All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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29 06, 2022

If You Want to Live for a Long Time be Cold-blooded

By | June 29th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Animal News Stories, Main Page|0 Comments

Compared with most birds and mammals, reptiles like turtles and tortoises are extremely long-lived, but how do they achieve such great ages, with little evidence of age-related decline? Recently published research papers examined ageing rates and lifespans across seventy-seven species of reptiles and amphibians and these studies suggest that “cold-blooded” animals could teach us a thing or two about living to a ripe old age.

Lonesome George
Animals such as the giant tortoises of the Galapagos Islands are known to live for over 100 years. Picture credit: AFP/Getty Images.

Life in the Slow Lane

An international team, consisting of over one hundred scientists including researchers from Flinders University (Adelaide, South Australia), Pennsylvania State, Northeastern Illinois University and the University of Kent, have provided the first comprehensive evidence confirming that turtles in the wild age very slowly and have long lifespans. In addition, the team concluded that reptiles and amphibians (ectotherms) have highly variable rates of ageing.

Several cold-blooded (ectothermic) species, essentially, do not age and show very little evidence for age-related decline. Unlike warm-blooded (endothermic) animals, ectotherms rely on external heat sources to help them regulate their body temperature, as a result, they tend to have much lower metabolisms than animals like birds and mammals. They way in which these animals regulate their body temperatures could play a role in ageing and potential lifespan (thermoregulatory mode hypothesis).

Sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa).
Native to Australia, the Sleepy lizard (Tiliqua rugosa), which is also referred to as the Shingleback, can live for more than 50 years. Scientists from Flinders University have been working on a long-term study of these slow-moving reptiles, their maximum lifespan is not known. Picture credit: Mike Gardner.

Having a Shell, Armour, Venom or Spines Might Help You Live Longer

In this extensive study programme, the researchers also noted that animals with physical or chemical traits that provide defence and protection such as spines, armour, shells or venom, tend to age slowly and to live longer.

The scientists documented that these protective traits do, indeed, enable animals to age more slowly and in the case of physical protection, live much longer for their size than those without protective phenotypes (protective phenotypes hypothesis).

Radiated Tortoise (Astrochelys radiata).
The Radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata), native to Madagascar might be critically endangered, but the protective phenotype hypothesis suggests that protective characteristics such as a shell can confer longevity and slow down the ageing process. Picture credit: IUCN

Some Animals Do Not Seem to Age

Discussing the significance of this long-term research programme, Professor Mike Gardner (Flinders University) stated:

“We helped track seventy-seven species for up to sixty years to try to reveal the secrets of long life. Some don’t seem to age at all.”

First author of one of the studies, published in the journal “Science”, Assistant Professor Beth Reinke from Northeastern Illinois University added:

“These various protective mechanisms may reduce animals’ mortality rates within generations. Thus, they are more likely to live longer, and that can change the selection landscape across generations for the evolution of slower ageing. We found the biggest support for the protective phenotype hypothesis in turtles. Again, this demonstrates that turtles, as a group, are unique.”

Aging diagram from the study
Ageing diagram ectotherms compared to endotherms. A supertree diagram showing all the endothermic and ectothermic species included in the analysis. Branch lengths are not scaled. The red in the inner circle represents endotherms and blue represents ectotherms. Green bars are longevity estimates and orange bars are the ageing rates. Silhouettes from Phylopic.org. Picture credit: Reinke et al.

It might sound a little dramatic to conclude that some cold-blooded animals may show no signs of ageing, but basically their likelihood of dying does not alter to any great extent once they mature. They show “negligible ageing” which means if an animal’s chance of dying in a year when they are ten years old is 1%, if that animal is alive in a hundred years, it still has a 1% chance of dying. In contrast, a study of American women found that the risk of dying at age twenty is 1 in 2,500, but this risk rises as they get older. For example, in this study group, at the age of eighty, their risk of dying was more than a hundred times higher (1 in 24) than when they were twenty years old.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from Flinders University in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Diverse aging rates in ectothermic tetrapods provide insights for the evolution of aging and longevity” by Beth A. Reinke, Hugo Cayuela, Fredric J. Janzen et al published in Science.

28 06, 2022

New PNSO Dinosaur Models in Stock

By | June 28th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

New PNSO dinosaur models are in stock at Everything Dinosaur. Xinchuan the Sinraptor, Fergus the Acrocanthosaurus and Aubrey and Dabei the Torosaurus pair have arrived. Team members have been busy contacting all their customers who requested that they be notified when these exciting prehistoric animal models came into stock.

Unloading PNSO models
Unloading the latest shipment of PNSO prehistoric animal figures at Everything Dinosaur’s warehouse. Tsintaosaurus model and the Torosaurus pair (Aubrey and Dabei) with the Fergus the Acrocanthosaurus model (left) and Xinchuan the Sinraptor (right).

PNSO Sinraptor, Acrocanthosaurus and the Torosaurus Pair

As well as the new figures, the PNSO Xinchuan the Sinraptor, Fergus the Acrocanthosaurus and the 1:35 scale Torosaurus pair (Aubrey and Dabei), replenishment stocks for a number of existing lines have also arrived and staff have been busy checking boxes and getting these items on-line as well.

PNSO 1:35 scale horned dinosaur models
A pair of PNSO 1:35 scale dinosaur models. Doyle the Triceratops (top) and (bottom) Torosaurus Aubrey and Dabei.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We are delighted to receive this latest shipment of PNSO prehistoric animal figures, especially as it contains the eagerly awaited, new theropods [Sinraptor and Acrocanthosaurus] as well as the Torosaurus adult and juvenile in 1/35th scale.”

No Need to Pre-Order, No Fees, No Deposit to Pay

With Everything Dinosaur, customers do not have to pre-order. There are no additional fees or deposits to pay. If customers let us know that they wish to receive a priority alert when a model arrives, we are happy to arrange this for them.

PNSO 1:35 scale horned dinosaur models
A pair of PNSO 1:35 scale horned dinosaur models. Doyle the Triceratops (top) and (bottom) Torosaurus Aubrey and Dabei.

To view the extensive range of PNSO Age of Dinosaurs figures and models in stock at Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

27 06, 2022

Frozen Baby Mammoth Discovered in the Klondike

By | June 27th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Gold miners working at Eureka Creek in the Klondike Region of Yukon Province in Canada have discovered the frozen remains of a baby woolly mammoth. The calf, which is female is estimated to have lived around 30,000 years ago and it represents the best-preserved woolly mammoth specimen ever found in North America.

Baby mammoth from the Klondike of Yukon
The baby mammoth identified as a female, is the best-preserved woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) found to date in North America. It is thought to be around 30,000 years old. Picture credit: Yukon Government.

“Big Baby Animal”

The discovery was made on June 21st, the Northern Hemisphere solstice and also appropriately, Canada’s National Indigenous Peoples Day. The Klondike gold fields lie within the Trʼondëk Hwëchʼin Traditional Territory. Trʼondëk Hwëchʼin elders have named the mammoth calf Nun cho ga, meaning “big baby animal” in the indigenous people’s (Hän) language.

Ice Age animal remains are quite commonly found in the Yukon area as they erode out of thawing permafrost, however, mummified remains complete with skin and hair are exceptionally rare.

Minister for Tourism and Culture, Ranj Pillai of the Yukon Territory Administration commented:

“The Yukon has always been an internationally renowned leader for ice age and Beringia research. We are thrilled about this significant discovery of a mummified woolly mammoth calf: Nun cho ga. Without strong partnerships between placer miners, Trʼondëk Hwëchʼin, and the Yukon government, discoveries like this could not happen.”

Woolly Mammoths.
Woolly Mammoths (M. primigenius) an iconic animal of the Ice Age.

Vertebrate palaeontologist Dr Grant Zazula added:

“As an ice age palaeontologist, it has been one of my lifelong dreams to come face to face with a real woolly mammoth. That dream came true today. Nun cho ga is beautiful and one of the most incredible mummified ice age animals ever discovered in the world. I am excited to get to know her more.”

Comparisons with Lyuba

The discovery of the superbly preserved corpse will provide scientists with an opportunity to compare Nun cho ga with Lyuba, a mammoth calf discovered in Siberia back in 2007. Lyuba lived a few thousand years earlier than the Yukon mammoth (circa 41,800 years), researchers will have the opportunity to compare the genetic health of the mammoth population and plot any changes between the older Lyuba and Nun cho ga which lived, around 12,000 years later.

The baby Woolly Mammoth known as Lyuba.
The 42,000-year-old baby mammoth Lyuba. Picture credit: Uppa/Photoshot (Daily Telegraph News).

The discovery of Nun cho ga is not the first woolly mammoth calf found in North America. In 1948, a partial mammoth calf, nicknamed Effie, was found at a gold mine in Alaska.

26 06, 2022

Jurassic World Dominion Site Safety Sign

By | June 26th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

In response to requests from dinosaur fans and aficionados of the “Jurassic Park/Jurassic World” movie franchise, team members at Everything Dinosaur have produced a dinosaur site safety sign and it is available absolutely free.

Whilst at our local cinema waiting to watch “Jurassic World Dominion”, team members spotted a joke site safety sign declaring three days since the last Tyrannosaurus rex attack. In response to requests received from our posts on social media we have created our own version of this safety sign and it is available as a pdf.

Everything Dinosaur site safety sign.
Having received requests from dinosaur fans wanting their own site safety sign we have created one especially for them.

An A4-sized PDF

The Everything Dinosaur site safety sign is available as a pdf document. It can be requested and emailed. The sign has been designed as an A4-sized document measuring 297 mm x 210 mm, once dinosaur fans have received the email, it can be printed off and if required laminated. A non-permanent marker pen can be used to write into the white box the number of days “without a dinosaur incident”. It is just a bit of fun, but would look good on a bedroom wall or on the door to a room.

To request your free dinosaur sign pdf: Email Everything Dinosaur.

Three days since a Tyrannosaurus rex attack.
A site safety notice at our local cinema spotted at the entrance as team members went to see “Jurassic World Dominion”. Inspired by this joke sign, Everything Dinosaur has designed its own dinosaur site safety sign.
25 06, 2022

Rebor male Triceratops “Trident” Models

By | June 25th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur will be stocking both the new Rebor male Triceratops “Trident” models. The Rebor male Triceratops “Trident” king and the Rebor male Triceratops “Trident” horn of doom are expected to be in stock towards the end of the year (2022).

Rebor 1:35 Alpha Male Triceratops horridus "Trident" Horn of Doom version
Rebor male Triceratops horridus “Trident” Horn of Doom. Customers can join a no obligation, priority notification list for this exciting 1:35 scale dinosaur model.
Rebor Male Triceratops Trident King
Rebor 1:35 Alpha Male Triceratops horridus “Trident” King version. Fans of dinosaur models and Rebor figures in particular can join a no obligation, priority notification list for this Triceratops horridus model.

Rebor 1:35 Alpha Male Triceratops horridus “Trident” Horn of Doom

There had been rumours circulating that Rebor intended to introduce another Triceratops figure, a replica of a living animal after the company introduced the “Fallen Queen” model which was originally introduced back in 2015.

Rebor Male Triceratops Trident Horn of Doom
Rebor male Triceratops horridus Trident Horn of Doom in left lateral view.

Two species of Triceratops are formally recognised, these two figures are based on the geologically older Triceratops horridus. There will be two colour variants of this 1:35 scale Triceratops, namely:

  • The Rebor 1:35 Alpha Male Triceratops horridus “Trident” Horn of Doom version.
  • The Rebor 1:35 Alpha Male Triceratops horridus “Trident” King version.
Rebor Male Triceratops Trident Horn of Doom
The Rebor male Triceratops horridus Trident Horn of Doom.

Customers can email Everything Dinosaur and request to join the company’s priority notification list so that they can be contacted as soon as these splendid horned dinosaur models come into stock.

The Rebor Male Triceratops Trident Horn of Doom
The Rebor male Triceratops horridus “Trident” Horn of Doom colour version.

Rebor 1:35 Alpha Male Triceratops horridus “Trident” King Version

Each figure measures approximately 32 cm long and stands around 12 cm tall. A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We will be stocking both the Rebor male Triceratops Trident King and the Rebor male Triceratops Trident Horn of Doom. These figures will be made over the summer and shipped sometime in the autumn. We expect to have them in stock at Everything Dinosaur around the end of quarter 3 or perhaps the start of quarter 4.”

Rebor Male Triceratops Trident King
Rebor male Triceratops horridus. The Rebor male Triceratops “Trident” King colour version.
Rebor Male Triceratops Trident King
Rebor male Triceratops horridus (anterior view).

Join Everything Dinosaur’s Priority Notification Email List

With Everything Dinosaur there is no need to pre-order, there is no deposit to pay. Customers can simply email and request that they join the company’s no obligation priority notification list.

Rebor 1:35 Alpha Male Triceratops horridus "Trident" King version
The Rebor 1:35 Alpha Male Triceratops horridus “Trident” King version.

To join the priority notification list for these amazing figures, just email Everything Dinosaur remembering to let us know which dinosaur model(s) you want.

Contact Everything Dinosaur: Email Everything Dinosaur.

24 06, 2022

Celebrating 6,000 Blog Posts

By | June 24th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Today, team members at Everything Dinosaur are celebrating the landmark of having achieved 6,000 blog posts.  Since our first article was posted up in May 2007, a great deal has happened in the world of palaeontology. Everything Dinosaur has done its best to update and inform readers of these exciting developments. We have covered news stories, fossil discoveries, the description and naming of new dinosaur species, updates on theories and the use of new tools and methodologies in research, plus a lot more. We are living in a “golden age” of fossil discoveries and prehistoric animal research, we have, in a small way, helped to communicate some of these exciting developments and fossil finds.

Everything Dinosaur celebrates Publishing 6,000 Blog Posts
Everything Dinosaur celebrates posting up 6,000 articles on its blog site. The weblog has been operating for more than fifteen years!

Updating Model Collectors and Dinosaur Fans

The Everything Dinosaur blog also updates model collectors and dinosaur fans. We have continued to publish reviews, exclusive images and videos of prehistoric animal replicas and we remain committed to providing as much information as we can to help model collectors build their collections.

Thanks to Our Readers

We would like to thank all our readers and blog supporters. Your comments, feedback and suggestions are greatly appreciated, our heartfelt thanks for your support over these last fifteen years.

Iguanodon thumbs up!
Praise from a dinosaur! A big thumbs up to all our blog readers and supporters.

Wonder what exciting scientific developments, discoveries and new products we will be covering in the next 1,000 posts?

23 06, 2022

“Jurassic World Dominion” Reviewed

By | June 23rd, 2022|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Movie Reviews and Movie News, Photos|0 Comments

“Jurassic World Dominion” was released in UK cinemas on June 10th (2022), Everything Dinosaur team members were able to take time away from their busy schedule to watch the film yesterday (June 22nd). The film reunites many of the characters from the original “Jurassic Park” movie and there are several new prehistoric animals, recreated by a combination of animatronics and computer-generated images (CGI).

The film’s release had been delayed due to the global pandemic, but dinosaur aficionados and fans of the earlier movies have had the chance to see, what has been billed as the final instalment of the franchise.

The Tyrannosaurus rex icon from "Jurassic World Dominion"
Ultimately, T. rex is the star of the latest instalment in the “Jurassic Park/Jurassic World” franchise despite the appearance of numerous theropods including for the first time, Therizinosaurus and Giganotosaurus. Picture credit: Universal Studios.

Pyroraptor, Giganotosaurus, Quetzalcoatlus and Therizinosaurus

Lots of new prehistoric animals are featured, dinosaurs such as Giganotosaurus, Dreadnoughtus, Therizinosaurus, Atrociraptor and Pyroraptor. Some of these dinosaurs have been given feathers, perhaps a nod to criticisms of the integuments of the “raptors” seen in early incarnations of the franchise.

Jurassic World Dominion Pyroraptor
The feathered Pyroraptor from the film “Jurassic World Dominion”. Picture credit: Universal Studios.

Without giving away too many spoilers, the giant pterosaur Quetzalcoatlus and the sail-finned synapsid Dimetrodon also appear.

The film has garnered mix reviews from the critics, but movie-goes have been more generous with their praise. The film is currently showing a rating of 77% on the Rotten Tomatoes website. “Jurassic World Dominion” has certainly done very well at the box office. Earlier this week, global ticket sales passed the $600 million USD mark.

Paying Tribute to Earlier Films

“Jurassic World Dominion” might be a bit of chimera of a movie (reminiscent of the prehistoric animals with their genomes sourced from a variety of creatures). There are scenes that parody James Bond, Indiana Jones and “Taken” and whilst regarded by many as a “light, enjoyable romp”, fans of the franchise will have noted the numerous tributes paid to earlier films in this series.

Our particular favourite was when the character Ellie Sattler, played by Laura Dern, takes off her sunglasses in astonishment at what she is seeing, reflecting a similar scene from “Jurassic Park” that marks the first time the scientists see a dinosaur.

Actress Laura Dern in "Jurassic World Dominion"
Actress Laura Dern reprises her role as Ellie Sattler from “Jurassic Park”. The latest film “Jurassic World Dominion” pays homage to the original 1993 movie, in this scene Laura removes her sunglasses recreating an iconic moment from “Jurassic Park”. Picture credit: Universal Studios.

Is the Film Franchise Extinct?

With a running time of 2 hours and 27 minutes, this is the longest film in the “Jurassic Park/Jurassic World” franchise. Despite being billed as the final instalment and supposed to bring closure, team members at Everything Dinosaur suspect that, with it having made four times its estimated budget in ticket sales thus far, the commercial appeal of dinosaurs might result in a resurrection.

Just like the avian dinosaurs, this film franchise might not be extinct…

Three days since a Tyrannosaurus rex attack.
A site safety notice at our local cinema spotted at the entrance as team members went to see “Jurassic World Dominion”. It is pleasing to note that Everything Dinosaur has a better safety record!
22 06, 2022

A Fossil Emblem for New Zealand?

By | June 22nd, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Palaeontologists in New Zealand have started a consultation process in a bid to appoint a fossil emblem for New Zealand. Everything Dinosaur has come across media reports that palaeontologists at the University of Otago (South Island, New Zealand), are beginning a project to identify a fossil emblem for the country. Once a shortlist of candidate fossils has been compiled, the winner will be decided by a public vote.

Many Australian states, have fossil emblems, for example, back in January (2022), team members at Everything Dinosaur covered the announcement that the giant amphibian Koolasuchus (K. cleelandi) had been appointed the fossil emblem of Victoria. Now it seems that New Zealand wants to have a fossil emblem too.

To read the Koolasuchus story: Koolasuchus Becomes the State Fossil of Victoria.

Kairuku waewaeroa line drawing, holotype fossil and scale comparison with an Emperor penguin.
The giant Oligocene penguin K. waewaeroa from North Island (New Zealand) could be a candidate for the country’s fossil symbol. The holotype specimen of Kairuku waewaeroa (WM 2006/1/1). Line drawing of specimen (A), photograph of the holotype in ventral view (B) and (C) scale comparison with the largest extant penguin species the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Note scale bar for (B) equals 4 cm. Picture credit: Giovanardi et al.

Penguins, Plesiosaurs, Trilobites, Dolphins and Giant Prehistoric Birds

New Zealand might not be the first country one thinks about when considering the fossil record. However, several important and unique fossil discoveries have been made on Aotearoa (the Māori name for the country).

The campaign is being led by Dr Nic Rawlence (University of Otago palaeogenetics laboratory), he has suggested some of the country’s giant penguins (Kairuku waewaeroa, Kumimanu biceae, Crossvallia waiparensis), or perhaps one of the early cetaceans or an example of a primitive pinniped (Eomonachus belegaerensis), fossils of which come from the western side of North Island (Taranaki area).

Eomonachus belegaerensis life reconstrustion.
Eomonachus belegaerensis an ancient seal from New Zealand. Could this prehistoric pinniped become the country’s fossil emblem?

In 2002, the Late Cretaceous plesiosaur Kaiwhekea katiki was formally named and described. The seven-metre-long specimen was excavated from a single, large concretion found at Shag Point, Otago (Katiki Formation). It is one of the most complete plesiosaur specimens known from the Southern Hemisphere.

There are also more recent inhabitants of New Zealand to consider, such as the giant South Island Moa Dinornis robustus, as well as many important invertebrate fossils that date from the Palaeozoic but, our personal choice would be the enormous Haast’s eagle (Hieraaetus moorei), the largest eagle known to science. This huge predator occupied the niche filled by mammalian carnivores in other ecosystems. With a body weight in excess of 15 kilograms and a wingspan of around 3 metres, Haast’s eagle was a formidable and terrifying predator.

Haarst's eagle attacks moas.
Haast’s eagle attacks a moa. This eagle is the heaviest eagle known to science and it only recently went extinct (600 years ago). Picture Credit: University of Otago/John Megahan.

Only Recently Extinct

Unlike the trilobites, plesiosaurs, penguins and ancient marine mammals, Haast’s eagle died out relatively recently, not long after the first Māori settlers came to New Zealand.

It has not been decided yet whether a single fossil specimen should become the national emblem, or whether there would be two emblems designated, one for South Island and one for North Island.

A shortlist is due to be announced in the near future and then a public vote will decide on the winner(s).

If New Zealand appoints a fossil emblem, then perhaps the UK or the countries that make up the United Kingdom could consider having fossil emblems too.

Any suggestions?

21 06, 2022

Feefo Product Reviews and Product Stars are Back

By | June 21st, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Feefo product reviews and product stars are back on the Everything Dinosaur website. Reviews provided by customers on their product purchases had been temporarily removed from Everything Dinosaur’s website whilst upgrades and maintenance work was carried out, but now they are back on-line again. Potential customers can see reviews of products from previous purchasers, helping them to make informed choices.

Rebor T. rex model Feefo product stars.
The product stars as awarded by customers in their independent feedback to Feefo. The Rebor 1:35 scale “Tyrannosaurus rex Vanilla Ice” Mountain is given top marks.

Product Star Ratings

The Feefo star ratings for products are also back on-line. Purchasers can rate what they have bought, give a star rating, with the top mark being five stars. The Rebor 1:35 scale “Tyrannosaurus rex Vanilla Ice” in the mountain colour scheme has five reviews and an average rating of five stars.

Scroll down the product page and the independent Feefo reviews can be found.

Feefo reviews on a Rebor T. rex product page.
Recent Feefo customer reviews are shown on the product page. The Rebor 1:35 scale “Tyrannosaurus rex Vanilla Ice” Mountain has 5 Feefo reviews.

Independent, Genuine Customer Feedback

Feefo is an independent ratings agency, it collects feedback and comments from real customers of Everything Dinosaur and then publishes it. Every review on Everything Dinosaur’s website is a genuine customer review. Customers can buy dinosaur and prehistoric animal models confident that they are dealing with a highly rated, customer focused company.

5-star Feefo Review Nanmu Studio Parasaurolophus
The Nanmu Studio Nutcracker Parasaurolophus model is picking up Feefo customer reviews. Models that have been added into stock recently will have less reviews than older models and figures.

Models and other items of merchandise that have been added to Everything Dinosaur’s range more recently will have fewer reviews generally when compared to other products that have been available for some time, but the date when the review was made is also listed providing additional assurance and guidance for would-be purchasers.

Nanmu Studio Jurassic Series Parasaurolophus Nutcracker Feefo reviews.
The customer review recorded by Feefo is listed on the Nanmu Studio Nutcracker Parasaurolophus dinosaur model page.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We had to take down some of the Feefo elements whilst we made updates to the website, but the product reviews and product star ratings are back up and this information coupled with the other customer reviews that we have received, will help to inform our customers about purchase decisions.”

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s website: Visit Everything Dinosaur.

20 06, 2022

Analysis of Pterosaur Wing Suggests Jehol Biota Represents Migratory Area for Tapejarids

By | June 20th, 2022|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A cross-sectional analysis of a pterosaur wing bone has helped palaeontologists to work out the ages and growth stages of flying reptiles from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of China. This research suggests that the Jehol tapejarid biota represents a migratory area for these pterosaurs.

Writing in the academic journal “Scientific Reports”, researchers from Shandong University of Science and Technology (China) in collaboration with the University of Birmingham, took a tiny cross section of bone from the left forelimb of a pterosaur specimen assigned to the genus Sinopterus. Detailed analysis of the bone structure revealed that the fossil came from an immature individual at a late juvenile stage prior to reaching sexual maturity. This is the first time that histological data about the growth stages of Jehol tapejarids has been undertaken and based on this study, the largest skeletally immature tapejarid individuals recorded from the Jiufotang Formation might have reached sexual maturity.

The Jehol tapejarid Sinopterus left wing fossil.
The Jehol tapejarid Sinopterus (specimen number SDUST-V1014). Photograph (a) and line drawing (b) of the wing skeleton as well as enlarged images of the deltopectoral crest (c) and pneumatic foramen on the distal end of the wing metacarpal (d). Arrow points to the thin-section sample position on the first wing phalanx. Note scale bar for a and b = 20 mm. Picture credit: Zhou et al.

At Least a Year Old

Microscopic analysis of the internal structure of the bone revealed the presence of one line of arrested growth (LAG) suggesting that this specimen was over a year old when it died. Palaeontologists have proposed that pterosaurs had a remarkably fast growth rate in their first three years and the postulated size of the pterosaur based on SDUST-V1014 fits with this hypothesis.

The Jehol biota relating to the Pterosauria is dominated by immature individuals and skeletally mature adults are exceptionally rare. The researchers postulate that this ecosystem was not home to the adults, that they may have lived apart from juveniles and immature animals. Perhaps this part of northern China was on a migratory route for these types of flying reptiles.

The Early Cretaceous Jehol biota with emphasis on mammaliamorphs.
The Early Cretaceous Jehol biota – a rich and diverse habitat with many mammaliamorphs, dinosaurs and pterosaurs. A tapejarid pterosaur is shown top right. Picture credit: Chuang Zhao.

Improving Our Knowledge of Tapejarid Anatomy

Although crushed, the forelimb bones reveal helpful morphological information clarifying the anatomy of Jehol tapejarids and the researchers suggest that this improved understanding could lead to a revision of the taxa associated with the Jiufotang Formation.

In addition, this histological analysis permits comparison with other pterosaur growth rates and the researchers conclude that the size gap between sexual and skeletal maturity in tapejarids was very similar to that observed in the not very closely related Pteranodon genus (Ornithocheiroidea).

To read a related article published in 2021 that examines the significance of a headless Sinopterus specimen (S. dongi) and its role in helping to define juvenile tapejarids: Headless Pterosaur Helps to Define an Entire Genus.

The scientific paper: “A new wing skeleton of the Jehol tapejarid Sinopterus and its implications for ontogeny and paleoecology of the Tapejaridae” by Chang-Fu Zhou, Dongxiang Yu, Ziheng Zhu and Brian Andres published in scientific reports.

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