All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
//November
30 11, 2021

Effigia – A Triassic Browser

By | November 30th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

A Triassic herbivore, known for its supposed similarities to a modern-day ostrich and ornithomimid dinosaurs has been revealed to have an entirely different approach to feeding than previously thought, according to newly published research. The new discovery reveals a much broader diversity of herbivore behaviour during the Triassic period than has been recognised to date.

Effigia life reconstruction
Effigia life reconstruction. New research has clarified the mode of feeding for this Late Triassic archosaur. It was probably a browser. Picture credit: Mark Witton.

Effigia okeeffeae

Formally named and described in 2006 (Nesbitt and Norell), although fossils of this little archosaur on the crocodilian lineage of the Archosauria family tree were first found in the 1940s, Effigia (E. okeeffeae) roamed New Mexico around 205 million years ago.

Fossil remains had been relatively poorly preserved and the skull, in particular, was quite badly deformed, making accurate reconstruction challenging. Early analysis of the specimen concluded that it belonged to the group of reptiles that includes crocodilians and birds and which started to flourish in the Triassic period. Although more closely related to crocodilians, Effigia’s lightweight body, elongated neck, large eyes and beak shared many similarities with a modern-day ostrich, leading researchers to believe the animal fed by pecking plant material from the ground.

A new study of the fossil material, undertaken by experts at the University of Birmingham, has revealed this animal was probably an entirely different type of herbivore. The research, carried out in partnership with experts at the University of Bristol, University College London, University of York, Virginia Tech and the Natural History Museum in London, has been published in the academic journal “The Anatomical Record”.

The researchers examined CT scans of Effigia’s skull which permitted a much more accurate and three-dimensional reconstruction of the animal. This included new information about the morphology of the cranium, such as a more rounded, bulbous brain cavity and curved upper and lower jaws. Unlike the bill of an ostrich, which is more rounded, Effigia’s bill is concave with jaws that open and close a bit like a pair of shears.

The team used this information to model the effects of different forces acting on the skull, including what happens when the animal pecks at the ground. By modelling the forces the skull would need to withstand in order to feed by pecking, the researchers calculated that Effigia’s skull would probably have shattered. Instead, they suggest, the animal probably used its jaws to snip off and nibble pieces of soft plant material such as young shoots, or ferns. Effigia was likely to have been a selective browser.

Commenting on the significance of the research into the feeding habits of this Late Triassic archosaur, an animal that when first discovered was thought to be a dinosaur, lead researcher Dr Jordan Bestwick (University of Birmingham), stated:

“The herbivores we already recognise in the Triassic period fed either by digging for roots, such as the pig-like aetosaurs, or reaching for leaves high up in the treetops, like the long-necked sauropods. These two-legged browsers with a weak bite are unique to this period and show a previously unrecognised diversity among the herbivores of this period.”

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Birmingham in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Cranial functional morphology of the pseudosuchian Effigia and implications for its ecological role in the Triassic” by Jordan Bestwick, Andrew S. Jones, Sterling J. Nesbitt, Stephan Lautenschlager, Emily J. Rayfield, Andrew R. Cuff, David J. Button, Paul M. Barrett, Laura B. Porro, Richard J. Butler published in The Anatomical Record.

29 11, 2021

PNSO “Logan” Nanotyrannus Reviewed

By | November 29th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Product Reviews|0 Comments

The recently introduced PNSO Logan the Nanotyrannus dinosaur figure has divided model collectors and dinosaur fans. Is Nanotyrannus lancensis a valid species or do the fossils assigned to this theropod represent juvenile examples of Tyrannosaurus rex?

PNSO Nanotyrannus dinosaur model.
The new for 2021 PNSO Nanotyrannus dinosaur model. Is Nanotyrannus lancensis a valid species?

The consensus view amongst most palaeontologists seems to favour the latter interpretation, that Nanotyrannus is not a valid genus and that the fossil specimens represent juvenile tyrannosaurs but what about the actual Nanotyrannus model itself? One Everything Dinosaur customer, William offers an opinion.

Logan is a fantastic little guy and whichever camp you are in he’s a perfect example of a top-of-the-line Nanotyrannus lancensis or medium-sized juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex figure. You decide what he is to be in your collection.”

The reviewer praised the detail on the head commenting on the articulated lower jaw and complimented the shape of the skull that provides an accurate reflection of the fossil record.

Tongue placement was highlighted and its position towards the rear of the mouth commented upon and the finely crafted lacrimal crests earned the reviewer’s approval.

PNSO Nanotyrannus dinosaur model with an articulated jaw.
Like most of the other mid-size PNSO theropod figures, Logan the Nanotyrannus has an articulated lower jaw.

Longer Forelimbs Reminiscent of Allosaurids

Scientists are aware that the body shape of Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurs changed radically as they grew. The limbs were proportionately longer and the longer forelimbs of this PNSO figure reminded the reviewer of the limbs of allosaurids. The limb shape contrasts nicely with PNSO T. rex figures, Andrea the female T. rex for example.

William commented upon the well-sculpted legs and feet and described juvenile tyrannosaurs/Nanotyrannus as “like Cretaceous wolverines”.

The packaging was described as “superb” and the box containing the Nanotyrannus figure includes a detailed illustrated booklet and a clear, plastic support stand for the model.

PNSO Nanotyrannus packaging
The new PNSO mid-size range Nanotyrannus is supplied with a clear support stand.

When discussing the colour scheme chosen for this theropod, the reviewer stated that the dinosaur model had been painted in a rich, warm beige, with chocolate brown patches. The painting around the eyes was highlighted and the dark stripes on the flanks praised.

As with previous model reviews, William summarised the figure’s vital statistics.

Model Dimensions

Length: 6.5 inches.

Height: 2.5 inches.

Scale: 1:30.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, William stated:

“The wee guy is a must for your collection be he a dwarf tyrant or a tyrant lizard king. Add him and you will see for yourself, he may be wee, but he is mighty!”

To view the PNSO Nanotyrannus figure and the rest of the prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

28 11, 2021

Feefo 5-star Customer Review

By | November 28th, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Our thanks to all the hundreds of Everything Dinosaur customers who leave feedback and reviews on our website and on our Feefo review page. Feefo is an independent ratings company and they email our customers requesting comments and feedback about products and on our customer service.

Everything Dinosaur is one of the highest rated companies for product quality and customer service in Feefo’s considerable portfolio. We consistently win awards for our customer service.

The Feefo platinum service award.
The Feefo Platinum Service Award. Everything Dinosaur has been awarded this accolade two years running.

Here is a typical review which we received recently:

5-stars for Everything Dinosaur

William, a regular Everything Dinosaur customer wrote:

“The lines of stock that Everything Dinosaur carries are of the highest quality and are safety tested for their younger customers. They have fantastic products that cannot be purchased anywhere else. The customer service is superior to any other company I have ever dealt with.”

Praising the Everything Dinosaur Blog

The reviewer went onto praise this blog, stating that the Everything Dinosaur blog covers a wide range of subjects from the earliest dinosaurs to the last of the megafauna that became extinct around 12,000 years ago.

Everything Dinosaur Blog
Examples of recent articles published on the Everything Dinosaur blog.

William concluded his review by stating:

“Every model I receive comes with an individual information sheet up to date with latest information on the prehistoric animal. I intend to expand my collection, but it wouldn’t even exist without Everything Dinosaur they are that important to me.”

Our thanks to William and every other customer who provides feedback and comments to Everything Dinosaur.

26 11, 2021

New CollectA Models for 2022 (Final Part)

By | November 26th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|2 Comments

In our fourth and final blog post about new CollectA prehistoric animal models for 2022, we announce that a new version of the CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Triceratops will be introduced. The figure represents the species Triceratops horridus, the geologically older of the two Triceratops species formally recognised.

The model is due to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur around mid-2022.

CollectA Deluxe Triceratops horridus
The new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Triceratops dinosaur model.

The image (above), shows the prototype, pre-production model the actual figure will have an articulated jaw.

T. horridus – Horrible Horned Face

Triceratops horridus is known from the Lower Hell Creek Formation dating from approximately 67.5 million years ago. Triceratops bones and teeth are relatively common in this part of the Hell Creek Formation and studies have shown that Triceratops fossils make up about 40% of the dinosaur fossil material. The robust skulls preserve relatively well and compared to its body size, the skull of this horned dinosaur was proportionately one of the largest known of any vertebrate. CollectA have chosen to give their new Triceratops a muted colour tone, with countershading on the underside. The exceptions to this are the neck frill and the side of the face with its large patches of white.

Those white flashes certainly give “horrible three-horned face” a striking appearance.

A close-up view of the head of the new for 2022 Collect Deluxe Triceratops.
A close-up view of the head of the new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Triceratops model.

The Melbourne Museum Connection

Melbourne Museum (Victoria, Australia) approached CollectA to make a replica of a Triceratops to celebrate the acquisition of a virtually complete Triceratops horridus fossil skeleton by Museums Victoria after backing by the Victorian State Government.

The specimen was collected from private land in Montana (USA). The bones found represent about 87% of the entire skeleton and it will form part of a major dinosaur display at Melbourne Museum. The skull and neck frill are the most complete of any known Triceratops specimen (>99% complete) and the assembled frill measures over 1.48 metres wide.

The Triceratops fossil being excavated.
The Triceratops fossils in the quarry. The skeleton is slowly being excavated and the bones exposed. Picture credit: Museums Victoria.

A specially commissioned CollectA Deluxe replica will be on sale at the museum, it will have the same colour scheme as the exhibit display reconstructions, images and videos.

Commenting on the significance of this Triceratops specimen, Dr Erich Fitzgerald (Museums Victoria’s senior curator of palaeontology) stated:

“This is the Rosetta Stone for understanding Triceratops. Despite its popularity, there are still many unanswered questions about the anatomy and palaeobiology of Triceratops. This fossil comprises hundreds of bones including a complete skull and the entire vertebral column which will help us unlock mysteries about how this species lived 67 million years ago.”

The Skin of Triceratops

The new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Triceratops replica has skin textures and scales that reflect what has been recorded in Triceratops horridus skin impressions.

The preserved skin of a Triceratops specimen on display at the Houston Museum of Natural Science (Texas, USA) indicates that this horned dinosaur had skin unlike any other ornithschian. It had substantial hexagonal tubercles (rounded, prominent scales) along with additional enormous (>10 cm across) tubercles with conical projections.

These skin impressions come from a specimen excavated in Wyoming and nick-named “Lane”. No formal scientific description has been published but the photographs that have been made available suggest that Triceratops had skin somewhat reminiscent of a Saltasaurus (titanosaur).

Model designer Anthony Beeson explained:

“The new CollectA model incorporates polygonal rosettes with central nipple-scales.”

CollectA Deluxe Triceratops (new for 2022) skin impressions
A close-up view of the skin texture on the new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Triceratops figure. The details on the skin reflect what is known from the fossil record.

Model Measurements

The new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Triceratops horridus measures 28 cm in length and those impressive brow horns are some 13.6 cm off the ground. The figure has been given a scale of 1:40.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that this model is scheduled to be available around the middle of next year (2022).

To view the range of CollectA Prehistoric Life figures available from Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Prehistoric Life.

To view the range of CollectA Deluxe prehistoric animals available from Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Animal Models.

25 11, 2021

William Reviews the PNSO “Andrea” Female T. rex

By | November 25th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Dinosaur fan and model enthusiast William sent into Everything Dinosaur his review of the PNSO Andrea the female T. rex figure. William has been avidly collecting PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures for a while now. He was delighted when “Wilson” a new version of Tyrannosaurus rex was introduced recently and has been able to acquire the “Andrea” female T. rex figure so that the male and his mate can be together.

PNSO Andrea the female T. rex dinosaur model in lateral view
Although the position of the hind legs in this resting pose is controversial it is great to see a manufacturer introduce a figure of a theropod dinosaur in a prone, resting position. The reviewer praised the position of the front limbs and commented on the detailed musculature hinted at by the skin folds.

PNSO Female T. rex Model Review

William started his review by praising PNSO for all the wonderful figures that they have introduced this year and he was looking forward to seeing what marvels the company would launch in 2022.

The head sculpt is highlighted for its detail. William commented that the artist Zhao Chuang did his research into whether this theropod had lips, explaining that osteological research has identified large facial scales present beyond the margin of the upper mandible and therefore no lips have been added to this figure. The fully articulated jaw is well designed and the lower jaw fits into the upper jaw exactly. As the dinosaur is in a resting pose, to display it with the jaws open, the model’s head must be positioned over the edge of a shelf or slightly raised.

The eyes are placed correctly to indicate stereoscopic/binocular version and the sclera is coloured a dark yellow/reddish hue with a black pupil. William stated that the eyesight of this apex predator was believed to be particularly acute T. rex could pick out prey even when the intended victim was hidden in cover.

Andrea the female T. rex dinosaur model has an articulated jaw
PNSO Andrea the female T. rex dinosaur model has an articulated lower jaw.

In Praise of the Skin and Texture

The painstaking care taken to get the skin texture on the head so detailed is highlighted by the reviewer.

He comments that:

“The lacrimal crests are on the money and converge onto the nasal crest. No shrink wrapping on his antorbital fenestrae and orbits.”

The robust teeth are impressive and the mouth has been painted correctly in a rich, wet pink to give a natural look and William stated that if this dinosaur lost a tooth, then a replacement would erupt from the jaw. Tongue placement was accurate with a nasal opening in the roof of the palate also observed. William praised PNSO for these additional highlights.

The stocky body shape was commented upon in William’s review, both the male PNSO T. rex figure “Wilson” and his partner are regarded as having “ample heft”, the arms and figures of Andrea were praised. The shoulder muscles hidden under the skin folds were discussed and the muscles depicted in the tiny arms highlighted. William commented that the arms held close to the body gave the figure a natural resting pose.

PNSO Andrea the female T. rex in dorsal view.
PNSO Andrea the T. rex measures 19.7 cm long, accounting for the curve of the tail. The model is 13.8 cm wide and it has a stated scale of 1:35. The reviewer preferred to give the model’s measurements in imperial units.

Model Supplied with a Beautifully Illustrated Book

As befits a replica from PNSO with the talented palaeoartist Zhao Chuang on their team, this T. rex model comes with a beautifully illustrated book. The narrator comments on the position of the hind legs the presence of a cloaca and comments that this meat-eater looks poised ready to rise from her slumbers adding:

“Andrea’s powerful leg muscles are outstanding we can imagine her rising straight up in heartbeat to defend or feed.”

William explained that this figure is supplied in a superb white box, there is no need for a support stand for this dinosaur model, the prone position of the model is perfectly stable.

Comments on the Colour

The female T. rex has a much darker face with rich hues consisting of blacks and charcoals from the tip of the snout running along the upper jaw line rising upwards around the eyes with a column of black reaching up to fuse with the darkened crown of the skull. The reviewer comments that the chosen colour scheme “sets the head sculpt off to perfection”.

Model Dimensions

William states that the PNSO “Andrea” the female T. rex measures:

  • Length 12 inches
  • Height 2.75 inches

He concludes his review by stating:

“Andrea is worth adding to your collection! She is a true Tyrant Queen and accurate rexes come but once in one’s life.”

Our thanks to William for sending into Everything Dinosaur his review.

To view the PNSO female T. rex figure and the rest of the models in the PNSO prehistoric animals range: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

23 11, 2021

Appalachia Gets a New Dinosaur

By | November 23rd, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

For much of the Cretaceous the North American landmass was effectively divided into two, by a shallow sea (Western Interior Seaway). At its greatest extent it was around 1,000 kilometres (600 miles) wide, the long, narrow landmass that represented the western part of North America is known as Laramidia and palaeontologists have amassed a huge amount of data about the abundant dinosaurs that roamed these ancient shores. The eastern landmass, Appalachia, stretched from Newfoundland in the north, to the mid-west American states, but in comparison little is known about the Appalachian dinosaur fauna.

A new species of duck-billed dinosaur has been added to the Appalachian biota, named Parrosaurus missouriensis and as the species epithet suggests, this Late Cretaceous herbivore was found in Missouri.

Parrosaurus map and skeletal reconstruction
A skeletal reconstruction of Parrosaurus and a map showing North America in the Late Cretaceous. The red star shows the approximate location of the Missouri fossil find. Picture credit: Fox2 and Everything Dinosaur.

Very Rare Dinosaur Discovery

In contrast to the extensive, rapidly eroding “Badlands” of Montana, Wyoming and North/South Dakota, rocks of Cretaceous age from the ancient landmass of Appalachia are not exposed to any great extent in eastern North America. Dinosaur fossil bearing units are not being eroded, they remain buried under other strata and to add to this dilemma, much of the eastern part of the USA is conurbation. However, there are bright spots for palaeontologists looking for dinosaur bones. Mines, eroding rivers and construction sites can all provide opportunities for fossil discoveries. Indeed, it was the digging of a well near to the village of Glen Allen in Bollinger County, south-eastern Missouri back in 1942 that led to the finding of several dinosaur bones, the first time such fossils had been reported from the “Show Me State”.

The caudal vertebrae that were excavated from the site were thought to represent a sauropod and it was scientifically described and named Neosaurus missouriensis in 1945 (Gilmore and Stewart). It was noted that the genus name was already occupied, Neosaurus having been erected in 1869 for a Palaeozoic synapsid from France, so the scientific name was changed to Parrosaurus missouriensis.

Ironically, duck-billed dinosaur fossils had been found in North Carolina and the species Hypsibema crassicauda was erected in 1869, a review of the Glen Allen material (Baird and Horner), led to the erection of the species Hypsibema missouriensis as the Missouri fossils were confirmed to be hadrosaurid and showed similarities with the fossils that had been found in North Carolina.

More recent excavations carried out at the Glen Allen site, led by fossil expert Guy Darrough and with the support of the Field Museum of Chicago has led to the discovery of at least four individual hadrosaur specimens. The fossils found in close association in black clay represent three adults and juvenile.

The site has yielded other fascinating fossils, providing a glimpse into the fauna of Appalachia. For example, a scute (dermal armour) from a giant crocodilian has been found, fossils of turtles discovered and even the tooth of a tyrannosaur has been uncovered.

Parrosaurus missouriensis fossil material.
A Parrosaurus specimen in its protective burlap jacket. The broken tyrannosaur tooth found in close association with the hadrosaur bones is shown by the red arrow. Picture credit: Fox2.

Parrosaurus missouriensis

The extensive fossil material found as led to the establishment of a new species Parrosaurus missouriensis. This very notable fossil location might just prove to be a headache for the State administration, as in 2004 these fossils had been declared Missouri’s official State dinosaur when they were assigned to Hypsibema missouriensis.

Parrosaurus missouriensis life reconstruction
Parrosaurus missouriensis life reconstruction. Picture credit: Danny Morrison for the Saint Genevieve Museum Learning Centre.

The story has been widely reported and team members at Everything Dinosaur are optimistic that once the fossil material has been studied in detail and more of the specimens cleaned and prepared, then new discoveries will be made.

21 11, 2021

Rebor Killer Queen T. rex Diorama

By | November 21st, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Our thanks to dinosaur model fan and collector James who sent into Everything Dinosaur some pictures of his Rebor Killer Queen T. rex dinosaur diorama. The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex in the “plain” colour scheme seems very much at home on this display, moving away from a damaged vehicle lying on its side with a tyre having been torn off a wheel. James has even added a water-filled T. rex footprint to add extra realism to his diorama.

Rebor Killer Queen "Plain" Dinosaur Diorama
The Rebor Killer Queen dinosaur diorama (anterior view), the tyre that has fallen off the damaged jeep can be seen on the left and the T. rex footprint is just behind the tyre.

The Trouble with T. rex

Tyrannosaurus rex might be the most popular choice for dinosaur model manufacturers but producing a large T. rex model such as the 1:35 scale Rebor Killer Queen does have some drawbacks. For example, as the vast majority of the meat-eating dinosaurs were bipedal, model designers have a tricky time of it, trying to balance their creation, when only the hind feet were in contact with the ground for most of the time.

Factories can make the hind feet oversized or perhaps include a transparent support stand to improve stability. Sometimes the best thing to do is to accept that if a dinosaur model is going to be anatomically in proportion, then the addition of a bespoke display base can make all the difference.

James has created a stunning dinosaur diorama, team members at Everything Dinosaur are reminded of the iconic scene in the film “Jurassic Park” when the Tyrannosaurus rex escapes from its enclosure.

Rebor Killer Queen T. rex dinosaur diorama (dorsal view).
The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex dinosaur diorama (dorsal view). A bird’s eye view of a non-avian dinosaur!

Stability issues with dinosaur models can often be fixed with a little bit of creative thinking. The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex figure looks very much at home on its bespoke display base.

T. rex footprint detail on the display base.
A water-filled T. rex footprint on the display base. When creating a display base, it is often the little details and touches that really bring the display to life and help to tell a story.

A Superb Dinosaur Display

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We have some very clever customers! We enjoy seeing prehistoric animal model displays and collections, this diorama made by James is a really stunning piece, we are grateful to him for sending us the photographs and giving us permission to share them with our blog and social media followers.”

The Rebor Killer Queen T. rex diorama
Rebor Killer Queen T. rex model on display.

It’s the Little Details and Extra Touches

When making a prehistoric animal diorama, it is often the little details and extra touches that elevate a piece. Take for example the exquisite jeep on its side, the vehicle is very dirty and muddy after its mauling by the tyrannosaur and James has taken care to get the mud splashes and smears just right. He has even ensured the underside of the vehicle is caked in mud too. The rear tyre has nearly been ripped off, caused by a bite from a T. rex no doubt.

The Rebor Killer Queen Tyrannosaurus rex diorama
The damaged jeep next to the Rebor Killer Queen T. rex model in the diorama.

Our congratulations to James for such a clever creation and our thanks to him for sending in the photographs to Everything Dinosaur.

To view the range of Rebor figures and models in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Prehistoric Animal Figures and Models.

20 11, 2021

Toothless Theropod Dinosaur from Brazil

By | November 20th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Scientists writing in the academic journal “Nature” have described a new species of dinosaur. It has been classified as a theropod and a member of the Ceratosauria, however, unlike the vast majority of the Theropoda it had no teeth. The dinosaur has been named Berthasaura leopoldinae and it roamed southern Brazil during the Cretaceous.

This little dinosaur lived in the same oasis environment as the recently described pterosaurs Keresdrakon vilsoni *and Caiuajara dobruskii ** measuring around a metre in length Berthasaura was no giant, but its fossilised remains, which were excavated from an outcrop overlooking a country road (Cruzeiro do Oeste Municipality, Paraná State), represent the most complete non-avian theropod known from the Cretaceous of Brazil.

The discovery of this little dinosaur expands our knowledge of the palaeofauna associated with the Goio Êre Formation and demonstrates that members of the Ceratosauria were capable of evolving different feeding strategies away from meat-eating. Although the research team cannot confirm the diet of Berthasaura they postulate that it could have been herbivorous or perhaps an omnivore.

Berthasaura life reconstruction
A life reconstruction of the newly described toothless theropod Berthasaura leopoldinae with a pair of Caiuajara pterosaurs flying nearby. The strata in which the fossils were found represent an oasis environment surrounded by a desert. Picture credit: Maurílio Oliveira.

A Member of the Ceratosauria

The first ceratosaurs (members of the Ceratosauria clade), probably evolved in the Late Triassic. This diverse theropod clade consists of three families. The Ceratosauridae and the Abelisauridae are mostly made up of mid-sized to large carnivores and they contain well-known dinosaurs such as Ceratosaurus (Ceratosauridae) and Carnotaurus, Rugops and Ekrixinatosaurus (abelisaurids). The third dinosaur family within the Ceratosauria are the poorly known Noasauridae. Noasaurids are generally much smaller and lighter. The largest known noasaurid taxon is Elaphrosaurus bambergi from the Late Jurassic of Tanzania, which may have been around six metres long. These theropods seemed to have occupied a variety of specialist niches in dinosaur-dominated ecosystems. For example, Masiakasaurus (M. knopfleri) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar had forward projecting teeth in its lower jaw, a possible adaptation to catching fish. In contrast, fossils of Limusaurus (L. inextricabilis) found in Upper Jurassic strata of north-eastern China, show that whilst juveniles had teeth, by the time these gracile theropods reached about three years of age they had lost all their teeth ***. Palaeontologists have postulated that adult Limusaurus were probably herbivorous whilst juveniles were most likely omnivores.

Examples of noasaurids.
Two noasaurids – Limusaurus (left) that lost all its teeth as it matured and Masiakasaurus which had forward projecting teeth in its lower jaw and is regarded as a piscivore. Picture credit: Portia Sloan and Everything Dinosaur.

Taking the Feminine Form for Saurus

The genus name honours Bertha Maria Júlia Lutz, who was a leading activist for women’s rights in Brazil, combined with saura, the feminine form of saurus from the Greek for lizard. The species epithet “leopoldinae” honours the first Brazilian empress, Maria Leopoldina who was instrumental in helping Brazil to become independent.

Berthasaura fossil and line drawing
The holotype fossil of Berthasaura leopoldinae (MN 7821-V) which represents a disarticulated but nearly complete skeleton (A) and an interpretative line drawing (B). Picture credit: de Souza et al.

A Juvenile

Careful analysis of the fossilised bones indicated that the skeleton represents a juvenile. Skull bones and parts of the spine showed signs of not being fused and therefore, the research team, who were led by Geovane Alves de Souza (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro), concluded that Berthasaura, in contrast to Limusaurus, probably did not have any teeth, even as a young animal.

Examining the skeleton of Berthasaura.
Analysis of the fossil bones of Berthasaura. The fossil material represents a juvenile and is one of the most complete noasaurid skeletons described to date. Picture credit: de Souza et al.
Berthasaura skull fossils and interpretative line drawing.
An interpretative drawing of the skull of Berthasaura showing the placement of individual bones. Picture credit: de Souza et al.

A Basal Member of the Noasauridae

Taxonomic assessment of Berthasaura amongst the Noasauridae and within the wider Ceratosauria proved challenging for the research team. The lack of comparable noasaurid fossils limited the assessment that could be undertaken and it was difficult to conduct a phylogenetic assessment encompassing the Abelisauridae due to difficulties resolving taxonomic relationships between some poorly known abelisaurids. However, the scientists concluded that Berthasaura most likely represents a late, basal member of the Noasauridae and one that was not closely related to Limusaurus.

Phylogenetic relationship of Berthasaura leopoldinae.
Phylogenetic relationship of Berthasaura leopoldinae. Picture credit: de Souza et al.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s blog post about the discovery of Keresdrakon vilsoni * from 2019: New Brazilian Pterosaur Announced.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s blog post about Caiuajara dobruskii ** from 2014: New Species of Flying Reptile Identified from Pterosaur Graveyard.

Research that suggests Limusaurus lost its teeth as it grew up *** from 2016: Limusaurus – Dinosaur Species Lost its Teeth.

The scientific paper: “The first edentulous ceratosaur from South America” by Geovane Alves de Souza, Marina Bento Soares, Luiz Carlos Weinschütz, Everton Wilner, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Olga Maria Oliveira de Araújo and Alexander Wilhelm Armin Kellner published in Nature.

19 11, 2021

New CollectA Models for 2022 (Part 3)

By | November 19th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Today, team members at Everything Dinosaur are pleased to be able to make a third announcement about new CollectA prehistoric animal models for 2022. Despite all the difficulties brought about by the global pandemic (COVID-19), the dedicated and hardworking staff at CollectA have managed to create a diverse range of new for 2022 figures and we are proud to announce the addition of a CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Edmontosaurus dinosaur model.

The figure is due to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in 2022, a spokesperson for the UK-based mail order company was not able to give an exact date as to when this figure would be available.

CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Edmontosaurus dinosaur model
The new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Edmontosaurus dinosaur model. CollectA had wanted to introduce a replica of this iconic Late Cretaceous hadrosaur for some time.

Edmontosaurus – Realising an Ambition

The design team at CollectA had wanted to make a model of this iconic North American hadrosaur for some years. Recent fossil discoveries have led to a reassessment of this hugely successful Late Cretaceous herbivore. For example, a spectacular “mummified” specimen nicknamed “Dakota”, as the fossil was discovered in North Dakota (1999), has provided detailed information on this dinosaur’s skin and the CollectA team wanted to incorporate this new information into their Edmontosaurus figure.

In addition, a well-preserved skull of an Edmontosaurus (E. regalis) revealed that this dinosaur sported a soft comb on the top of its head, rather like the soft tissue crest of a rooster. The new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Edmontosaurus sports a rather fetching, red-coloured crest on the top of its head.

A view of the head of the CollectA Edmontosaurus
A close-up view of the head of the Edmontosaurus replica with its prominent crest. This crest reflects the evidence of a soft tissue comb reported in 2013 following the analysis of the skull of an Edmontosaurus regalis.

Explaining why CollectA wanted to add an Edmontosaurus to their range of duck-billed dinosaur figures, designer Anthony Beeson stated:

“I was very keen to create a model of this hadrosaur to incorporate the new information we have concerning the hoof arrangement of the front feet, together with the scaling and soft crest suggested by the fossil record.”

Duck-billed Dinosaur Model Measurements

The new CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Edmontosaurus measures an impressive 34 cm in length and the figure stands some 12.5 cm high at the hips. It will scale up nicely with the feathered T. rex model introduced by CollectA in 2015. The CollectA Deluxe feathered Tyrannosaurus rex is about the same length as the new Edmontosaurus figure but as a biped, it is taller.

CollectA Edmontosaurus and the CollectA feathered T. rex.
The new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Edmontosaurus and the CollectA Deluxe feathered T. rex that was originally introduced in 2015.

In Stock at Everything Dinosaur in 2022

The CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Edmontosaurus is scheduled to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in the early part of 2022. Due to the on-going difficulties with logistics and global shipping, we are not able to give a precise date as to when this dinosaur model will be available. Team members will do all they can to update customers with regards to availability.

To view the range of CollectA Deluxe prehistoric animal figures available from Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life.

18 11, 2021

Everything Dinosaur Reviews New CollectA Models (Part 2)

By | November 18th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have created a video review of the second batch of new for 2022 CollectA prehistoric animal models to have been announced. The video, which has been posted up on the company’s YouTube channel highlights the new 1:20 scale CollectA Deluxe Smok wawelski model and the fabulous Permian nautiloid Cooperoceras.

Everything Dinosaur looks at the second batch of new for 2022 CollectA prehistoric animal models to be announced.

Smok wawelski and Cooperoceras texanum

The video review lasts approximately 11 minutes and 50 seconds. The narrator explains some of the challenges that model manufacturers have faced with the global pandemic and praises CollectA for their new prehistoric animal figures. Some of the science behind the creation of the Smok wawelski model is explained. It might be a quadruped and reminiscent of a pseudosuchian (crocodile lineage of the Archosauria), the Everything Dinosaur video explains why the model does not look like a theropod dinosaur.

CollectA Deluxe Smok wawelski.
The new for 2022 CollectA Deluxe Smok wawelski replica reflects the view that this large Late Triassic predator was not a theropod dinosaur.

The video examines the diet of this formidable predator and looks at the fossil bones and coprolites associated with Smok, the largest, terrestrial carnivore described to date from the Late Triassic of central Europe. The second model to be featured is the Cooperoceras replica. How this bizarre, spiny nautiloid came to be discovered is explained and the narrator highlights the range of CollectA invertebrate models and discusses how fossils of ammonites and other animals can be used to help date strata.

CollectA Cooperoceras
The new for 2022 CollectA Cooperoceras model continues the company’s fine tradition for creating replicas of important Palaeozoic invertebrates.

In Stock at Everything Dinosaur in 2022

Both the CollectA Deluxe 1:20 scale Smok wawelski and the CollectA Cooperoceras models will be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in 2022, although at this stage the video narrator was unable to give a precise date as to when these two excellent figures would be available.

To view the range of CollectA Prehistoric Life models in stock: CollectA Prehistoric Life Models.

To view the range of CollectA Deluxe models in stock: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Animal Models.

To subscribe to the Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

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