All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
//June
30 06, 2021

Import One Stop Shop (IOSS)

By | June 30th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur and One Stop Shop

On Thursday, July 1st new VAT rules for sales into the European Union come into force. Everything Dinosaur has registered for Import One Stop Shop (IOSS) enabling this UK-based company to comply with their VAT e-commerce obligations on distance sales of imported goods.

Everything Dinosaur and IOSS
Everything Dinosaur is ready for the start of Import One Stop Shop (IOSS). The thousands of Everything Dinosaur customers in the European Union can continue to rely on them for easy and straightforward deliveries to the EU.

What is Import One Stop Shop (IOSS)?

IOSS facilitates the collection, declaration and payment of VAT for sellers that are making distance sales of imported goods to buyers in the 27 countries that make up the European Union. Everything Dinosaur customers based in the European Union will find very little change in the way that Everything Dinosaur handles their purchase, team members had already ensured that parcels could be despatched delivery duty paid (DDP) from the beginning of 2021 and they will continue to do so.

The subsidised fully tracked parcel delivery service to customers in the European Union will continue as before.

Royal Mail parcels being sorted.
IOSS will simplify VAT collection rules across the European Union. It also means that the exemption status for parcels valued at less than 22 euros excluding shipping will be removed.

Benefits for the Buyer

Import One Stop Shop makes the process of placing an order even easier for the buyer. Everything Dinosaur will only charge the customer at the time of purchase. There are no hidden or surprise fees when the goods are delivered to the customer in Europe.

If the retailer is not registered under IOSS, then the buyer will have to pay VAT and usually an administration/customs clearance fee charged by the delivery company.

Such fees and payments will have to be made in full before the parcel can be handed over.

What Parcels Does IOSS Cover?

The Import One Stop Shop covers the sale of goods from a distance that are:

  • dispatched or transported from outside of the EU at the time they are sold – so parcels sent from Everything Dinosaur’s UK warehouse need to comply (UK designated a third country).
  • dispatched or transported in consignments with a value not exceeding a total of 150 euros even if the order contains several items.
  • not subject to excise duties (typically applied to tobacco or alcohol products).

The End of the VAT Exemption for Parcels under 22 Euros in Value

From July 1st 2021, the VAT exemption for the importation of goods with a value less than or equal to 22 euros will be removed. As a result, all Everything Dinosaur sales to the European Union that are less than 150 euros in value will be subject to VAT. The amount of VAT for each transaction will be clearly stated at the checkout and shown on the invoice – all part of Everything Dinosaur’s policy on being transparent with its pricing.

The European Union and IOSS
Everything Dinosaur will be IOSS compliant.

If the retailer is not registered in the IOSS, the buyer has to pay the VAT and usually a customs clearance fee charged by the transporter.

Some Temporary Disruption to European Deliveries

As these new procedures are implemented, customers in the European Union might experience a short delay in the delivery of their parcel. Delays can be expected as couriers and national postal companies get used to these new regulations.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Team members have done all they can to prepare for the beginning of IOSS. We have been registered and we are ready to operate under these new VAT simplification rules. However, we do anticipate that there will be some delays in the system. These delays will in part be caused by other companies not recognising what they must do in order to meet these new requirements. We apologise to our customers in the EU for any inconvenience caused.”

29 06, 2021

Updating the Everything Dinosaur Blog

By | June 29th, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

The address details for Everything Dinosaur have been updated in the footer section of the Everything Dinosaur blog. Everything Dinosaur relocated to new, bigger premises in April 2020 and team members have been busy updating all the contact details on their various websites on social media platforms.

Everything Dinosaur's Offices and Warehousing
The new Everything Dinosaur offices and warehousing. Team members have been busy updating all the contact details on the company’s various social media platforms and websites.

A spokesperson for the UK-based company commented that they had moved into larger premises and have created purpose-built packing rooms and offices. One of the main reasons for the move into a bigger warehouse was that the company intended to offer even more dinosaur and prehistoric animal models in the future.

One of the last things to do was to ensure that the contact details on the Everything Dinosaur blog were updated.

28 06, 2021

PNSO Bronze Sinosauropteryx

By | June 28th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Our thanks to dinosaur and prehistoric animal model and figure collector Anne who sent into Everything Dinosaur some pictures of the stunning, limited edition PNSO bronze Sinosauropteryx figure that she had recently purchased from us. Marketed as the “Galley Series”, only 300 of these remarkable sculptures have been produced.

PNSO Yuyan the Sinosauropteryx Bronze sculpture
The limited edition PNSO Yuyan the Sinosauropteryx Bronze sculpture the box (left) the beautiful statue in its foam packaging (middle) and the model with its box cover (right).

Limited Edition Bronze Dinosaur Statues

Of the 300 sculptures only a handful have been made available for sale outside of China. As Everything Dinosaur has the longest relationship with PNSO of any company based outside China, we were given special permission to bring some of these fantastic figures out of China and to our warehouse in the UK.

PNSO Yuyan the Sinosauropteryx limited edition bronze sculpture
The PNSO Yuyan the Sinosauropteryx limited edition bronze sculpture with its information cards, illustration and certificate of authenticity (left), the statue itself (middle and right).

The PNSO Yuyan the Sinosauropteryx bronze statue is in 1:3 scale and comes in a beautiful presentation box complete with a certificate of authenticity, a Zhao Chuang Sinosauropteryx illustration and notes from Zhao Chuang and Yang Yang.

Views of the PNSO Yuyan the Sinosauropteryx Bronze Sculpture

This beautiful figure will take pride of place in the family home and it was very kind of Anne to send some pictures to Everything Dinosaur of her latest acquisition.

PNSO Bronze Sinosauropteryx statue
Views of the PNSO Yuyan the Sinosauropteryx limited edition bronze sculpture.

The model measures a fraction under 17.5 cm high and the figure is 17 cm long.

PNSO Bronze Sinosauropteryx statue.
More views of the spectacular PNSO Bronze Sinosauropteryx statue, a stunning limited edition figure.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“The bronze 1:3 scale Yuyan the Sinosauropteryx was created to celebrate 10th anniversary of PNSO. It is wonderful to be able to supply these exceptionally rare and beautiful figures to our customers.”

PNSO bronze Sinosauropteryx statue
A close-up view of the jaws of the stunning PNSO bronze Sinosauropteryx statue and confirmation (right) that this sculpture is just one of 300 made in total.

To view the range of PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

27 06, 2021

“Dragon Man” from North-eastern China

By | June 27th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|1 Comment

No sooner have we praised the remarkable artist Zhao Chuang for his work illustrating the mammaliamorph biota associated with Early Cretaceous China, then he produces another stunning piece of palaeoart – this time illustrating the newly described “Dragon Man” or to give the proposed formal scientific name Homo longi.

Dragon Man life reconstruction.
A life reconstruction of “Dragon Man”. Picture credit: Zhao Chuang.

A Completely New Species of Human

Researchers including Professor Chris Stringer from the London Natural History Museum have published a paper in the journal “Innovation” that describes and dates a remarkable and very complete fossil skull from Heilongjiang Province. The team have concluded that the ancient skull believed to be at least 146,000 years old represents a completely new species of human. They postulate that the skull could be from our closest evolutionary relative among known species of hominin such as Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.

Harbin hominin skull.
The skull of the archaic hominin from the Harbin region of China. It could represent a new species of human. Picture credit: Chinese Academy of Sciences.

“Dragon Man”

The skull was reportedly discovered in 1933 by a construction worker helping to build a bridge over the Songhua river running through the city of Harbin. The river means “Black Dragon River” in the local language which explains why this skull representing a male was nicknamed “Dragon Man”.

The province was occupied by imperial Japanese forces at the time, so the construction worker hid the skull at the bottom of his family’s well to prevent it falling into the hands of the Japanese. According to media reports he only told relatives about the fossil find shortly before his death. The specimen was handed over to scientists so that a full examination of this extraordinary fossil could be carried out.

Where the fossil was found remains a mystery, but geochemical analysis suggests it came from lakebed sediments (lacustrine sediments). The research which involved non-destructive X-ray fluorescence, the analysis of rare earth elements and strontium isotope degradation, placed the date of this fossil between 138 to 309 thousand years old.

Uranium isotope analysis indicated that the fossil was at least 146,000 years old.

The face of "Dragon Man"
Views of the face of “Dragon Man”. Picture credit: Kai Geng

Commenting on the significance of this discovery, Professor Chris Stringer stated:

“The skull has a large brain capacity, fully within the range of modern humans and Neanderthals. It also shows features resembling our species, including flat and low cheekbones with a shallow canine fossa, and the face looks reduced and tucked under the braincase. It’s widely believed that the Neanderthals form the sister group of the Homo sapiens lineage. But our analyses suggest that this skull, and some other Middle Pleistocene human fossils from China, form a third East Asian lineage, which is actually closer to sapiens than the Neanderthals are”.

Other researchers have suggested that the skull might represent an example of the ancient human known as a Denisovan. Where “Dragon Man” fits on the human family tree remains uncertain, but it is true that the evolution of hominins during the Pleistocene Epoch has yet to be fully explained. There may have been a number of human lineages inhabiting our planet and the exact taxonomic relationships between them will continue to attract controversy and lively debate.

The scientific paper: “Geochemical provenancing and direct dating of the Harbin archaic human cranium” by Qinqfeng Shao, Junyi Ge, Qiang Ji, Rainer Grün and Chris Stringer published in the journal Innovation.

For the article featuring the mammaliamorph illustration by Zhao Chuang: The Jehol Biota and a Wonderful Illustration.

26 06, 2021

Tickets Snapped Up at T. rex Premiere

By | June 26th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|4 Comments

Excitement is mounting as we approach the start of the “Titus: T. rex is King” exhibition at Wollaton Hall Natural History Museum in Nottingham which officially opens to the public on Sunday 4th July (2021). Tickets for the Exclusive Premiere Event are also being snapped up as dinosaur fans grab the chance to be the first people to see a real Tyrannosaurus rex fossil skeleton in England for 100 years.

Titus the T. rex bones from the jaw.
The fearsome upper jaws (premaxilla and maxilla) of the T. rex known as Titus going on display at Wollaton Hall Natural History Museum in Nottingham.

Tickets for Exclusive Premiere Selling Fast

Organisers have revealed that the T. rex has safely arrived in Nottingham and this precious cargo is currently being unpacked and made ready for the grand opening of the exhibition. The organisers have also revealed that a third of the tickets for the Exclusive Premiere Event to be held on Saturday 3rd July have already gone.

Just 100 tickets were available for this unique event on Saturday 3rd July, the day before the exhibition officially opens to the public. For those eager to claim that they were the very first to meet Titus, they are being urged to purchase tickets now via the Wollaton Hall website, before, just like a T. rex they are gone forever!

To find out more about ticket sales including the Exclusive Premiere Event: Wollaton Hall Website.

The tail bones of Titus the T. rex.
The articulated caudal vertebrae of Titus the T. rex ready to be unpacked for display.

T. rex Proving to be an Irresistible Attraction

Ever since tickets went on general sale, the chance to view a real Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton and to visit this exciting exhibition has proved irresistible. Interest in “Titus: T. rex is King” has been so high that virtually all the weekend tickets for the whole of July have gone already.

In response to the huge demand the organisers decided to launch the special one-off premiere event on Saturday 3rd July to mark the century since a real T. rex was last exhibited in the country.

The exhibition will officially open its doors to the general public on Sunday 4th July at Wollaton Hall Natural History Museum – an appropriate date, revealing an iconic North American dinosaur on U.S. Independence Day!

Visitors will be able to get up close to the skeleton Titus and enjoy an immersive experience of digital and interactive media displays that takes them from his discovery in the Montana Badlands in the USA, through the journey of excavation and curation.

The ticket price of £53 (inc. booking fee) includes a conversation with renowned palaeontologist Dr. David Hone and an exhibition Goody Bag of Titus merchandise worth over £30.

The famous clawed hand of a T. rex
Unpacking the famous limbs of the Tyrannosaurus rex exhibit (Titus the T. rex).

Palaeontologist Dr David Hone, Senior Lecturer in Zoology at the University of London has played a key role in the story of Titus and has helped set up the Exclusive Premiere Event. Dr Hone will be the host for the premiere event, taking guests on a “A Walk with Titus”. What a fantastic opportunity to learn from the UK’s top expert about the biology and behaviour of the most famous of all the dinosaurs.

Event Details

To comply with Covid-19 regulations in place, arrival times will be staggered with 11.00a.m., 12.00p.m. and 1.00p.m. slots available to purchase. Visitors will be required to wear face masks throughout, unless exempt.

Details

Titus: T. rex is King Premiere Event
Saturday July 3rd, 11.00a.m., 12.00p.m. and 1.00p.m.
Ticket Price is £50.00 (plus £3.00 booking fee), to include a specialist talk by Dr David Hone and exhibition Goody Bag of merchandise to the value of £30.00.

25 06, 2021

New Type of Ancient Human Unearthed in Israel

By | June 25th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A scientific paper has been published this week in the journal “Science” that suggests that interactions between different species of human during the Middle and Late Pleistocene Epoch were much more complex than previously thought.

Researchers working in Israel have identified a previously unknown type of ancient human that lived alongside our own species (H. sapiens) more than 100,000 years ago. The remains consisting of a fragment from the top of the skull (parietal bones), the mandible and a lower second molar tooth discovered near the city of Ramla in the Central District of Israel, have been dated to around 140,000 – 120,000 years ago and these fossils represent one of the very last members of an ancient human group that may have been the ancestors of the Neanderthals.

Nesher Ramla hominin.
The skull fragment (right) and the jawbone complete with some teeth (left). Picture credit: Avi Levin and Ilan Theiler, Sackler Faculty of Medicine.

Human Remains Found Amongst Stone Tools and Other Fossil Bones

Yossi Zaidner from the Institute of Archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem found the fossils during excavations to salvage Middle Pleistocene material and fossils that had been uncovered during construction work. Thousands of fossil bones depicting a rich and varied fauna including aurochs, horses and deer were also recovered. Stone tools were also found, analysis of these tools suggest they were constructed in the same manner that modern humans of the time also made their implements.

The researchers made virtual reconstructions of the fossils to permit their analysis using sophisticated computer software and to compare them with other hominin fossils from Europe, Asia and Africa. The results suggest that the Nesher Ramla hominin fossils represent late survivors of a population of humans who lived in the Middle East during the Middle Pleistocene period.

Rolf Quam, one of the co-authors of the scientific paper commented:

“The oldest fossils that show Neanderthal features are found in Western Europe, so researchers generally believe the Neanderthals originated there. However, migrations of different species from the Middle East into Europe may have provided genetic contributions to the Neanderthal gene pool during the course of their evolution.”

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from Binghamton University State University of New York in the compilation of this article.

The study, “A Middle Pleistocene Homo from Nesher Ramla, Israel,” was published in Science, along with a companion paper discussing the culture, way of life and behaviour of the Nesher Ramla hominin.

24 06, 2021

Australia’s Newest National Park Protects Ancient Fossils

By | June 24th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

In January 2020, Everything Dinosaur reported that a part of Flinders Range in South Australia that contains a unique record of Ediacaran life had gained official protection. This area has now become a national park helping to ensure the long-term future of one of the most important fossil sites in the world recording evidence of life before the Cambrian.

The Nilpena fossil fields (South Australia).
The Nilpena fossil fields preserve examples of Precambrian biota. This area has been designated a national park and therefore receives greater protection under Australian law. Picture credit: Jason Irving.

Additional Protection for an Important Fossil Site

The newly formed Nilpena Ediacara National Park will replace the existing Ediacara National Conservation Park and adds around 60,000 hectares of extra land to the protection project, that is bigger than the area of the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea.

The site preserves the fossilised remains of an ancient marine biota from the Ediacaran geological period. Since this site was first discovered in 1946, around 40 highly fossiliferous beds have been identified preserving in exquisite detail a variety of soft-bodied lifeforms. These marine organisms represent some of the first, large complex animals to evolve and document the evolution of locomotion and sexual reproduction.

Ediacaran marine life.
Life in the Ediacaran. The Nilpena site in Southern Australia provides a fossil record of the marine biota that thrived in a shallow sea at the end of the Ediacaran geological period around 550 million years ago. Picture credit: John Sibbick.

South Australia’s Minister for the Environment and Water, David Speirs, stated that the new national park is a significant step on the road to getting the Flinders Ranges UNESCO World Heritage status.

The Minister commented:

“The fossil site at Nilpena, arguably the richest and most intact fossil site in the world, is an internationally significant palaeontological and geological research site.”

To read Everything Dinosaur’s article from January 2020, which outlined the change in status of this very important Lagerstätte: Ediacaran Fossil Site in Australia Gains Protection.

23 06, 2021

The Jehol Biota – Zhao Chuang

By | June 23rd, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos|0 Comments

Whilst looking at a scientific paper published earlier this year which featured the description of two new species of burrowing mammals from the Early Cretaceous of north-eastern China, team members came across a superb illustration of the types of mammals and mammaliamorphs associated with the famous Jehol biota. The artwork had been created by world-renowned palaeoartist Zhao Chuang and it depicts the biota associated with the Lower Cretaceous deposits associated with the Yixian Formation and Jiufotang Formation. What a stunning piece of art.

The Early Cretaceous Jehol biota with emphasis on mammaliamorphs.
The Early Cretaceous Jehol biota with emphasis on mammaliamorphs. Picture credit: Zhao Chuang.

Fossiomanus sinensis and Jueconodon cheni

The two new ancient ancestors of modern mammals were both burrowers, with powerful hands, claws to help with digging, compact bodies and short tails. Although they shared similar anatomical traits, – adaptations to life underground – they were not closely related. The slightly smaller Jueconodon cheni has been classified as a eutriconodontan, a distant cousin of modern placental mammals and marsupials, it was around 20 cm in length. Fossiomanus sinensis is a herbivorous mammal-like animal called a tritylodontid and was around 30 long.

One of the co-authors of the scientific paper, published in the journal “Nature”, Dr Jin Meng from the American Museum of Natural History (New York), commented:

The Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota has generated many well-preserved fossils that have furnished a great deal of information on the morphology and evolution of early mammals. The two new species expand the diversity of the mammaliamorph assemblage and increase its morphological disparity, as they show unequivocal evidence of convergent adaptation for a fossorial lifestyle.”

Jehol mammals Fossiomanus sinensis and Jueconodon cheni
Two new species of Early Cretaceous mammals were described from fossils found in north-eastern China. Fossiomanus sinensis (upper right) and Jueconodon cheni in their burrows. Picture credit: Zhao Chuang.

As well as reading about the diverse nature of the mammaliamorph biota associated with the Early Cretaceous Jehol ecosystem, we have the opportunity to admire the stunning artwork of Zhao Chuang. Fossils from north-eastern China have revealed that during the Early Cretaceous, the forests and lakes were home to a wide variety of different mammaliamorphs. The mammaliamorpha is defined as a clade of cynodonts including mammaliaforms and their close relatives. It is therefore a broader definition of early mammals than the mammaliaformes.

22 06, 2021

PNSO Allosaurus Model Review

By | June 22nd, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Our thanks to dinosaur model collector William who sent into Everything Dinosaur an extensive review of the recently introduced PNSO Paul the Allosaurus dinosaur model. William postulated that this dinosaur model represented Allosaurus jimmadseni, a species of Allosaurus that was formally named and described last year (2020).

PNSO Paul the Allosaurus dinosaur model
The new for 2021 PNSO Allosaurus replica (Paul the Allosaurus). Our reviewer William postulated that this model represented a replica of the recently described Allosaurus jimmadseni.

Describing the Head

William commented that in his opinion the head differed slightly than that of Allosaurus fragilis in that it had a longer, slimmer profile. That the head of this dinosaur model represented a more gracile species such as A. jimmadseni. The new PNSO figure reflected a fast, pursuit predator differing from other Allosaurus species and other closely related theropods known from North America and Europe.

When referring to the prominent head crests, William commented:

“Paul’s head crest is the best of the best of any present day Allosaurus model, accurate compared to his movie franchise versions.”

PNSO Paul the Allosaurus dinosaur model
The new for 2021 PNSO Paul the Allosaurus dinosaur model has an articulated lower jaw, just like the majority of the theropod figures that PNSO have produced in the larger size model series. The prominent head crests praised by William in his review can be clearly seen in this image.

William added that the texture and execution of the skin folds around each of the glacier blue eyes makes each crest stand out even more. He also commented on the placement of the ear openings and the slight “shrink wrapping” effect caused by depicting the inferior temporal fenestra which was located just behind the eye socket.

Reviewing the Limbs on the PNSO Allosaurus

When reviewing the limbs of the dinosaur model, William stated that the forearms showed fantastic muscle definition, great claws and that the limbs were in an appropriate non-pronated position. The hind legs of this biped were also praised with William exclaiming that:

“PNSO know what to add and what to leave off their sculpts.”

When concluding his review of the hind legs, he noted the precise details associated with the foot claws.

Examining the Body

In the review, the torso was said to be of the highest design, not one inch is out of place and as with all PNSO figures a great deal of time and care has gone into the sculpt. The reviewer suggested that the figure would not appear out of place depicting an Allosaurus in the Sir Arthur Conan Doyle novel “The Lost World”.

From the Tip of the Snout to the Tail – An Allosaurus’s Allosaurus

Before moving on to comment upon the figure’s colouration the reviewer described it as being “from the tip of the snout to the tip of the tail we have an Allosaurus’s Allosaurus“. The colouration of the figure was described with the dark brown wash that had been applied to parts of the model singled out for praise. The painting of the mouth was complimented, the glacier blue eyes were regarded as a strong selling point.

PNSO Paul the Allosaurus product packaging
The PNSO Paul the Allosaurus product packaging. The reviewer praised the figure for its texture and colouration.

The Tale of the Tape

In concluding his review, William provided some further information about the figure including model measurements.

Scale: 1/30th.
Height: 3. 5inches.
Length: 11.5 inches.
Clear plastic support stand & booklet/poster included.

Providing Details on Allosaurus

As well as reviewing the new for 2021 PNSO Paul the Allosaurus dinosaur model, William supplied some additional information on “different lizard”.

Time Period : Late Jurassic, 155–145 million years ago (Morrison Formation).
First described in 1877.

William commented that the sediments associated with the Morrison Formation of the western United States represent deposits from riverine and floodplain environments with contrasting wet and dry seasons. As well as many famous herbivorous dinosaurs, these Upper Jurassic sediments have provided fossils of numerous, large theropods. Allosaurus would have faced competition from massive megalosaurids such as Torvosaurus and ceratosaurs such as Ceratosaurus.

PNSO Morrison Formation Dinosaurs
PNSO celebrating dinosaurs known from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of western North America.

Allosaurus jimmadseni

William reiterated his view that Paul the Allosaurus most likely represented Allosaurus jimmadseni. Fossil material now ascribed to this species formed the basis of the BBC’s Walking with Dinosaurs documentary “The Ballard of Big Al”. The documentary chronicled the life and death of an individual Allosaurus. He then provided further information about the fossils, where they were found and who discovered them.

To read about the formal description of Allosaurus jimmadseni: A New Species of Allosaurus.

William commented that in 2020, a new species of Allosaurus was announced (A. jimmadseni). The species name honours James H. Madsen the first, official state palaeontologist of Utah who has had a long and distinguished career helping to further our understanding of the predatory dinosaurs associated with the Morrison Formation.

Everything Dinosaur would like to thank William for submitting such a detailed and informative review of the PNSO Paul the Allosaurus dinosaur model.

To see the range of PNSO prehistoric animals including Paul the Allosaurus in stock at Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

21 06, 2021

The Last Record of Dinosaurs in Britain

By | June 21st, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Researchers writing in the Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association have reported tracks from at least six different species of dinosaur found in Lower Cretaceous rocks at Folkestone in Kent. The tracks and trackways from the Lower Greensand Group date to around 112-110 million years ago (Albian faunal stage of the Cretaceous). As such, these rare trace fossils represent evidence of the last known dinosaurs to walk on the UK landmass.

An artist's interpretation of the Folkestone dinosaur tracks.
An artist’s interpretation of the Folkestone dinosaur tracks. In the foreground a solitary ankylosaurid wanders up the beach passing a small herd of iguanodonts. In the background three titanosaurs are spooked by an approaching theropod. Picture credit: Megan Jacobs.

Evidence of Dinosaurs

The footprints were discovered in the cliffs and on the foreshore in Folkestone, Kent (southern England). Storms affect the cliffs and wash away sediments occasionally exposing fossils and in very rare cases, evidence of dinosaurs. Isolated vertebrae thought to represent an armoured dinosaur had been found previously and there have been reports of dinosaur tracks being discovered, but the paper published in the Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association is the first, formal, scientific assessment of these remarkable trace fossils.

A Challenge to Find a Dinosaur Footprint

Philip Hadland, a curator at the Hastings Museum and Art Gallery, an expert on the fossils of Folkestone, found a dinosaur track, believed to represent an ornithopod on the 13th September 2017. After showing his find to Steve Friedrich, a local fossil hunter with decades of experience, Steve thought that he too might try his luck to see if he could spot one. Remarkably, within ten minutes Steve found a beautiful, three-toed print, most likely representing a theropod.

Ornithopod track from Folkestone (Kent)
A large ornithopod track found at Folkestone in Kent. The fossil footprint, probably representing an iguanodontid, was found by Philip Hadland on 13th September 2017. Picture credit: University of Portsmouth/PA Media.

Professor of Palaeobiology at the University of Portsmouth and co-author of the scientific paper, David Martill, commented:

“It is quite an extraordinary discovery because these dinosaurs would have been the last to roam in this country before becoming extinct.”

Folkestone theropod track
A single theropod track from Folkestone (Kent). The tridactyl print found by Steve Friedrich. Picture credit: University of Portsmouth/PA Media.

Many of these remarkable specimens are on display at the Folkestone Museum.

These trace fossils have forced palaeontologists to rethink the Early Cretaceous depositional environment of this part of the Kent coast. Dinosaur footprints, together with fossil wood and oysters in a matrix of well-rounded quartz grains indicates a coastal depositional environment of an extremely shallow depth, perhaps with short periods of exposure as dry land.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented that an exposed beach may have provided an easier route for dinosaurs to use to travel from one food source to another. It was probably more convenient for these large animals to navigate a sandy beach than to try moving through dense undergrowth that would have been found further inland. Some of the dinosaurs could have been beachcombing, it is possible that the theropods may have visited the beach looking for any corpses that may have been washed up by the tide.

One of the authors of the scientific paper, Philip Hadland, has produced a really helpful guide to fossil hunting in the Folkestone area. Entitled “Fossils of Folkestone, Kent” it is available from Siri Scientific Press here: Siri Scientific Press.

Fossil collecting guide to the Folkestone area.
Fossils of Folkestone, Kent by Philip Hadland.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s review of “Fossils of Folkestone, Kent”: Everything Dinosaur reviews “Fossils of Folkestone, Kent”.

The scientific paper: “The youngest dinosaur footprints from England and their palaeoenvironmental implications” by Philip T. Hadland, Steve Friedrich, Abdelouahed Lagnaoui and David M. Martill published in the Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association.

Load More Posts