We have been asked to update an exhibit featuring the dinosaur Allosaurus. Our work will involve providing information for use on display boards next to a reconstruction of this Late Jurassic theropod. As part of our work to update the text associated with this dinosaur exhibit, we will be adding information about Allosaurus jimmadseni – a new species within this genus named and described in 2020.
First Described in 1877
Allosaurus was named and described by the American palaeontologist Othniel Charles Marsh in 1877, on the basis of fragmentary remains including a single fossil tooth and a toe bone. The subsequent discovery of many thousands of fossils including nearly complete skeletons, most famously from the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry in Emery County, Utah, has made Allosaurus one of the best-known of all the big meat-eating dinosaurs. Size estimates vary but it may have grown to more than 12 metres in length and weighed around 2.5 tonnes (depending on species).
The State Fossil of Utah
In 1988, in recognition of the abundance of Allosaurus fossil material excavated from the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, Allosaurus was appointed the state fossil of Utah.
Several species of Allosaurus have been erected since it was first scientifically described, although most palaeontologists recognise just three species, the most recent of which to be named is Allosaurus jimmadseni (2020). This species was named in honour of James H. Madsen Jr. the first state palaeontologist of Utah.
Fossils of the large dromaeosaurid Utahraptor (U. ostrummaysorum) were put on display as legislators and campaigners lobbied for the creation of a state park named after the iconic theropod dinosaur.
A New State Park for Grand County, Utah
A bill has been proposed that would create the Utahraptor State Park, if passed this would be the 45th such park designated within the “Beehive State”. The park would cover an area of Grand County in eastern Utah, close to the town of Moab and it would include the Dalton Wells Quarry where the first fossils of the giant raptor Utahraptor were discovered.
As well as providing camp sites and trails the park would protect and preserve the Dalton Wells Quarry site. Although the park’s current plans do not include provision for a museum, it has been suggested that if funding could be found, then a small museum documenting the extensive Lower Cretaceous strata that are exposed in this area and their contribution to palaeontology could be constructed.
It has been speculated that a 1:1 scale replica of the skeleton of a Utahraptor could be erected within the park’s boundary.
The proposals involve the conversion of approximately 6,500 acres (2,630 hectares), into a park. Responsibility for conservation would be undertaken by either Utah’s Division of Forestry, Fire and State Lands or the Utah School and Institutional Trust Lands Administration.
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:
“We do appreciate how tight budgets are right now, but if the funding could be found to establish this new park and to protect the famous Dalton Wells location, that would be fabulous. So much of the world’s open spaces and important scientific sites are under threat it would be wonderful to see this exceptionally important fossil site protected.”
PNSO will add a model of the fearsome Carcharodontosaurus to their popular range of mid-size prehistoric animal models. The figure named Gamba the Carcharodontosaurus is scheduled to be available in the summer (2021).
Gamba the Carcharodontosaurus Model
The Carcharodontosaurus is one of several new dinosaur models that PNSO will announce this year. Just like the recently introduced Domingo the Carnotaurus and A-Shu the Qianzhousaurus this replica of a Cretaceous theropod will also have an articulated lower jaw.
Model Measurements and Projected Scale
The model measures just over 29 cm in length and that beautifully sculpted head is a fraction under 10.5 cm off the ground. The length of the model when the curvature of the tail is accounted for is 33 cm.
Based on the first Carcharodontosaurus species to be described (C. saharicus), the model is in approximately 1:40 scale and is comparable in size to the CollectA Deluxe Carcharodontosaurus model that was introduced in 2014.
Supplied with a Transparent Support Stand
Gamba the PNSO Carcharodontosaurus model is superbly detailed and is supplied with a transparent support stand to help support the chest of this substantial dinosaur model.
The Importance of the Kem Kem Formation
The design team at PNSO have introduced models of Spinosaurus as well as Carcharodontosaurus. These figures are their tribute to the Kem Kem Formation of Morocco. The word “Gamba” is Spanish for “prawn” a reference to Spanish Morocco and a nod towards the ancient estuarine palaeo-environment that these large theropods inhabited.
In Stock in the Summer (2021)
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented that the production run for this model is due to be completed in the spring and that the figure is likely to be in stock around June or July (2021).
Our thanks to young artist Caldey who sent into Everything Dinosaur her interpretation of Tyrannosaurus rex that incorporates some of the latest scientific thinking.
Muted Tones and Colours
Caldey has chosen to depict her T. rex in muted tones. Recently, Everything Dinosaur team members were asked to comment on the potential colouration of large, terrestrial, apex predators such as the “King of the Tyrant Lizards”. The consensus reached by the various experts that were consulted, was that large predators might not have had the striking, obtrusively bright colouration and markings that some dinosaur models and figures show.
Although the colouration of models is highly speculative, the darker tones and stripes featured in this drawing work well and contrast with the monochrome vegetation included in the artwork.
Bristles on a Theropod
The row of protofeathers running from the top of the head to the hips is a nice touch, as is the overbite depicted on the tyrannosaur, perhaps a nod to the on-going debate about whether dinosaurs had lips.
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:
“Our thanks to Caldey for sending into Everything Dinosaur another super dinosaur illustration”.
Fans of the Papo prehistoric animal model range “Les Dinosaures”, will know that in 2021 there will be just two new figures added to this range. Like many model manufacturers the production plans of our chums at Papo have been affected by the global COVID-19 pandemic.
Papo are always keen to hear from model collectors, they know how enthusiastic and passionate you are about Papo, so Everything Dinosaur has created a short, ten minute video that explores how Papo could expand its prehistoric animal model range. Once we have discussed our suggestions, it’s over to you! Your chance to comment on the type of figures you want to see added to the Papo range!
Suggestions for Papo Figures
Everything Dinosaur has a close working relationship with Papo, in our short YouTube video (the video is 10 minutes long), we reveal what product options we have suggested to the French manufacturer. For example, we suggested that Papo might want to reintroduce a long retired figure such as the iconic green, standing T. rex replica.
A Pteranodon Colour Variant?
In addition, Everything Dinosaur has proposed that Papo could introduce a colour variant of an existing figure such as the Papo Pteranodon or the Papo Triceratops. We note that a number of Papo fans have suggested other colour variants such as a new version of the huge Papo Brachiosaurus figure.
A Juvenile Giganotosaurus?
One further suggestion Everything Dinosaur has made is to introduce a juvenile Giganotosaurus dinosaur model as a companion piece to the 2020 Papo Giganotosaurus figure.
The 2020 Giganotosaurus model attracted a lot of attention due to its posture, a smaller, juvenile figure could have a more scientifically accurate pose.
A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:
“Papo are aware how passionate fans of their figures are when it comes to new replicas. The number of new models that can be introduced in 2021 has been limited due to the consequences of COVID-19. Our new YouTube video gives dinosaur model fans the opportunity to learn more about the Papo range and to propose novel ways in which this range can be expanded.”
The Safari Ltd Mythical Realms armoured T. rex dinosaur model is now in stock at Everything Dinosaur. This is the third of five new dinosaur models to be introduced by Safari Ltd this year (2021), an armoured Triceratops and a model of the theropod Baryonyx have already arrived at Everything Dinosaur.
An Armoured Carnivorous Dinosaur
This cleverly designed dinosaur has armour on the top of its head. The tyrannosaur sports a breast plate, armour on its shoulders and protecting its ribs. There are three large plates of armour over the thigh and additional protection running down to the foot. The tail has a vicious-looking spiky club. A most impressive weapon one that would make an Ankylosaurus jealous.
The Safari Ltd Mythical Realms armoured T. rex dinosaur model measures approximately 17 cm in length. In reality the model is bigger than this, as the tail is curved round on itself. That armoured head is around 11 cm off the ground.
Everything Dinosaur team members have been busy over the last few weeks as they help events companies, museums and other attractions prepare for the eagerly awaited easing of lockdown restrictions in the UK.
We have been asked to write a series of display panels for a number of dinosaur and prehistoric animal exhibits that will be opening (hopefully) in the summer. One dinosaur that has featured in this work is the Early Jurassic theropod from the western United States – Dilophosaurus (D. wetherilli).
Double Crested Lizard
With an estimated body length of around 6 metres, Dilophosaurus is one of the largest predators known from the Early Jurassic of North America. Fragmentary fossils of this dinosaur were discovered in 1942 in northern Arizona on Navajo Nation territory by a team of palaeontologists from the University of California who were assisted in their excavations by their Navajo Indian guide. The badly eroded fossil bones were carefully prepared and the first scientific description of this material was published in 1954. It was erroneously thought that the fossils represented a new type of Megalosaurus – a dinosaur known from the Early Jurassic of Europe.
Fossilised Crests Found in 1964
Expedition team members returned to the site in 1964 and uncovered more fossil bones including a partial skull with unusual bony crests. This dinosaur was subsequently re-described and named Dilophosaurus in 1970. Dilophosaurus is one of the most extensively studied of all the carnivorous dinosaurs. A recent review, published in 2020, suggested that Dilophosaurus was a much more powerful animal than previously thought. It was probably an apex predator rather than a weak-jawed scavenger. The crests may have been brightly coloured and were probably used for display or played a role in thermoregulation – helping Dilophosaurus to keep cool, functioning in the same way as the casques on the heads of large, flightless birds such as cassowaries.
An Everything Dinosaur Dilophosaurus Video
Recently, Everything Dinosaur created a short video for the company’s YouTube channel that provided more information on the 2020 Dilophosaurus scientific paper.
Our thanks to dinosaur fan and model collector William who sent into Everything Dinosaur a review of the latest Eofauna models, the Triceratops dinosaur models “Cryptic” and “Dominant”.
Eofauna’s first two releases of 2021 are of the spectacular Triceratops “Yoshi’s Trike” after it’s discoverer Yoshi Katsura. Unearthed in 2010 now housed within the Museum of the Rockies.
Yoshi’s Trike” (MOR 3027), is a very large Triceratops specimen with nearly four foot long horn cores. Yoshi belongs to yet an undescribed Triceratops species “Ugrosaurus olsoni “, older than either Triceratops horridus or Triceratops prorsus but sharing intermediate characteristics of both*.
In life “Yoshi” was 3 metres at the hip and weighed 9.5 tonnes. It’s these little touches that makes Eofauna so beloved of collectors of accurate figures.
Dominant (Brown) and the Variant Cryptic (Blue)
Both come in polybags with horn protectors with Eofauna stats cards with the same beautiful artwork.
Length: 9.1/4 inches.
Height: 3.1/2 inches.
Both figures stand rock solid, no toppling issues etc.
A superb, compact modern body recreation of an active true life Triceratops. Both figures are sculpted with open mouths with exact detailing such as teeth and the openings to the nasal passages and the tongues are correctly held within the mouth. With the classical ceratopsian beaks.
Both “Yoshi’s” are posed in a sparring stance as though a younger bull is testing the herd’s old bull for any weaknesses. Never will you see such a pair of Trikes adorned with such an impressive a set of horns perfectly sculpted and in life a true terror for all the local tyrannosaurs and to tangle with 4 metres of keratin covered doom would be for the fool hardy or a veteran rex.
The nasal horns are as equally good on the money a shorter back profile with a longer forward facing straight profile. Nostrils are spot on with a double ridge of skin and now on towards the body’s dermal areas.
From the nostrils a ripple of skin processes radiating outwards in a more scaled mosaic pattern from the lower jaw to the tails end and sturdy powerful legs with fully detailed toes with correct toe numbers on each.
A triple fold of skin highlights a beautifully intelligent eye no old time slow moving rhino analogue here.
A more expertly detailed entire body you shall run your hand over from folds of skin on the entire body to variation of the scaling every detail pinpointed on these two figures.
The neck frill has the same texturing of scales with the leading edge enforced with keratin frill bosses.
Looking at the Colour Variations
Nasal horn and upper/ lower tips are of a rich dark chocolate.
Main horns, eye folds and side panels of the mouth are of a dark caramel cream with horn tips black.
Neck frill and horn bosses are the same chocolate as the beak.
The inside of the mouth is a rich dark pink with a dark wash and white teeth top/bottom.
Carefully placed is the dark orange pattern placed at the leading edges of the neck frill.
A dark orange eye with a black pupil.
From lower throat downwards of the backs of front limbs and insides of the hind legs and under belly to the lower part of the tail all painted in dark brown broken up at the front with a rich dark ginger.
This same rich ginger covers the majority of upper torso and tail – excellent choice.
All toenails painted in a natural horn colour.
Nasal horn and upper/lower tips are of a rich grey.
Main upper head and eye folds and side are of a dark chocolate with a dark yellow nasal panel with a wash over it.
Horns are of a dark grey fading into a caramel beige at the tips.
The neck frill’s base colour is a dark ginger with turquoise blue admixed through out, the frill bosses are dark brown.
The inside of the mouth is a rich dark pink with a dark wash and white teeth top/bottom.
The lower part of the jaw and throat and underbelly and tail are of a beige-cream with some dark chocolate stripes below the eyes and upper part of the lower jaw again a dark wash has been applied.
A vibrant orange eye with a black pupil.
From the shoulders to the middle of the back and then continuing onwards to the very tip of the tail a very rich brown covers this entire dermal area.
The flanks of the side are of a light ginger/tan.
All four legs are of a pale blue with a greyish dark wash applied, very eye catching this is more of an alpha male in all aspects.
All toenails painted in a natural dark horn colour.
At this moment I wish to thank Sue and Mike and their entire team at Everything Dinosaur HQ.
We your customers/friends wish to thank you all for being the company we all respect.
Thank you for being our friends and thank you for being EVERYTHING DINOSAUR.
Team members at Everything Dinosaur thanked William for sending in his review. One point to make about the temporal range of this, as yet to be described Triceratops species,* – the fossils associated with this transitional form have been found in strata older than T. prorsus but younger than Triceratops horridus.
Thank you to William for sending into Everything Dinosaur this review.
“All Eofauna’s figures are available here from our good friends at EVERYTHING DINOSAUR.”
Everything Dinosaur team members have been working on another Papo inspired YouTube video and they hope to have it completed, edited and posted up on the company’s channel in a few days. This latest video is a follow up to a Papo prehistoric animal model video posted up a few weeks ago that examined the strategy behind Papo’s product development. This new video will develop these themes and look at the way in which the French figure manufacture can expand their product range.
Papo Megalodon and Young Smilodon
Papo will introduce two prehistoric animal figures in 2021. The models are a replica of a young Smilodon and a model of the fearsome prehistoric shark Megalodon (C. megalodon). Both models are projected to be available around quarter 4 (2021), but Everything Dinosaur and Papo are working hard to try and bring these two figures into stock a little earlier.
In Everything Dinosaur’s video, team members will look at the options Papo have to expand their prehistoric animal model offering. The video will also document how the Papo model range has expanded over the years.
The graph above shows the number of new sculpts (new figures) as well as new colour variants that have been introduced by Papo since 2015. This year, (2021) Papo will bring out just two figures, neither of which are dinosaurs.
New Model Suggestions
Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube video will also give viewers the opportunity to suggest new figures that Papo might like to make. The video also challenges fans of dinosaur models to think of other ways in which Papo can expand its “Les Dinosaures” range.
Team members at Everything Dinosaur have commissioned a scale drawing of the Japanese duck-billed dinosaur Kamuysaurus (K. japonicus) as they await the arrival of the first batch of new for 2021 prehistoric animal models from CollectA.
Described as Japan’s best-known dinosaur by a number of media sources. This dinosaur was officially named and described back in 2019. CollectA have been planning a model of this Japanese dinosaur for some time, they have expressed an interest in expanding their replicas of Japanese dinosaurs since the introduction of Fukuiraptor and Fukuisaurus.
How Big was Kamuysaurus?
Although only known from a single specimen, the skeleton represents the most complete dinosaur fossil found in Japan. Scientists were able to assign Kamuysaurus to the Edmontosaurini clade within the hadrosaur subfamily the Saurolophinae.
Kamuysaurus is estimated to have reached a body length of around 8 metres and to have weighed 4 tonnes.
Palaeontologists who have studied the fossil material have suggested that Kamuysaurus is closely related to Kerberosaurus which was unearthed in Russia and Laiyangosaurus which is known from China. Kamuysaurus was named after the indigenous people of the island of Hokkaido, the trivial or species name refers to Japan. It translates as “the deity of Japanese dinosaurs”.