosaur: Beasts of the Mesozoic “Raptors”

17 09, 2019

Preparing for a School Visit

By | September 17th, 2019|Educational Activities, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils, Teaching|0 Comments

Preparing for a Fossil Workshop

The autumn term is well underway and team members at Everything Dinosaur are busy conducting dinosaur themed and fossil workshops in schools, catering for a wide range of different age groups.  This week, our team members will be dealing with the eager and very excitable Early Years Foundation Stage classes (Nursery and Reception), as well as working with slightly more mature (we hope), students in Key Stages 3 and 4.

One of the things we have been asked to discuss with the students in year nine and ten that we will be working with this week, is potential career options in the Earth sciences.  This is certainly a very broad subject and we hope to provide some pointers.  We have been brushing up on our knowledge regarding career paths as well as brushing up some rather beautiful Dactylioceras ammonite fossils that we intend to use in a short exercise looking at taphonomy and the importance of index fossils.

Selecting Fossils to Use in Our Exercise with Key Stage 3 and Key Stage 4 Students

Ammonite fossils (Dactylioceras).

A selection of ammonite fossils to be used in an exercise exploring the role of index fossils with science students.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

16 09, 2019

Rebor GrabNGo Komodo Dragon Model

By | September 16th, 2019|Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|1 Comment

Rebor GrabNGo Komodo Dragon Model

Everything Dinosaur team members have been taking an exclusive look at the up-and-coming Rebor Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) model, which is the first in a new product line entitled “GrabNGo”.  This is a beautiful, highly detailed model of the largest living lizard, which is sometimes referred to as the Komodo monitor.

The New Rebor GrabNGo Komodo Dragon (V. komodoensis) Replica

The Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon model.

The new for 2019 Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A 1:6 Scale Komodo Dragon Replica

The model measures a fraction under 48 centimetres in length, but when the curvature of that impressive tail is taken into account the model’s true size is around half a metre, making this a 1:6 scale replica.  The skin texture has been skilfully created with accurate folds and appropriately proportioned digits.  The underside of the body and tail also shows lots of amazing detail and scales, particularly along the underside of the neck and jaw, although our figure lacks a cloaca.  The production sample we were kindly sent does not have a CE mark so the skin texture is uninterrupted along the entire animal’s length.

Amazing Detail on the Head of the New Rebor GrabNGo Komodo Dragon Model

The fine detailing around the head and neck of the new Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon replica.

The fine detailing around the head and neck of the new Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon model.  The dark eye has been given a wet-look with the application of a fine gloss.  This contrasts nicely with the muted tones of the body colouration.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A View Showing the Variety of Scales Represented on the Head and the Back of the Model

A wonderful representation of the largest living lizard - Komodo dragon.

A dorsal view of the new Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Dragon Skin

The lightweight but reinforced hollow vinyl material gives this figure a very solid feel and the subtle painting provides the viewer with an impression of an expensive desk-top figure.  The Komodo dragon is renowned for its tough hide.  The skin of this lizard, which can reach lengths of up to 2.6 metres and weigh in excess of 70 kilograms, is reinforced by tiny dermal scales (osteoderms).  It is thought that this armour helps to prevent injury when it attacks large prey or during intraspecific combat.

Skin Folds around the Belly Area and the Back of the Head – Komodo Dragon Model

GrabNGo Komodo dragon figure (Rebor).

Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Megalania Connection

This Rebor GrabNGo figure could also be used to represent the extinct giant goanna of southern Australia – Megalania (Varanus priscus, or sometimes referred to as Megalania prisca).  It has been proposed that Megalania represents a sister taxon to the Komodo dragon and like its Indonesian cousin, it was an apex predator within the ecosystem.  Size estimates for Megalania vary but studies of fossilised dorsal vertebrae suggest a length of around 6 metres.  If this is the case, then the Rebor GrabNGo model would equate to a 1:12 scale replica.

Is this a Megalania or a Komodo Dragon?

Megalania or Komodo dragon? Your decide.

Komodo dragon or Megalania?  You decide.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Available Late September/Early October

The Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon is likely to be available before Christmas.  Everything Dinosaur team members are doing all they can to ship this model in quickly.

The price is estimated to be around £15.99 plus postage (GBP).

To join our priority reserve list for this exciting new figure: Email Everything Dinosaur to Reserve a Komodo Dragon Model

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