All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.

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20 10, 2019

Trilobite Fossils From Morocco Reveal Collective Behaviour

By | October 20th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Linear Clusters of Trilobites (Ampyx priscus)

Collective behaviour is seen in all kinds of animals today.  Birds migrating, plagues of locusts, turtle nesting behaviour, social insects and such like, but when and how such complex collective behaviour in the animal kingdom evolved remains a mystery.  A team of scientists writing in the academic journal “Scientific Reports”, have published a paper on a series of fossils from south-eastern Morocco, that have been interpreted as showing collective, social behaviour amongst a group of 480-million-year-old trilobites.

Trilobite Fossils from the Lower Ordovician – Possible Collective Behaviour

Trilobite collective behaviour.

The raphiophorid trilobite Ampyx priscus from the Lower Ordovician, Fezouta Shale of Morocco – collective behaviour.

Picture Credit: Scientific Reports

Trilobites Travelling in Columns

Social behaviour is seen in many arthropods and other types of invertebrate today.  Termites and ants living in colonies, communities of bees and wasps and many types of crustacean migrate in cohorts gaining protection against predators by their sheer weight of numbers.  For example, hundreds of spiny lobsters line up for their annual migration through the blue waters of the Caribbean.  Each lobster maintains contact with the one in front with its antennules and the anterior legs.  Thus, even at night the migration can continue without disruption.  The scientists have interpreted a series of fossils showing linear clusters of Ampyx trilobites as collective behaviour.  The fossils come from the Fezouta Shale (upper Tremadocian-Floian stage) and consequently are dated to around 480 million years ago.

Passive transport of the corpses of these ancient arthropods has been discounted by the researchers, instead, they conclude that this trilobite was probably migrating in groups and using its long spines to maintain a single-row formation.  Physical contact might have been reinforced with chemical communication, which is known to occur in some types of arthropods today.

This group behaviour may have been a response to environmental stress due to periodic storms shown by sedimentological evidence associated with the fossil deposits, or perhaps these animals were migrating together to reach favoured spawning grounds.

This record of linear clustering in early euarthropods suggests that intraspecific group-level patterns comparable to those of modern animals already existed 480 million years ago in the early stages of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event.

Interpretative Line Drawings of Trilobite Linear Clusters

Trilobite linear clusters.

Line drawings of trilobite linear clusters indicating collective behaviour.

Picture Credit: Scientific Reports

The scientific paper: “Collective behaviour in 480-million-year-old trilobite arthropods from Morocco” by Jean Vannier, Muriel Vidal, Robin Marchant, Khadija El Hariri, Khaoula Kouraiss, Bernard Pittet, Abderrazak El Albani, Arnaud Mazurier and Emmanuel Martin published in Scientific Reports.

19 10, 2019

How Did Big Dinosaurs Keep Cool?

By | October 19th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page|0 Comments

Different Types of Dinosaurs Evolved Different Cooling Systems

Giant dinosaurs, be they bird-hipped leviathans such as Ankylosaurus, huge meat-eating theropods such as Tyrannosaurus rex and Carnotaurus, or the biggest terrestrial animals known to science, sauropods such as Diplodocus, Camarasaurus and Brachiosaurus all faced the same problem when it came to keeping cool.  New research from the Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine (part of Ohio University), suggests that different types of giant dinosaur solved the overheating problem in different ways.  In essence, in order to prevent the brains of these large-bodied tetrapods from overheating, they developed different cooling systems in different parts of their heads.

Thermoregulatory Function in the Skulls of Diplodocids

How Diplodocus may have kept cool.

To avoid overheating, the sauropod Diplodocus may have panted, moving air back and forth through its mouth and nose to help cool its blood.

Picture Credit: Michael Skrepnick and Witmerlab (Ohio University)

How to Avoid the Head Overheating?

Researchers writing in the journal “The Anatomical Record”, the publication of the American Association for Anatomy, studied the skulls of a variety of large dinosaurs and compared them to living reptiles and archosaurs – crocodiles and birds and they concluded that different genera of giant dinosaurs solved the problem of overheating in different ways, essentially evolving different cooling systems in different parts of the skull.

Lead author of the study, Ruger Porter (Assistant Professor of Anatomical Instruction, Ohio University) explained:

“The brain and sense organs like the eye are very sensitive to temperature.  Animals today often have elaborate thermoregulatory strategies to protect these tissues by shuttling hot and cool blood around various networks of blood vessels.  We wanted to see if dinosaurs were doing the same things.”

Dinosaurs evolved from much smaller ancestors and as these animals grew bigger, so their surface area to volume ratios changed.   Large bodies retain heat more effectively than small bodies, keeping warm may not have been too much of a problem for a thirty tonne sauropod, but losing heat, being able to keep cool, that would have been quite a challenge for such animals.

Co-author of the study, Professor Lawrence Witmer (Department of Biomedical Sciences, Ohio University) commented:

“Small dinosaurs could have just run into the shade to cool off, but for those giant dinosaurs, the potential for overheating was literally inescapable.  They must have had special mechanisms to control brain temperature, but what were they?”

As Dinosaurs Got Bigger so Thermoregulation Issues Got Bigger Too

Sauropodamorpha size comparison.

Sauropodamorpha size comparison Plateosaurus, Lufengosaurus and Ingentia prima compared.  As dinosaur body size increased, these animals had to evolve ways to help them to lose heat and to keep cool.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

An Explanation Based on Physics – Dinosaurs Kept Cool Using Evaporation

The researchers obtained carcases of birds and reptiles that had died from natural causes from various zoos and wildlife centres.  They then plotted the location of blood vessels using CT scans in those part of the animal’s body that were associated with evaporative cooling.  Areas such as the nostrils, the mouth and the eyes, areas where moisture is present would facilitate evaporative cooling of any blood that followed through these areas.  The scientists accurately measured bony canals and grooves that conveyed the blood vessels within a series of dinosaur skulls.

Porter added:

“The handy thing about blood vessels is that they basically write their presence into the bones.  The bony canals and grooves that we see in modern-day birds and reptiles are our link to the dinosaur fossils.  We can use this bony evidence to restore the patterns of blood flow in extinct dinosaurs and hopefully get a glimpse into their thermal physiology and how they dealt with heat.”

Ruger Porter and Lawrence Witmer with Various Casts of Dinosaur Skulls

Scientists examine how dinosaurs kept cool.

Researchers Porter (left) and Witmer (right) with some of the skull casts of dinosaurs assessed in the research.

Picture Credit: Witmer Lab (University of Ohio)

Sharon Swartz, a programme director at the National Science Foundation, which funded the research stated:

“The discovery that different dinosaurs cooled their brains in a variety of ways not only provides a window into the everyday life of dinosaurs, it also serves as an exemplar of how the physical constraints imposed by specific environmental conditions have shaped the evolution of this diverse and unique group.  Using a combination of technological innovation and biological expertise, these researchers were able to take a direct reading from the fossil record that provides new clues about how dinosaur skeletal form and function evolved.”

One Size Does Not Fit All

Expanding upon previous research, this new paper identifies that dinosaurs evolved subtly different solutions to the problem of heat stroke.  A key factor turned out to be body size.  Small dinosaurs such as pachycephalosaurs had a very balanced pattern of blood vessels with no single cooling region being dominant.  Such dinosaurs, most of which were around 2-3 metres in length could seek out shade to keep cool and therefore probably had fewer problems when it came to thermoregulation.  Huge dinosaurs such as the sauropods and the ankylosaurs increased blood flow to particular cooling regions of the head, they had an overabundance of blood vessels in parts of their skull that would have contributed to cooling.  This unbalanced vascular pattern allowed the thermal strategies of large dinosaurs to be more focused, emphasising one or more cooling regions.

Evaporation Helped to Keep Dinosaurs Cool

An overabundance of blood vessels in certain areas of the skull helped diplodocids keep cool.

How diplodocids kept cool.

Picture Credit: Witmer Lab (University of Ohio) with life reconstruction by Michael Skrepnick

Different Cooling Regions

Although sauropods and ankylosaurs (Euoplocephalus), all had unbalanced vascular patterns highlighting centres of cooling, they still differed.  Sauropods, for example, had greater emphasis on the nasal cavity and the mouth as cooling regions, whereas it was the complicated sinuses of ankylosaurs that helped them to lose heat.

Porter commented:

“It’s possible that sauropods were so large, often weighing dozens of tons, that they needed to recruit the mouth as a cooling region in times of heat stress.  Panting sauropods may have been a common sight!”

One interesting anomaly highlighted by this research is that many of the theropod dinosaurs such as Carnotaurus and Tyrannosaurus rex may have possessed balanced vascular patterns, similar to those identified in much smaller dinosaurs.

Professor Witmer outlined how theropods might have kept cool:

“This finding had us scratching our heads until we noticed the obvious difference—theropods like Majungasaurus and T. rex had a huge air sinus in their snouts.”

Earlier studies had shown that large theropods had an antorbital air sinus that was supplied with many blood vessels.  Air circulated through the antorbital air sinus like a bellows pump every time these animals breathed.  Such an actively ventilated, vascular sinus would provide a potential cooling region for these huge bipeds.

The scientists hope to continue this area of study including other Ornithischian dinosaur such as ceratopsids and hadrosaurs to see if these types of dinosaurs evolved different thermoregulatory strategies.

To read a related article on how armoured dinosaurs kept themselves cool: Convoluted Nasal Passages Helped Armoured Dinosaurs Cool their Brains

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from Ohio University in the compilation of this article.

18 10, 2019

PNSO Prehistoric Animal Models Arrive!

By | October 18th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Ten New PNSO Prehistoric Animal Models

Ten new PNSO prehistoric animal models have just arrived at Everything Dinosaur.  Team members have been busy contacting all those customers on our reserve lists and posting updates on our social media pages including our Twitter feed and Facebook page.  The new models are: Bieber the Stegosaurus, Paulwin the Dakosaurus, Dayong the Yangchuanosaurus, Duke the Spinops, Er-ma the Mamenchisaurus, Levy the Eurhinosaurus, Gaoyuan the Microraptor, Luxi the Huayangosaurus, Shanshan the Gigantoraptor and Cuiyu the Tsintaosaurus.

Ten New Prehistoric Animal Models (PNSO) are in Stock at Everything Dinosaur

New PNSO prehistoric animal models in stock.

Ten new PNSO prehistoric animal models in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the new models and the rest of the extensive PNSO Age of Dinosaurs range: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Prehistoric Animal Models.

New Chinese Dinosaur Models

Several of the new models are museum quality representations of dinosaurs known from China.  The giant feathered dinosaur Gigantoraptor (G. erlianensis) for example, possibly the largest feathered tetrapod to have ever lived.

Shanshan the PNSO Gigantoraptor Model

PNSO Shanshan the Gigantoraptor dinosaur model.

Shanshan the Gigantoraptor dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The New for 2019 Cuiyu the Tsintaosaurus Dinosaur Model

PNSO Cuiyu the Tsintaosaurus dinosaur model.

The new for 2019 Tsintaosaurus dinosaur model (PNSO).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We have been working with PNSO for several years now on this exciting prehistoric animal model range.  The number of models in production has certainly increased and with the addition of these new figures, we have in stock around seventy-five PNSO prehistoric animals, ranging in size from a few centimetres in length to giant replicas such as Nick the Ceratosaurus, the 1:35 scale scientific art Mamenchisaurus and Brook the Ophthalmosaurus that measures nearly half a metre in length.”

PNSO Eurhinosaurus Marine Reptile Model

The talented model makers at PNSO have also added to the range of ichthyosaur models that they offer.  The company produced a small Himalayasaurus for their “Age of Dinosaurs Toys” range, Himalayasaurus was a giant, Triassic ichthyosaur.  In addition, Brook the Ophthalmosaurus was introduced last year.  Making it a trio of ichthyosaurs is a replica of the Early Jurassic Eurhinosaurus, regarded as perhaps one of the fastest swimming marine reptiles to have evolved.

The PNSO Eurhinosaurus Model

Levy the Eurhinosaurus.

Levy the Eurhinosaurus ichthyosaur model from PNSO.  Fossil finds from Early Jurassic rocks from Europe suggest that this ichthyosaur reached lengths of around 6.5 metres and was a very fast swimming marine reptile.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Team members have promised to post up more pictures and to shoot some more short videos of this exciting PNSO prehistoric animal model collection.

17 10, 2019

Eofauna Deinotherium and News About the Eofauna Atlasaurus

By | October 17th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Eofauna Deinotherium and Eofauna Atlasaurus

There is so much to do these days at Everything Dinosaur, for example, we have received stocks of the new Deinotherium model (Eofauna Scientific Research).  So, in between informing all our customers on our priority reserve lists and getting this model on-line, we have all been very busy.  However, we have received a number of requests to put up pictures of the model and to shoot a short video.  We took photographs and these were posted up onto our various social media platforms yesterday.

As promised, we did make a brief video showing  the model…

The New for 2019 Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium Replica

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The video, taken in our new video and photographic studio shows a brief glimpse of the model.  It allows viewers to appreciate the size, of this, the fourth replica to have been produced by Eofauna Scientific Research in their model range.

To read the article featuring the Eofauna Deinotherium replica with the studio photographs that we took: Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium Model is in Stock.

For the moment, we are restricted in the type of videos that we can produce.  We intend to produce much longer model reviews as well as updates about new models being developed and such like in the future.  However, for the time being this short video plus our photographs will have to be enough to whet the appetites of prehistoric animal model collectors.

What About the Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus?

The Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus model is coming into stock at Everything Dinosaur in the next few weeks or so.  This is the second dinosaur figure that Eofauna have created after their beautifully crafted Giganotosaurus model.

The Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus Dinosaur Model

The Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus dinosaur model.

Atlasaurus (Eofauna Scientific Research).  This figure is due to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur (end October/early November 2019).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

With the studio all set up, we took the opportunity to remind customers and YouTube subscribers how they can join Everything Dinosaur’s priority reserve list for this eagerly awaited sauropod figure.

To join our priority reserve list for the Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus, just email Everything Dinosaur: Email Everything Dinosaur to Reserve an Atlasaurus.

A Video Reminder – How to Reserve Your Eofauna Scientific Research Atlasaurus Model

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the current range of Eofauna figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: The Eofauna Scientific Research Range of Models

16 10, 2019

Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium is in Stock

By | October 16th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium Model is in Stock

The new for 2019 Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium model is in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  The Deinotherium becomes the fourth figure to be added to Eofauna’s range, it joins a Steppe Mammoth (Mammuthus trogontherii) and a Straight-tusked elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus), as extinct members of the Order Proboscidea to be represented in this exciting portfolio of prehistoric animal replicas.

In Stock at Everything Dinosaur the New for 2019 Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium Model

Eofauna Deinotherium model.

A view of the new for 2019 Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Complete with Deinotherium Data Card

The Deinotherium prehistoric elephant model comes complete with a data card.  Everything Dinosaur team members have been assisting Eofauna Scientific Research with the text associated with their models.  Purchases of this figure from Everything Dinosaur will also be accompanied by a fact sheet on Deinotherium giganteum complied by our staff.  Our fact sheet also includes a scale drawing so that readers can assess the true size of this extinct member of the elephant family.

A Close-up View of the Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium Model

Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium model.

A close-up view of the new for 2019 Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Model Measurements

The Deinotherium replica measures around 20 centimetres in length and it stands around 13 centimetres high.  This beautifully detailed model has been developed based on analysis of actual fossil material and the Eofauna range of replicas is rapidly becoming a firm favourite amongst model and figure collectors.

A View of the Carefully Sculpted Trunk on the Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium Replica

Eofauna Deinotherium model.

The Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium replica.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The texture on the skin has been carefully crafted and the paint job is excellent, particularly the work on those downward pointing tusks which have a roughened  and weathered look to them.  The downward pointing tusks were used by these prehistoric elephants in a variety of ways.  The tusks probably served a variety of functions to assist with feeding.  For example, some palaeontologists suggest that the tusks were used to excavate tubers and roots.  Other scientists have proposed that the tusks were used to help to scrape bark from trees.  The curved tusks would have made very effective hooks to help Deinotherium pull at tree branches, from which they could strip the leaves.

The Posterior of the Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium Figure

Eofauna Scientific Research Deinotherium Model

That’s all folks, no more pics of the Deinotherium for the time being.  Pick up your Deinotherium model from Everything Dinosaur before they have gone.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To purchase the Eofauna Deinotherium model and to see the rest of the figures in the Eofauna Scientific Research range: Eofauna Scientific Research Prehistoric Animal Models.

15 10, 2019

Torosaurus latus

By | October 15th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Torosaurus latus

Whilst trawling our extensive database of dinosaur images on a hunt for pictures of Triassic invertebrates, we came across a rather magnificent illustration of the Late Cretaceous, North American ceratopsid Torosaurus (T. latus), by the celebrated palaeoartist Sergey Krasovskiy.  The illustration had been used previously in a story about a horned dinosaur discovery from Colorado that had been thought to represent a Triceratops, but when more of the fossil material emerged, the specimen was identified as a much rarer Torosaurus latus.

The Illustration of the Ceratopsid Torosaurus (T. latus)

Torosaurus illustrated.

An illustration of Torosaurus latus (Sergey Krasovskiy).

Picture Credit: Sergey Krasovskiy

Known from fossil material found in western North America (as far south as Texas and as far north as Saskatchewan in Canada), Torosaurus was one of the larger horned dinosaur inhabitants of the Maastrichtian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous.  The absence of juveniles in the fossil record and its close relationship to Triceratops led to the hypothesis that Torosaurus was not a valid genus at all, the fossils represented very old individuals of the Triceratops genus.

To read an article from 2010 that discusses this theory: The Extinction of Torosaurus – Second Time Around.

The taxonomic relationship between Triceratops and Torosaurus is still debated.  Research is on-going and the picture has been somewhat complicated when Nedoceratops (N. hatcheri) is added to the mix.  Nedoceratops is known from a single skull specimen found in Wyoming.  Some palaeontologists think that it is a valid genus, whilst others consider it nomen dubium, as the fossil might represent a growth stage of Triceratops.  If this is proved to be the case (more fossil finds of Late Cretaceous members of the tribe Triceratopsini are required), then Nedoceratops will probably become a synonym of “three-horned face”.  This in itself could be controversial as Nedoceratops was formally named and described in 1868, whilst the first Triceratops species (T. horridus) was actually named twenty-one years later (1889).

The CollectA Torosaurus Dinosaur Model

CollectA Torosaurus Prehistoric Life dinosaur model.

The CollectA Prehistoric Life Torosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

14 10, 2019

TetZooCon 2019

By | October 14th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

TetZooCon 2019

Just a few more sleeps until the start of the annual TetZooCon event in London.  This is the meeting of fans of the tetrapods (living and extinct), amphibians and the amniotes (reptiles, birds and mammals).  Once again Everything Dinosaur is delighted to announce that we will be sponsoring this prestigious meeting themed around the world-renowned blog Tetrapod Zoology.

TetZooCon is bigger and better than ever and it takes place on Saturday 19th and Sunday 20th October at the spacious “The Venue” in Malet Street, London.  Speakers from the TetZooCon universe will be presenting on topics as diverse as whale strandings, the diseases of theropod dinosaurs, natural history film making and hunting with eagles.  Amongst the activities there will be a quiz and Everything Dinosaur has donated the prizes.

Eofauna Scientific Figures – Part of Everything Dinosaur’s TetZooCon Slide Show

Eofauna figures showcased at TetZooCon 2019.

Five beautiful prehistoric animal figures from Eofauna will feature in the TetZooCon slide show presentation by Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Conservation and Cryptozoology

The two-day conference covers a variety of special interests, from conservation projects looking into the demise of UK amphibian populations to using citizen science to investigate the impact of roadkill.  There is a lot for cryptozoologists too.  Cryptozoology looks at the evidence to prove the existence of animals from myths, legends and folklore, such as the Mokele-mbembe from the Congo Basin of Africa, which some believe to be a type of sauropod dinosaur.  Conference organiser Darren Naish, an authority on the subject, will be taking time out from his duties at the event to sell and sign copies of his latest book – “The Cryptozoologicon (Volume 1)” – the biology, evolution and mythology of hidden animals.  TetZooCon will include plenty of time to meet authors, peruse their publications and to get some favourite copies signed.

Everything Dinosaur has Prepared Slide Shows for the Event

Some of the models and figures in the Everything Dinosaur range.

Prehistoric animals, models and figures at TetZooCon 2019.  The first 1:6 scale Komodo dragon figures in the UK will be given away as prizes and look out for Rebor and PNSO prizes too – all donated by Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Haven for Palaeoart and Palaeoartists

Talented artist and fellow organiser John Conway will be leading some of the exciting palaeoart activities and workshops.  Noted luminaries in the world of prehistoric illustration will be attending such as Bob Nicholls and Beth Windle will be leading a discussion on “women in palaeoart”.  This annual event is turning into a haven for palaeoart and palaeoartists, the extensive social media coverage will give plenty of opportunity to all those unable to attend to view and appreciate the artwork and scientific illustrations on display.

The quiz might even feature a Beasts of the Mesozoic model or two.  We could not possibly comment, other than to say that as the exclusive distributors for this exciting range of articulated collectible figures, they epitomise the link between beautiful scientific illustration and imaginative scale models.  On the subject of scale models, look for a presentation by Agata Stachowiak on how to produce accurate models of prehistoric animals – fascinating stuff.

Beasts of the Mesozoic – Combining Articulated Models with Beautiful Palaeoart

Beasts of the Mesozoic at TetZooCon

The Beasts of the Mesozoic range of “Raptors” is featured in the Everything Dinosaur TetZooCon slide show.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

We look forward to viewing all the tweets, Instagram pics and Facebook posts from the event that kicks-off in just five days’ time.

13 10, 2019

Rebor Komodo Dragon Preparations

By | October 13th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Animal News Stories, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Rebor GrabNGo Komodo Dragon Preparations

Team members at Everything Dinosaur are busy preparing for the arrival of the next new Rebor model, the GrabNGo Komodo dragon figure in 1/6th scale.  This model has created quite a lot of interest from herpetologists – those scientists and academics that specialise in the study of amphibians and reptiles.  We have it on good authority that this new Rebor figure has even been discussed at the prestigious Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP), annual meeting in Brisbane, a sizeable reservation list for this lizard replica has been built up over the last few weeks and Everything Dinosaur staff will be very busy contacting all these customers when the models arrive next month.

Rebor GrabNGo Komodo Dragon Models

Rebor GrabNGO Komodo dragon replicas.

A collection of Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon models.  We are not sure about the collective noun for a group of Komodo dragons, we have been informed that the collective noun is a “bank”, but there must be a better term for six of these fantastic figures together.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The 1:6 Scale Komodo Dragon Model

The picture (above), shows production samples ready to be sent out to zookeepers and specialists.  We are not sure what the collective noun for a group of Komodo dragons is called (we have been told it is a “bank of Komodos”), but who knows.  Rebor commented that when all the models were put together it reminded them of Billingsgate fish market, all we know is that the figures look splendid and we are looking forward to receiving our stock in just a few weeks’ time.

One of the models is being used to help us design a new cardboard box for use as packaging.  The model is so long (around 50 cm in length), that we are having to commission a special, double-walled cardboard box to accommodate this model and to provide protection when it is sent out to customers.

The CE Mark is Clearly Shown on the Underside of the Figure

The CE mark on the underside of the Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon replica.

Highlighting the CE mark on the underside of the Rebor GrabNGo Komodo dragon model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The production samples will be sent out to various specialists and researchers next week, in the meantime, team members will be working hard to ensure that all is ready in our warehouse for the arrival of the Komodo dragon figures.

To see the current range of Rebor models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Models, Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Replicas

12 10, 2019

The King of Siam – Siamraptor suwati

By | October 12th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

New Basal Carcharodontosaurian from Thailand – Siamraptor suwati

A team of scientists from Thailand and Japan have announced the discovery of a new species of meat-eating dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of north-eastern Thailand.  The dinosaur has been named Siamraptor suwati and around 115 million years ago, this eight-metre-long theropod would have been the “King of Siam”.

An Illustration of the Skull of the Newly Described Carcharodontosaurian Theropod Siamraptor suwati

Line drawing of skull and skeletal material of Siamraptor.

An illustration of the skull of Siamraptor showing the placement of the known cranial material.

Picture Credit: Chokchaloemwong et al (PLOS One)

Providing an Insight into the Early Evolutionary History of the Carcharodontosauria

The Carcharodontosauria “shark-toothed lizards”, represent a group of theropod dinosaurs that were both temporally and geographically widespread during the Mesozoic.  Some of these dinosaurs were giants, comparable to the largest tyrannosaurids.  For example, the genus Carcharodontosaurus is known from the Cenomanian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous of North Africa, some of the larger fossil specimens indicate a length in excess of thirteen metres.  Then there are the giants from South America, dinosaurs such as Tyrannotitan, Mapusaurus and Giganotosaurus, however, little is known about the evolutionary history of the Carcharodontosauria clade.  Writing in the on-line academic journal PLOS One, the researchers state that the discovery of Siamraptor will provide an important insight into the early evolutionary history of the Carcharodontosauria.

A Silhouette of Siamraptor Showing Position of Known Fossil Material

Known fossil material of Siamraptor (scale bar = 1 metre).

A silhouette showing the position of known fossil material for Siamraptor. Scale bar = 1 metre.  The fossils found represent at least four individuals.  Skull material has been scaled up to fit the diagram.

Picture Credit: Chokchaloemwong et al (PLOS One)

The Significance of Siamraptor

The fossil material comes from the Khok Kruat geological formation (part of the Khorat Group),  in Khorat, north-eastern Thailand an area that has been explored extensively by the Japan-Thailand Dinosaur Project (JTDP) team.  The age of the strata from which the Siamraptor fossil material comes is not known, however, pollen fossil analysis and biostratigraphical indicators support an Early Cretaceous age (Aptian faunal stage).

The Location of the Fossil Discovery and a Stratigraphical Column for the Khorat Group

Stratigraphic column (Khorat Group) and the location of the Siamraptor fossils.

The location of the theropod fossil discovery and a stratigraphic column of the Khorat Group.

Picture Credit: Chokchaloemwong et al (PLOS One)

The picture (above), shows (A) a map of the Nakhon Ratchasima Province of north-eastern Thailand and (B) a distribution map of the Khok Kruat Formation in the area.  Picture (C) shows an enlargement of the area where the Siamraptor fossil material was found.  The red star in (C) indicates the fossil quarry.  A stratigraphical column of the Khorat Group is provided (D) and (E) shows a photograph of the dig site.

Two phylogenetic analyses indicate that Siamraptor was a basal member of the Carcharodontosauria.  This taxon is the first definitive evidence of carcharodontosaurian theropods in south-eastern Asia.  The fossil material, although very fragmentary and representative of four individual dinosaurs is also amongst the best preserved theropod fossil material known from this part of Thailand.

The presence of Siamraptor in north-eastern Thailand indicates an extension of the record in the Laurasian landmasses during the earliest stage of the evolutionary history of the Carcharodontosauria.

Three Premaxillae Elements Representing Siamraptor suwati

Fossils (right premaxillae) with accompanying line drawings - Siamraptor.

Three right premaxillae fossils with accompanying line drawings (Siamraptor).

Picture Credit: Chokchaloemwong et al (PLOS One)

The fossil material includes elements from the jaws, parts of the skull, vertebrae, elements from the hips and hind limbs and a single claw from the hand.  With the formal naming of this dinosaur it reveals that the carcharodontosaurids had spread to Asia as well as Europe and Africa by the Early Cretaceous.

The Fossil Manual Ungual (NRRU-F01020018) – Siamraptor suwati

Views of the manual ungual of Siamraptor.

The manual ungual of Siamraptor suwati.  Note scale bar = 5 cm.  H = lateral view whilst (I) is a palmar view.  Key – pr = plaster reconstruction, vg = vascular groove and ft = flexor tubercle.

Picture Credit: Chokchaloemwong et al (PLOS One)

The genus name translates as “robber from Siam”, whilst the species name honours Mr. Suwat Liptapanlop for his financial support of the fieldwork undertaken in Thailand.

The scientific paper: “A new carcharodontosaurian theropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand” by Duangsuda Chokchaloemwong, Soki Hattori , Elena Cuesta, Pratueng Jintasakul, Masateru Shibata and Yoichi Azuma published in the on-line, open access journal PLOS One.

11 10, 2019

Limited Edition Papo Spinosaurus Model Delayed until December (2019)

By | October 11th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Limited Edition Papo Spinosaurus Model Delayed until December (2019)

The eagerly anticipated limited edition Papo Spinosaurus dinosaur model has been delayed until December (2019), according to information from Papo received by team members at Everything Dinosaur.  Readers of this blog will probably recall that Everything Dinosaur published the first pictures of this spinosaurid figure back in February, however, model collectors and dinosaur fans will have to wait until December before they can get their hands on this Papo replica.

The Papo Limited Edition Spinosaurus Replica has been Delayed until December (2019)

Papo Spinosaurus model has been delayed until December 2019.

The Papo Spinosaurus dinosaur model (limited edition quadruped Spinosaurus), has been delayed until December 2019.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We had been told back in the summer that this figure would be available in October, however, we have just been informed by Papo that this dinosaur will not be available until December.  No reasons have been given for the delay and we don’t want to speculate about the reasons for this delay at this stage.  However, all our plans are in place to contact all those people who reserved a model, everything is ready at Everything Dinosaur for the arrival of this figure.  As soon as it comes in, we will be in touch with all those customers on our reserve lists, even if it means bringing in extra staff to ensure swift communications, at what will be, our busiest time of the year.”

If Everything Dinosaur receives any further information or updates about the Papo Spinosaurus dinosaur model, we will post this up onto this blog and other social media platforms.

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