All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
//June
18 06, 2021

New Species of Paraceratherium

By | June 18th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

The giant prehistoric rhino, Paraceratherium, is considered the largest land mammal that ever lived. It was mainly found in Asia, especially China, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and Pakistan. How these giant, hornless rhinos dispersed across Asia was unknown, but the discovery of fossils in Gansu Province, has led to the naming of a new Paraceratherium species (Paraceratherium linxiaense) and shed light on how these amazing herbivores evolved and dispersed across the Asian continent.

Paraceratherium linxiaense life reconstruction.
A life reconstruction of the newly described Paraceratherium linxiaense with several other mammal fauna from the Linxia Basin (Oligocene Epoch) illustrated. Picture credit: Chen Yu.

Providing Important Clues About Paraceratherium Dispersal

Writing in the academic journal “Communications Biology”, the researchers from the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Hezheng Paleozoological Museum (Gansu Province), Henan University (Henan Province) and Harvard University describe fossils found near the village of Wangjiachuan (Gansu Province) in 2015 that enabled the establishment of a new species of Paraceratherium.

Analysis of the fossil material led the scientists to conclude that this new species was closely related to giant rhinos that once lived in Pakistan (Paraceratherium bugtiense), which suggests ancestral forms migrated across Central Asia.

The holotype (HMV 2006) of Paraceratherium linxiaense
The holotype (HMV 2006) of Paraceratherium linxiaense consisting of skull and jaw material. Picture credit: The Chinese Academy of Sciences.

The Remarkable Fauna of the Linxia Basin in the Late Oligocene

The fossil material which includes a skull and articulated mandible as well as the first cervical vertebra (atlas), as well as another neckbone and two thoracic vertebrae from a second individual were found in Late Oligocene deposits associated with the Jiaozigou Formation of Linxia Basin (Gansu Province), close to the north-eastern border of the Tibetan Plateau.

Around 26.5 million years ago, the open woodland environment of north-central China was home to a wide variety of prehistoric mammals including the giant rhinos Turpanotherium and Dzungariotherium, the rodent Tsaganomys, the creodont Megalopterodon, the chalicothere Schizotherium, the hyracodont Ardynia, the rhinocerotid Aprotodon, and the entelodont Paraentelodon – some of these animals are illustrated in the Paraceratherium linxiaense life reconstruction (above).

Standing taller than a giraffe and weighing approximately 20 tonnes, Paraceratherium linxiaense had a slender skull and a prehensile nose trunk similar to that of the modern tapir to help it to grab leaves and branches from the tops of trees, a food resource that no other animal in its environment could exploit.

Plotting the Distribution and Dispersal of Paraceratherium

A phylogenetic analysis carried out by the research team suggests P. linxiaense as a derived form with a mix of basal and more advanced traits. The phylogenetic analysis produced a series of progressively more-derived species from P. grangeri, through P. huangheense, P. asiaticum, and P. bugtiense before finally terminating in P. linxiaense and what is thought to be its sister taxon P. lepidum.

The research team conclude that Paraceratherium linxiaense was a more specialised animal, with a more flexible neck, similar to P. lepidum, and both are derived from Paraceratherium bugtiense known from Pakistan. They team were then able to plot and map the spread of these giant rhinos across Asia.

Mapping the Dispersal of Paraceratherium
Mapping and plotting the dispersal of Paraceratherium across Asia. Location of the early Oligocene species are marked by the yellow colour, and the red indicates the late Oligocene species. Picture credit: Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology.

The researchers found that all six species of Paraceratherium are sister taxa to the hornless rhinoceros Aralotherium which is known from Kazakhstan and China and form a monophyletic clade in which P. grangeri is the most primitive, succeeded by P. huangheense and P. asiaticum.

The researchers were thus able to determine that, in the Early Oligocene, P. asiaticum dispersed westward to Kazakhstan and its descendant lineage expanded to South Asia as Paraceratherium bugtiense. In the Late Oligocene, Paraceratherium returned northward, crossing the Tibetan region, which implies that this area of Asia was not yet uplifted to form a high, difficult to traverse plateau. This migration led to two distinct species evolving P. lepidum to the west in Kazakhstan and P. linxiaense to the east in the Linxia Basin.

The ITOY Studio Paraceratherium.
A view of the eagerly anticipated ITOY Studio Paraceratherium model. A replica of the largest land mammal known to science.

Contrasting the high altitude of the Tibetan region today to the environment of this region during the Late Oligocene Epoch, lead author of the research Professor Deng Tao explained that:

“Late Oligocene tropical conditions allowed the giant rhino to return northward to Central Asia, implying that the Tibetan region was still not uplifted as a high-elevation plateau.”

During the Oligocene, the giant rhino could disperse freely from the Mongolian Plateau to South Asia along the eastern coast of the Tethys Ocean and perhaps through Tibet. Up to the Late Oligocene, the evolution and migration from P. bugtiense to P. linxiaense and P. lepidum demonstrates that the “Tibetan Plateau” was not yet a barrier to the movement of the largest land mammal known to science.

The scientific paper: “An Oligocene giant rhino provides insights into Paraceratherium evolution” by Tao Deng, Xiaokang Lu, Shiqi Wang, Lawrence J. Flynn, Danhui Sun, Wen He and Shanqin Chen published in Communications Biology.

17 06, 2021

Connor the Torvosaurus

By | June 17th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|2 Comments

Today, Everything Dinosaur in collaboration with PNSO announce another exciting addition to PNSO’s mid-size model range – a stunning replica of the Late Jurassic theropod Torvosaurus. Say hello to Connor the Torvosaurus.

Connor the PNSO Torvosaurus is likely to be in stock at Everything Dinosaur later in the summer.

PNSO Connor the Torvosaurus
The new for 2021 PNSO Connor the Torvosaurus dinosaur model, a stunning replica of a Late Jurassic apex predator.

PNSO Theropod Dinosaurs

Hot on the heels of the recently announced Tarbosaurus figure comes news of this Torvosaurus replica, another fantastic figure of an apex predator for dinosaur fans and model collectors to drool over. Two species are currently assigned to this genus – T. tanneri which was formally named in 1979 and the European T. gurneyi. Torvosaurus gurneyi was scientifically described just seven years ago. Fossil remains attributed to Torvosaurus have been found as far afield as the western United States, Portugal and possibly southern England, South America and Tanzania. There may be more species to be added but for the time being, dinosaur model fans have this beautiful PNSO replica to admire.

PNSO Connor the Torvosaurus dinosaur model
A close view of the detailed and beautifully crafted head of Connor the Torvosaurus dinosaur model from PNSO.

PNSO Torvosaurus Model Measurements

The latest addition to the rapidly expanding PNSO mid-size model range measures 29.5 cm long from the tip of its robust snout to the end of its lengthy, tapering tail. The model stands approximately 8.5 cm high. Although PNSO do not publish a scale size for their mid-size model range, Everything Dinosaur estimate that based on a fully grown adult size of around 10 metres, this dinosaur model is approximately in 1:33 scale.

PNSO Connor the Torvosaurus dinosaur model (measurements).
The dinosaur model measures an impressive 29.5 cm in length and the top of the head is some 8.5 cm off the ground.

Supplied with a Transparent Stand

As with other recent PNSO dinosaur models representing bipeds, Connor the Torvosaurus is supplied with a handy, transparent support stand.

PNSO Connor the Torvosaurus with a support stand
This bipedal dinosaur model is supplied with a transparent stand to help to stabilise the model when displayed.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“It is great to see this latest introduction into the PNSO model portfolio. There are not too many Torvosaurus figures about and this one is bound to get dinosaur fans roaring with delight”.

The PNSO Torvosaurus has an articulated jaw
The beautifully sculpted PNSO Connor the Torvosaurus has an articulated lower jaw and prominent horns over the eyes.

Connor the PNSO Torvosaurus is expected in stock later in the summer. To view the existing range of PNSO models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Dinosaur Models and Prehistoric Animal Figures.

13 06, 2021

Summarising PNSO Model Releases

By | June 13th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Dinosaur model fans and collectors have been very impressed over the last twelve months or so with the large number of new model releases from the Chinese company PNSO. At a time when most factories have been struggling to obtain raw materials, PNSO have managed to set in motion a production plan that has seen a new model being announced every few weeks.

PNSO Haylee the Helicoprion
PNSO have added a replica of the Permian marine predator Helicoprion to their mid-size model range. Everything Dinosaur made an announcement about this new prehistoric fish replica in a joint collaboration with PNSO earlier in 2021.

Keeping up with PNSO Product Announcements

Everything Dinosaur would like to congratulate the design and production team at PNSO. They continue to delight prehistoric animal model collectors with their new model introductions and announcements. We do understand how challenging it can be for model collectors to keep up to date with all this exciting news. The Everything Dinosaur blog provides an invaluable and authoritative source of information and our dedicated team members frequently post up on social media too, these posts help to keep prehistoric animal model fans updated.

PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus product packaging
The product packaging for the new PNSO Tarbosaurus dinosaur replica. Last week (June 11th, 2021) Everything Dinosaur released news of PNSO’s latest model – a replica of the Late Cretaceous tyrannosaur Tarbosaurus (T. bataar).

Providing Further Assistance

In a bid to provide further assistance to dinosaur model collectors, here is a list of the recently announced new prehistoric animal replicas being introduced by PNSO.

  • PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus 51
  • PNSO Jeff the Kronosaurus in the 1:35 scale scientific art
  • PNSO Stegosaurus Models (Biber and Rook) in the scientific art 1:35 scale
  • PNSO Haylee the Helicoprion 43
  • PNSO Paul the Allosaurus 45
  • PNSO Yutyrannus Yinqi the Yutyrannus 52
  • PNSO Austin the Pachycephalosaurus 46
  • PNSO Bronze Sinosauropteryx (limited edition sculptures)
  • PNSO Gamba the Carcharodontosaurus 50

In addition to providing the name of the animal we have also included (where applicable), the product inventory number as provided by PNSO on the company’s product packaging. Dinosaur model collectors can then get some insight into further potential announcements by noting which numbers in the numeric sequence have yet to be filled.

PNSO "Wilson" is based on an actual fossil exhibit.
The new PNSO “Wilson” the Tyrannosaurus rex replica is based on the museum specimen AMNH-5027. As well as mid-size model introductions PNSO made announcements about new scale models such as the new Wilson T. rex replica.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented that the PNSO Austin the Pachycephalosaurus and Paul the Allosaurus would be in stock at Everything Dinosaur in a few days.

PNSO Austin the Pachycephalosaurus dinosaur model
The new for 2021 PNSO Austin the Pachycephalosaurus dinosaur model.
PNSO Paul the Allosaurus dinosaur model
The stunning PNSO Paul the Allosaurus (anterior view).

To view the range of PNSO prehistoric animal models and figures available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

12 06, 2021

The New Rebor GrabNGo Tyrannosaurs are in Stock

By | June 12th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

The two new Rebor GrabNGo T. rex dinosaur models (Rebor GNG05 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type D and Rebor GNG04 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type C) are now in stock at Everything Dinosaur. These eagerly anticipated Tyrannosaurus rex models arrived at the Everything Dinosaur warehouse yesterday and they will be replacing the original GNG Rebor rexes that were introduced in 2020.

Rebor GNG04 and GNG05 T. rex dinosaur models are in stock
Rebor GrabNGo Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur models are now in stock at Everything Dinosaur. Rebor GNG04 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type C (left) and the Rebor GNG05 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type D (right).

1:35 Scale Tyrannosaurus rex Dinosaur Models

The models are the same sculpt but they have very different colour schemes. GNG04 is a dark green figure with subtle black banding, whilst GNG05 can be described as mainly brown-coloured but with prominent white markings on the head and neck. Each figure measures 40 cm in length and is supplied with a transparent support stand to permit Rebor to keep the well-crafted hind feet in proportion with the rest of the model.

The Rebor GNG04 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type C
The Rebor GNG04 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type C is supplied with a transparent support stand.
Rebor GNG05 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type D model
The Rebor GNG05 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type D. The model’s striking colouration reminded team members of the tyrannosaurs depicted in the American documentary series “Dinosaur Revolution” produced by Creative Differences and originally aired on the Discovery Channel around a decade ago.

The Rebor GNGO5 1:35 Scale SA T. rex Type D

The colouration of the Rebor GNG05 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type D, reminds team members at Everything Dinosaur of the Tyrannosaurus rexes that featured in the American documentary series “Dinosaur Revolution” that aired around ten years ago. In the four-part documentary series, the final episode featured the dinosaur dominated biota of the Hell Creek Formation of North America. Several T. rex dinosaurs were featured in this programme. If we recall correctly there were two male T. rexes, one was called “Jack Palance” and another called “Stumpy”. “Stumpy” had a deformed forearm as a result of a fight with the bigger “Jack Palance”, fortunately the Rebor GNG05 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type D has no such disability.

Rebor GrabNGo T. rex dinosaur models are now in stock at Everything Dinosaur.
The new Rebor GrabNGo T. rex dinosaur models are now in stock at Everything Dinosaur. Rebor GNG04 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type C (left) and the Rebor GNG05 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type D (right).

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur praised Rebor for introducing another two, inexpensive dinosaur models into their portfolio and they confirmed that the original GNG T. rexes (Rebor GNG02 1:35 SA T. rex Type A and the Rebor GNG03 1:35 scale SA T. rex Type B) our now out of production and retired.

To view all the Rebor models and figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

11 06, 2021

PNSO to Add a Tarbosaurus Dinosaur Model

By | June 11th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|1 Comment

In a joint collaboration with PNSO, Everything Dinosaur is pleased to announce that a Tarbosaurus dinosaur model is being introduced into PNSO’s mid-size prehistoric animal model range. Say hello to Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus, the very latest addition to the ever-growing PNSO prehistoric animal portfolio.

This new dinosaur figure is likely to be available from Everything Dinosaur in the late summer of 2021.

PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus dinosaur model (view of the head)
A close-up view of the head of the new for 2021 PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus dinosaur model.

PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus

Dinosaur fans and model collectors will be aware that PNSO have ramped up production considerably and numerous new figures have been announced since the end of 2020. Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus is the second member of the Tyrannosauroidea to be announced this year after Yinqi the Yutyrannus (April 2021). Eagle-eyed collectors will note that the Tarbosaurus figure is number 51 in this series, whilst Yinqi, which was announced earlier is number 52.

PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus product packaging
The product packaging for the new PNSO Tarbosaurus dinosaur replica. Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus is number 51 in the PNSO mid-size model range.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s recent blog post about the addition of a Yutyrannus: PNSO to Introduce a Model of Yutyrannus.

Tarbosaurus bataar

Named and described in 1955, Tarbosaurus (T. bataar) is one of the largest tyrannosaurids known. It is believed to have been slightly smaller than Tyrannosaurus rex, but closely related to the “tyrant lizard king”. Tarbosaurus measured around 12 metres in length and most body weight estimates suggest a figure of between 4,000 and 5,000 kilograms.

PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus in anterior view
PNSO Prehistoric Dinosaur Models: 51 Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus. This new for 2021 PNSO figure depicts Tarbosaurus as a heavy-set, robust theropod.

Model Measurements

Chuanzi the PNSO Tarbosaurus measures 31 cm in length and it has a head height of 11 cm. The recently introduced new Wilson the T. rex figure is slightly longer (34.5 cm long), so these two models can be displayed together to provide the viewer with a comparison between these closely related Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurs.

PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus model measurements
The PNSO Chuanzi (Tarbosaurus dinosaur model) measures 31 cm in length and that powerful looking neck supports a head that stands 11 cm high.

Available from Everything Dinosaur in the Summer (2021)

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur confirmed that they intended to stock this figure and that it should be available from them later this summer. They also stated that there were more prehistoric animal figures to be announced.

As with other theropod dinosaur models in the PNSO model range, this new Tarbosaurus will have an articulated lower jaw and it will be supplied with a transparent stand to help support the model.

PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus dinosaur model
The PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus dinosaur model has an articulated lower jaw.

PNSO have chosen to depict Tarbosaurus as a powerful and heavy-set animal. The figure will be supplied with a transparent support stand.

PNSO Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus with transparent stand
The new PNSO Tarbosaurus (Chuanzi the Tarbosaurus) model is supplied with a transparent support stand.

To view the current range of PNSO prehistoric animal models in stock at Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs.

10 06, 2021

Everything Dinosaur Earns 100 Google 5-star Reviews

By | June 10th, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur moved into new and larger premises in April (2021), our contact details for our customers remain the same but the business has relocated so that we can have all our dinosaur and prehistoric animal models in one place. Having moved, it was an opportunity to build up our profile on Google Maps. Reviews and feedback from our customers mean a great deal to us and this week we saw our 100th Google Review posted up on-line. All these reviews are 5-star ratings, every one of them genuine feedback from customers.

Everything Dinosaur has 100 5-star Google Reviews
Since Everything Dinosaur moved into new, bigger premises in April we have set about building up our presence on Google. In the last 8 weeks or so we have been able to gain 100 Google reviews all of them 5-star reviews.

Feedback and Customer Reviews

Feedback and customer reviews are very important to a little, dinosaur-themed company such as ourselves. After all, in these uncertain and challenging times nobody wants to become extinct. Ever since Everything Dinosaur was formed, we have always welcomed feedback from our customers. Our website has over 1,670 customer reviews and comments on it, many thousands more are archived on our previous website manifestations. We continue to work with the independent ratings company Feefo and we have received thousands of Feefo feedback reports too. Our website currently displays around 600 customer reviews and we have received Feefo’s highest award for customer service (Platinum) every year since this accolade was introduced.

Top customer service award for Everything Dinosaur
Everything Dinosaur has been awarded the Platinum Trusted Service accolade from Feefo. The company has been awarded this top honour by the independent ratings company Feefo, ever since the Platinum Trusted Service award was first created.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We are immensely proud of our Google achievement. To be able to pick up 100 customer reviewers in such a short time for a business our size is quite remarkable. In addition, every single one of these 100 customers gave us 5-stars, that’s top marks and we are truly humbled and honoured.”

Thank You

Everything Dinosaur would like to thank all those customers who have taken time out of their busy lives to leave feedback and to provide a review. These comments and testimonials mean a great deal to the company and every single review, blog post feedback and social media post is read and reviewed by team members.

On behalf of everyone at Everything Dinosaur – thank you.

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s website: Everything Dinosaur.

9 06, 2021

Fossil Collecting on the East Dorset Coast

By | June 9th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Book Reviews, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

The third and final part of a series of guides to fossil hunting on the Dorset coast has been published by Siri Scientific Press. A guide to “Fossil Collecting on the East Dorset Coast” by Steve Snowball and Craig Chivers, provides an up to date and very informative guide to fossil collecting from the beautiful coast near Durdle Door eastwards ending at the Eocene-aged deposits to be found at Hengistbury Head.

The front cover of a Guide to Fossil Collecting on the East Dorset Coast
The front cover “A Guide to Fossil Collecting on the East Dorset Coast” by Steve Snowball and Craig Chivers published by Siri Scientific Press.

A Highly Acclaimed Guidebook

“Fossil Collecting on the East Dorset Coast” is aimed at amateur as well as the more serious fossil hunter and it is required reading if you want to visit some of the more remote parts of the Dorset coast. Access to some of the locations can be tricky and the authors have ensured that plenty of useful information has been included such as advice about tide times, avoiding the dangers of rock falls (which can be frequent along this stretch of the coastline), along with details about accessing quarries and which ones require visitor permission.

This highly acclaimed guidebook is beautifully illustrated with lots of colour photographs not only showing fossil finds but also highlighting the stunning landscape and geology of this part of the southern coast of England.

Fossil collecting on the East Dorset Coast
The book is packed with beautiful photographs showing typical fossil finds at each location as well as stunning shots of the Dorset coast. Often typical fossil finds are shown against a backdrop of the magnificent scenery of this part of England’s southern coast.

Stunning Images of Fossils

The authors provide an introduction to the UNESCO World Heritage site known as the “Jurassic Coast” before outlining the Dorset fossil collecting code of conduct and focusing on the unique geology of east Dorset. The book is then sub-divided into different sections taking the reader on fossil hunting excursions starting at the majestic Bat’s Head and St. Oswald’s Bay in an easterly direction to Worbarrow Bay and Gad Cliff through to Peveril Point and Swanage. The final excursion visits the Studland Bay and the Hengistbury Head area. Each part of the book contains stunning images of the fossils associated with each location.

A block containing bones and scales of a fish (Lepidotes)
A block containing the fossilised remains of a prehistoric fish found on the east Dorset coast. Fossil found by Nicola Parslow. A “Guide to Fossil Collecting on the East Dorset Coast” contains full colour images highlighting fossils that can be found at the various locations.

Highlights include information and photographs showcasing the remarkable Etches Collection Museum of Jurassic Marine Life at Kimmeridge and the contribution made by Steve Etches, extensive information on the types of ammonites to be found and details on the different types of vertebrate fossils including trace fossils such as dinosaur footprints along with body fossils such as the bones from ancient crocodiles.

Crocodile vertebra found at Durlston Bay (Dorset)
A crocodile vertebra found on the east Dorset coast (Durlston Bay) found by Julian and Vicky Sawyer.

Highly Recommended

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“This book has over 200 colour photographs and illustrations including wonderful prehistoric scenes created by the very talented Andreas Kurpisz, it is an extremely informative and invaluable guide to fossil hunting on this part of the beautiful Dorset coast. The detailed descriptions of the fossil locations provided by the authors are a testament to their in-depth knowledge and passion for their hobby. It completes the trilogy of books dedicated to fossil hunting on the Dorset Coast and it is essential reading for amateur fossil collectors, students as well as seasoned professionals. Highly recommended.”

Fossil Collecting on the Dorset Coast
Three excellent guides have been published about fossil hunting on the Dorset coast by Steve Snowball and Craig Chivers. All three publications are available from Siri Scientific Press whilst stocks last.

To purchase the “Guide to Fossil Collecting on the East Dorset Coast” visit the website of the publisher Siri Scientific Press: Siri Scientific Press.

8 06, 2021

Everything Dinosaur’s New Premises

By | June 8th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

The UK-based Everything Dinosaur, a dedicated team that specialises in the supply of museum quality dinosaur and prehistoric animal models has moved into new, bigger premises. The new premises were acquired at the beginning of the year, but COVID-19 restrictions delayed the building of the offices and the bespoke packing rooms as well as the laying out of the racking system and storage facilities for all the various dinosaurs that the company stocks.

Everything Dinosaur's Offices and Warehousing
The new Everything Dinosaur offices and warehousing. In 2021, Everything Dinosaur moved into bigger premises.

Award-winning Dinosaur Company

The award-winning dinosaur company, famed for its customer service, aims to increase the number of different ranges of models that it offers. It already supplies one of the widest ranges of museum quality, prehistoric animal figures and although the warehouse is already very busy, the company does intend to add even more models to its portfolio in the near future.

Everything Dinosaur Signage - New Premises
The signage over the new premises for Everything Dinosaur (warehousing and offices).

Customer Contact Details

A spokesperson for Everything Dinosaur commented that they were determined to retain the customer contact details so that nobody would be inconvenienced by the move. The contact emails and telephone numbers for the company are the same as previously.

The spokesperson also confirmed that they were actively engaged in negotiations with a number of suppliers with a view to exporting more prehistoric animal models and figures from China and elsewhere in the world.

To visit Everything Dinosaur’s award-winning website and on-line store: Everything Dinosaur.

7 06, 2021

Aussie Dinosaur “Cooper” Officially Named

By | June 7th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

“Cooper” the giant Australian dinosaur, whose bones were found back in 2007 has been officially named. The largest animal ever to walk on the “land down under” has been named Australotitan (Australotitan cooperensis), this Cretaceous giant is estimated to have been around 30 metres in length, so Australotitan rivalled some of the giant South American titanosaurs, (to which it was distantly related), in size.

Australotitan cooperensis life reconstruction
A life reconstruction of the newly named Australotitan cooperensis, the largest known animal to have ever lived in Australia. Picture credit: Queensland Museum.

“Southern Titan”

Writing in the academic journal “PeerJ”, the researchers who include corresponding author Scott Hocknull of the Queensland Museum and Robyn and Scott Mackenzie from the Eromanga Natural History Museum (Queensland), used limb bone comparisons to estimate the size of Australotitan. A sophisticated computer programme provided detailed 3-D surface scans of the fossil bones to permit autapomorphies to be identified that led to the erection of this new taxon. The huge dinosaur, with a shoulder height of around 6 metres was named “Southern Titan”, the trivial (species name), honours the site of the fossil discovery – the Cooper-Eromanga Basin, Cooper Creek system and the common vernacular for this part of south-western Queensland “Cooper Country”.

Back in 2015, Everything Dinosaur reported on the on-going research being conducted on this titanosaur when final preparations were being made for the opening of the Eromanga Natural History Museum which was being built to house this specimen along with other dinosaur and marine reptile remains that had been found in Queensland.

To read our article about “Cooper”: Super-Duper Dinosaur Nicknamed “Cooper”.

The Benefits of the 3-D Bone Scans

Several of the bones although almost complete show distortion. The bones of this particular titanosaur seem to have been trampled and partly crushed by the movements of another titanosaur that “walked over the grave” of Australotitan. The use of the 3-D bone scans permitted the researchers to correctly reconstruct bone morphology and a subsequent phylogenetic assessment revealed that A. cooperensis was related to three other, roughly contemporaneous sauropod taxa known from Queensland – Wintonotitan, Diamantinasaurus and Savannasaurus.

Examples of sauropod bone preservation and taphonomic alteration (A. cooperensis).
The right femur (specimen number EMF102) seems to have been trampled and crushed as another sauropod walked over it. Sophisticated 3-D scans were used to reconstruct the original shape of the bones and permit taxonomic study. Note scale bars = 20 cm. Picture credit: Hocknull et al

The scientific paper: “A new giant sauropod, Australotitan cooperensis gen. et sp. nov., from the mid-Cretaceous of Australia” by Scott A. Hocknull, Melville Wilkinson, Rochelle A. Lawrence, Vladislav Konstantinov, Stuart Mackenzie and Robyn Mackenzie published in PeerJ.

6 06, 2021

Studying Stegosaurs from the Arctic Circle

By | June 6th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Earlier this spring, a team of researchers led by Pavel Skutschas (St Petersburg University, Russia), published a paper reporting on the study of 63 stegosaur teeth that had been found in Lower Cretaceous deposits in south-western Yakutia, located in eastern Siberia. Just like today, during the Early Cretaceous this part of Siberia was at a high latitude (palaeolatitude estimate of N 62°- 66.5°) and within the Arctic circle. The scientists conclude that these stegosaurs may have had some special adaptations to help them survive their harsh environment, such as a rapid tooth replacement rate to permit them to cope with a diet mainly consisting of conifer needles and branches.

Examples of very worn stegosaur teeth from the Teete locality (Siberia).
Maxillary teeth with two (A-D), and with three wear facets (E-H) of Stegosauria indet. from the Teete locality, Yakutia, Russia; Batylykh Formation (Lower Cretaceous). Specimens ZIN PH 80/246 (A-D), ZIN PH 57/246 (E-H) in labial (A, E), lingual (B, F), occlusal (C, G) views, and interpretive drawings (D, H) in occlusal views showing the wear facets with scratches. Picture credit: Skutschas et al.

Stegosaurs Probably Present All Year

There has been much debate amongst palaeontologists as to whether large herbivorous dinosaurs such as stegosaurs were permanent residents of high latitude palaeoenvironments, or whether they migrated up to these latitudes in the summer to take advantage of the long periods of daylight. In the height of summer, there would have been around twenty-two hours of daylight at this latitude presumably providing very favourable conditions for plant growth.

The researchers, writing in the on-line, academic journal PLOS One report the discovery of smaller stegosaur teeth in the excavations, which took place in 2012 and then in the summer months from 2017-2019. As it is thought that the teeth represent a single species of stegosaur, this indicates that both adults and juveniles were present at this site.

Lead author Pavel Skutschas an Associate Professor in the Department of Vertebrate Zoology at St Petersburg University commented:

“We have found teeth of animals of different ages. This suggests that the polar stegosaurs are most likely to have been sedentary that they reproduced and raised offspring on the same territory all year round”.

Small stegosaur tooth from the dentary.
Small, relatively unworn tooth of an indeterminate stegosaur from the Teete locality in (A) occlusal, (B) labial and (C) lingual views. This suggests that both adult and juvenile stegosaurs were present. Picture credit: Skutschas et al.

A Diverse Prehistoric Fauna

The researchers from St Petersburg University worked together with colleagues from the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Borissiak Paleontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the University of Bonn (Germany) and the Diamond and Precious Metal Geology Institute of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences to examine, excavate and sieve material from the Batylykh Formation, Sangar Series (Lower Cretaceous, Berriasian–Barremian faunal stage) along the banks of the Teete River in Suntar Ulus, Yakutia, Eastern Siberia. This location has yielded dinosaur fossils (including theropods as well as ornithischian dinosaurs), turtles, salamanders and early mammals.

The stegosaur teeth excavation site
Researchers working at the excavation site. Picture credit: University of St Petersburg.

Stegosaurian remains are the most abundant and consist of numerous isolated teeth, vertebrae, ribs, pelvic elements and occasional cranial material. The stegosaur teeth were all retrieved by screen washing and sieving samples. Most exhibit a high degree of wear and indicate that these animals fed on very abrasive plant material. In addition, study of the tiny scratches on the teeth suggest tooth on tooth contact and precise dental occlusion in the Teete stegosaurs. The microwear examined suggests that these animals had a more complex jaw movement to help them process food in their mouths, the tooth wear observed could not have occurred if these dinosaurs were only capable of moving their jaws up and down in a simple scissor-like action.

Examples of the very worn stegosaur teeth from the Teete locality
Maxillary teeth with a single apical facet of Stegosauria indet. from the Teete locality, Yakutia, Russia; Batylykh Formation (Lower Cretaceous). Specimens ZIN PH 7/246 (A–D), ZIN PH 11/246 (E–H), ZIN PH 20/246 (I–L), ZIN PH 6/246 (M–P) in labial (A, E, I, M), lingual (B, F, J, N), occlusal (C, G, K, P) views, and interpretive drawings in occlusal (D, H, L) and lingual (O) views showing the wear facets with scratches. Picture credit: Skutschas et al.

Rapid Tooth Replacement

Under the microscope, the researchers made another surprising discovery. The Teete stegosaurs are characterised by their relatively short tooth formation time. The teeth were rapidly replaced and the replacement teeth were formed in a relatively short time (95 days). This might have been an adaptation to the particularly abrasive diet of these herbivores which probably fed on conifers. Furthermore, the scientists identified the presence of a “wavy enamel pattern” on the teeth. This type of enamel has also been found on the teeth of Psittacosaurus, a basal member of the horned dinosaurs (Ceratopsia) and within the Ornithopoda. The researchers conclude that this feature of teeth is a shared trait amongst bird-hipped dinosaurs. Whether it was present in the ancestor of the ornithischian dinosaurs or whether this histological feature is an example of convergent evolution in different types of plant-eating dinosaur is not known.

The scientific paper: “Wear patterns and dental functioning in an Early Cretaceous stegosaur from Yakutia, Eastern Russia” by Pavel P. Skutschas, Vera A. Gvozdkova, Alexander O. Averianov, Alexey V. Lopatin, Thomas Martin, Rico Schellhorn, Petr N. Kolosov, Valentina D. Markova, Veniamin V. Kolchanov, Dmitry V. Grigoriev, Ivan T. Kuzmin and Dmitry D. Vitenko published in PLOS One.

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