All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
//January
31 01, 2021

PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus Video Review

By | January 31st, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus Video Review

The latest additions to the PNSO mid-size model range have really got dinosaur fans and prehistoric animal model collectors excited.  Everything Dinosaur has worked with PNSO for many years, in fact we have the longest trading relationship with this company outside of China.  Audrey the Lambeosaurus is one of fourteen new for 2020/21 prehistoric animals that have been produced.  It is a very impressive hadrosaur model with a beautiful, reticulated colour scheme.  The figure has been given a gloss coat, so it has a wet-look appearance.  As one of our favourite PNSO figures, we have produced a short video review of it for our YouTube channel.

Everything Dinosaur Highlights the PNSO Lambeosaurus (Audrey the Lambeosaurus)

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

We recommend our YouTube video channel, it is crammed full of video reviews of prehistoric animal replicas, hints and tips and it also gives collectors the opportunity to suggest new dinosaur models.  Here is a link to the Everything Dinosaur YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur – YouTube.

Audrey the Lambeosaurus

In the short video review (the YouTube video lasts just over two minutes), the Lambeosaurus packaging is shown and then the dinosaur model is placed on our turntable so that viewers can see this figure from all angles.  We comment on the reticulated patterning and explain what inspired the design team at PNSO to use this colour scheme and design.  In addition, we confirm the figure’s measurements and suggest a scale (based on Lambeosaurus lambei) of around 1:30 for this dinosaur model.

In the Video We Provide Detailed Model Measurements

PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus model measurements.

In the Everything Dinosaur YouTube video we provide detailed measurements for the PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A 1/30th Scale Hadrosaur Model

Although PNSO do not declare a scale for their mid-size prehistoric animal figures, in the Everything Dinosaur video we propose a suggested scale as well as showing close-up views of the superb detail on the dinosaur model.  The clear, glossy coat that has been applied gives the hadrosaur a wet-look.  This is most noticeable around the head and that distinctive hatchet-shaped head crest.

A Close-up View of the Head and Crest of the PNSO Audrey the Lambeosaurus

PNSO Lambeosaurus (anterior view).

A close view of the head and hatchet-like crest on the PNSO Lambeosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur 

Audrey the PNSO Lambeosaurus is just one of a whole herd of exciting, new PNSO prehistoric animal figures available from Everything Dinosaur.  To view the range of PNSO dinosaur models and prehistoric animal replicas: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs Models and Figures.

30 01, 2021

Four-year-old Finds Dinosaur Footprint

By | January 30th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Three-toed Dinosaur Track Found in South Wales

There has been a lot of media interest in the discovery of a beautifully-preserved three-toed dinosaur footprint on a beach near the town of Barry in South Wales.  The track identified as an example of the ichnogenus Grallator was spotted by four-year-old Lily Wilder whilst out for a walk with her family.  The specimen, preserved in a loose boulder is now in the care of scientists at the National Museum of Wales.

A Superb Example of a Three-toed Dinosaur Track from the Mercia Mudstone Group at Bendrick Rock (Vale of Glamorgan, South Wales)

Grallator fossil track (South Wales).

Grallator track spotted by a 4-year-old girl at Bendrick Rock (South Wales).

Picture Credit: National Museum Wales

An Area Famed for its Dinosaur Footprints

This part of the South Wales coast is famous for its prehistoric animal tracks, which represent the oldest confirmed dinosaur trackways known from the British Isles.  The tracks are preserved in sediments associated with the Mercia Mudstone Group at Bendrick Rock and hundreds of individual prints have been found, representing at least sixty different trackways.  National Museum of Wales Palaeontology curator Cindy Howells was notified of the find and has described it as the best specimen ever found on this beach.  The print representing a small theropod dinosaur is estimated to be around 220 million years old (Late Triassic).

The print is a fraction over 10 cm long and was probably made by a light, agile, bipedal dinosaur similar in appearance to Coelophysis.

A Late Triassic Landscape Featuring a Trio of Coelophysis Dinosaurs

Burian depicts a Triassic landscape.

Beautiful and evocative artwork from Burian (Coelophysis bauri and Eupelor durus).  An illustration of a Late Triassic scene featuring the small, agile biped Coelophysis (C. bauri).

Picture Credit: Zdeněk Burian

The tracks preserved in the rocks exposed in this area not only record the movements of dinosaurs but prints associated with rauisuchian reptiles (crocodile-like contemporaries of the first dinosaurs), have also been found.

A Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

Like many similar sites in the UK, this part of the coast close to the seaside town of Barry is designated as a Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI).  The landowner, the British Institute for Geological Conservation, is a charity that works to conserve natural heritage through site ownership, education and community engagement.  Natural Resources Wales (NRW) had to seek special permission in order to remove the track.  Researchers at the National Museum of Wales located in Cardiff will be studying the print in a bid to find out more about early dinosaur locomotion.

Commenting on this fantastic fossil find, Cindy Howells, the curator of palaeontology at National Museum Wales exclaimed:

“This fossilised dinosaur footprint from 220 million years ago is one of the best-preserved examples from anywhere in the UK and will really aid palaeontologists to get a better idea about how these early dinosaurs walked.  Its acquisition by the museum is mainly thanks to Lily and her family who first spotted it.  During the Covid pandemic scientists from Amgueddfa Cymru [National Museum Wales] have been highlighting the importance of nature on people’s doorstep and this is a perfect example of this.  Obviously, we don’t all have dinosaur footprints on our doorstep but there is wealth of nature local to you if you take the time to really look close enough.”

Lily’s mother Sally Wilder stated:

“It was Lily and Richard (her father) who discovered the footprint.  Lily saw it when they were walking along and said “Daddy look”.  When Richard came home and showed me the photograph, I thought it looked amazing.  Richard thought it was too good to be true. I was put in touch with experts who took it from there.  We were thrilled to find out it really was a dinosaur footprint and I am happy that it will be taken to the national museum where it can be enjoyed and studied for generations.”

Dinosaur Tracks from the Vale of Glamorgan Area (South Wales)

Vale of Glamorgan dinosaur tracks.

Dinosaur Tracks from the Late Triassic from the Vale of Glamorgan area (South Wales).

Picture Credit: Tom Sharpe (Dinosaurs of the British Isles)

To read a related article from 2012 reporting on the theft of dinosaur tracks from the Vale of Glamorgan: Dinosaur Footprints Stolen from the Vale of Glamorgan.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from National Museum Wales in the compilation of this article.

29 01, 2021

Prehistoric Times Issue 136 Reviewed

By | January 29th, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Magazine Reviews, Main Page|0 Comments

Prehistoric Times Magazine Issue 136 (Winter 2021) Reviewed

Time to be cheered up by the arrival of the latest edition of “Prehistoric Times” magazine, the quarterly journal for fans of dinosaur models, prehistoric themed art and collectibles.  Adorning the front cover of issue 136 is a spectacular illustration of Deinonychus (D. antirrhopus) by the talented wildlife illustrator and palaeoartist Esther van Hulsen.   The close-up view of the snout of this theropod on the front cover gives the viewer the opportunity to appreciate the details that the artist adds to her illustrations.  Inside the magazine further evidence is provided with a series or artworks created by Esther van Hulsen imagining the life story of Ida the Darwinius (D. maxillae) from the Messel bituminous shales.

Can you spot the myriad of tiny creatures that are featured in the illustrations alongside this 47 million-year-old primate?

The Front Cover of “Prehistoric Times” Issue 136 – Deinonychus antirrhopus

"Prehistoric Times" magazine issue 136.

The front cover of “Prehistoric Times” magazine issue 136.

Picture Credit: Mike Fredericks

The Forgotten Dinosaur Art of Robert T. Bakker

Some of the dynamic dinosaur illustrations of Dr Robert “Bob” Bakker, who was a student of Dr John Ostrom, who named and described Deinonychus, are also featured in this magazine.  Canadian palaeontologists Darren Tanke and Jordan Mallon provide an insightful guide to these influential artworks that challenged the long held assumption that the Dinosauria were slow and sluggish animals.  Randy Knol also demonstrates how our views about dinosaurs have changed by looking at some the latest models of Spinosaurus, a theropod that has been completely revised and is now regarded as a semi-aquatic predator.

The Limited Edition Papo Spinosaurus Model from 2019 Features in the Spinosaurus Model Review

Papo Spinosaurus (limited edition) in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Everything Dinosaur stocks the limited edition Papo Spinosaurus dinosaur model.  This 2019 Papo dinosaur model is featured in an article that looks how Spinosaurus models have changed over time.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Sauropods

John Lavas continues an exploration of the work of Zdeněk Burian and focuses on his illustrations of sauropods.  The author frames the illustrations produced by the ground-breaking Czech artist by summarising the early research into these ground-shaking leviathans.  Burian painted a total of five sauropod genera and although the accepted view at the time was that these huge animals were semi-aquatic, Burian chose to depict the main subject of the artwork on terra firma.  The enabled him to reveal the shape of the dinosaur’s body more clearly.

Diplodocus carnegii by Zdeněk Burian (Depicting the Fauna and Flora of the Morrison Formation of the United States of America)

Diplodocus life reconstruction by Burian painted in 1952.

An illustration of Diplodocus (D. carnegii) by Burian.

Picture Credit: Zdeněk Burian

Phil Hore provides the lowdown on the bizarre Longisquama complete with superb reader submitted drawings by Cody Zaiser, Mike Laudry  and Jeff Slack.  He also discusses the armoured dinosaur Sauropelta and this article features lots of amazing armoured dinosaur artwork too.  We were particularly impressed with the sleeping Sauropelta image submitted by Marcus Burkhardt.  Tracey Lee Ford chimes in, continuing the Thyreophora theme by looking at how to draw Ankylosaurus and if you wanted to know what Scottish scientist and writer Dougal Dixon did in lockdown to keep himself busy, then read the double page spread that starts on page 28.

Recent news stories featuring fossil discoveries are covered in the “Paleonews” section, look out for an update on the hunting strategy of Deinonychus and a stark revision of Dilophosaurus.  As always “Prehistoric Times” is crammed full of fascinating stories, artwork and features.

To subscribe to this quarterly magazine: Subscribe to Prehistoric Times.

28 01, 2021

Prehistoric Sharks Resurface

By | January 28th, 2021|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Safari Ltd Prehistoric Sharks Toob Back in Stock

Originally launched in 2011 but then retired in 2017, Everything Dinosaur is delighted to announce that team members have been able to secure a limited stock of the rare Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob.  This exciting set of ten prehistoric shark figures is now back in stock at the UK-based specialist prehistoric animal model and dinosaur replica company.

The Safari Ltd Prehistoric Sharks Toob is Back in Stock at Everything Dinosaur

The Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob.

The Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob.  A set of ten different prehistoric shark models demonstrating the diversity of the shark family through deep time.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Ultimate Marine Predator

Sharks have been around for more than 400 million years.  Sharks are part of the Chondrichthyes, the fish with cartilaginous skeletons.  There is some evidence to indicate that the first sharks evolved in the Late Ordovician geological period around 450 million years ago, but many palaeontologists consider that this subclass of the Chondrichthyes (the Elasmobranchii), first appeared in marine environments during the Silurian.

The Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob celebrates the diversity of these highly successful marine vertebrates.  Each of the ten different models represents an important shark genus from the fossil record ranging from the Late Devonian to the very end of the Mesozoic and possibly into the early Cenozoic too.

The Ten Different Shark Models in the Safari Ltd Prehistoric Sharks Model Toob

The shark models in the Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob.

Ten prehistoric sharks models in the Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob.  Can you identify them all?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“When first introduced ten years ago the Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob proved very popular with model makers re-creating ancient marine environments.  These shark replicas were very useful when creating prehistoric underwater scenes.  If the scene featured a Dunkleosteus for example, then one of the Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks figures could be added to help give the diorama more authenticity.  If the underwater scene focused on a pliosaur or perhaps a mosasaur, then other figures from this set representing sharks which were contemporaneous could be added.”

To view the Safari Ltd prehistoric sharks toob and the other figures available from Everything Dinosaur in this model range: Safari Ltd and Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models.

27 01, 2021

Ancient Placoderm Could Turn Vertebrate Evolution on its Head

By | January 27th, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Cutting-edge Technology Provides New Insights into Ancient Fish

Sophisticated, cutting-edge MicroCT scanning employed to look inside the fossilised skull of a prehistoric fish from the Early Devonian of New South Wales (Australia), has provided scientists with new insights into early vertebrate evolution and challenged the current view regarding the phylogeny and taxonomy of the bony, armoured prehistoric fishes known collectively as placoderms.

The research team, which included scientists from the University of Birmingham, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and colleagues based in Australia and Sweden, used MicroCT scanning to view the internal structures of the skull of a 400 million-year-old Brindabellaspis (Brindabellaspis stensioi) specimen.  A fish nicknamed the “platypus fish” due to its elongated snout.

Computer software was used to create a digital reconstruction of brain cavity and the inner ear.  The team discovered that Brindabellaspis possessed an inner ear that was surprisingly compact with closely connected components resembling the inner ear of modern jawed vertebrates such as sharks and bony fishes.  Some features of the inner ear from this ancient fish are remarkably similar to the structure of our own inner ear.

A Digital Model Showing the Skull and its Constituent Parts (Brindabellaspis stensioi)

A digital model of the skull of Brindabellaspis stensioi.

The skull of Brindabellaspis stensioi digitally recreated after MicroCT scan analysis.

Picture Credit: Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology

Important Implications for the Placodermi

Brindabellaspis is a member of the Placodermi, a diverse, geographically and temporally widespread class of armoured fish which thrived during the Devonian between 420 and 360 million years ago.  Most placoderms have less complex inner ear structures, with a large sac, called a vestibule, placed in the centre and separating all the other components.  The remarkably well-preserved and three-dimensional nature of the specimens from New South Wales provided the research team with an opportunity to examine the brain cavity and inner ear of Brindabellaspis for the first time.

Their findings could change the way in which the tree of life representing early vertebrates is constructed.

Life Reconstruction of Devonian fishes including Brindabellaspis with a Modern Shark and Diver for Scale

Life reconstruction of Devonian fishes with a Great White shark and a diver for scale.

Artistic rendering of Brindabellaspis (foreground) with a range of other Devonian fossil fishes.  The Great White shark and human diver in the upper right corner represent modern jawed vertebrates and provide scale.  Brindabellaspis is the large grey fish with its snout pointing to the bottom of the picture.

Picture Credit: YANG Hongyu and ZHENG Qiuyang

Re-writing the Evolutionary History of Early Vertebrates

Previous studies had suggested that prehistoric fish such as Brindabellaspis were closely related to primitive, jawless fish (agnathans), that first evolved around 500 million years ago.  This study challenges the assumption that placoderms are a distinct group, as considerable variation has been identified in the brain cavities and inner ears of “placoderms”.

Furthermore, this research suggests the possibility that these types of fish may be the ancestors of modern jawed vertebrates (the Gnathostomata).

Co-author of the scientific paper, published in the journal Current Biology, Dr Sam Giles (University of Birmingham), stated:

“The inner ear structure is so delicate and fragile that it is rarely preserved in fossils, so being able to use these new techniques to re-examine specimens and discover this wealth of new information is very exciting.  This fossil has revealed a really intriguing mosaic of primitive features and a surprisingly modern inner ear.  We don’t yet know for certain what this means in terms of our understanding of how modern jawed vertebrates evolved, but it’s likely that virtual anatomy techniques are going to be a critical tool for piecing together this fascinating jigsaw puzzle.”

An earlier research paper suggested that the snout of Brindabellaspis was sensitive and may have played a role in locating food or avoiding predators.  To read Everything Dinosaur’s article from 2018 about this study: A Primitive Placoderm Platypus Fish from Australia.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Birmingham in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Endocast and Bony Labyrinth of a Devonian “Placoderm” Challenges Stem Gnathostome Phylogeny” by You-an Zhu, Sam Giles, Gavin C. Young, Yuzhi Hu, Mohamed Bazzi, Per E. Ahlberg, Min Zhu and Jing Lu published in Current Biology.

26 01, 2021

Preparing for the W-Dragon Spinosaurus Replica

By | January 26th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Preparing for the W-Dragon Spinosaurus Replica

Everything Dinosaur team members are busy preparing for the imminent arrival of the Spinosaurus replica from W-Dragon.  If all goes to plan the shipment of these models should dock in a few days at the port of Southampton in Hampshire and once cleared by UK customs these dinosaur models should be heading towards our warehouse.  We expect to have these Spinosaurus figures in stock around the 9th of February (2021) or thereabouts.

The W-Dragon Spinosaurus Dinosaur Model

The W-Dragon Spinosaurus dinosaur model.

The superb W-Dragon Spinosaurus dinosaur replica.  This figure interprets Spinosaurus as a bipedal theropod dinosaur.  It has been inspired by depictions of Spinosaurus in famous movies and television documentaries.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We have been working with W-Dragon for some time, helping them to understand the importance of product testing and certification.  We hope to have this figure in stock very soon, it will be joining the excellent W-Dragon Giganotosaurus replica that arrived just before Christmas (2020).”

The W-Dragon Giganotosaurus Dinosaur Model at Everything Dinosaur

W-Dragon Giganotosaurus model.

The W-Dragon Giganotosaurus dinosaur model.  The battle scars on the figure can be seen, the dinosaur is blind in one eye – an example of the superb craftsmanship associated with this W-Dragon figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Special Spinosaurus Production Run

Everything Dinosaur negotiated a special production run of the W-Dragon Spinosaurus.  All the stock that has been made is on the shipment heading towards the UK.  Fans of this model range will be able to access the W-Dragon Spinosaurus from a 5-star rated model supplier with the ability to despatch product globally.

The Sail-backed Spinosaurus Figure is Currently Sailing Towards Everything Dinosaur’s Warehouse

A close-up view of the head of the W-Dragon Spinosaurus dinosaur model.

A close-up view of the W-Dragon Spinosaurus – it is a green-eyed monster!  This beautiful and very detailed dinosaur model has been given green eyes.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the current range of W-Dragon prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: W-Dragon Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Replicas.

25 01, 2021

Baby Tyrannosaurs Born Ready to Hunt

By | January 25th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Baby Tyrannosaurs Born Ready to Hunt

A new scientific paper published this week suggests that tyrannosaurs were able to hunt and to look after themselves soon after they hatched.  In addition, tyrannosaur hatchlings were surprisingly large, perhaps more than a metre long when they broke out of their eggs and if this the case, then tyrannosaur eggs would have been colossal, perhaps larger than any other dinosaur egg known to science.

A Life Reconstruction of a Baby Tyrannosaur

Juvenile tyrannosaur life reconstruction.

A life reconstruction of a juvenile tyrannosaur.  This illustration by the talented palaeoartist Julius Csotonyi, depicts a baby tyrannosaur covered in a coat of insulating protofeathers.

Picture Credit: Julius Csotonyi

As Big as a Collie Dog

Writing in the latest edition of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, the scientists which include such eminent figures as Phil Currie, “Jack” Horner and Stephen Brusatte, have written up an on-line presentation from last October which took place at the virtual Society of Vertebrate Palaeontology Conference and they indicate that young tyrannosaurs were big babies.  With a length of in excess of 1 metre, that’s about the size of a border collie dog.

A Model of a Young Tyrannosaurus rex

A juvenile T. rex.

A young T. rex.  Research suggests that Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurs may have been around a metre in length when very young.  Rare fossil bones from perinatal tyrannosaurs from North America also suggest that these predators were highly developed and capable of hunting for themselves – precocial development – mobile and relatively fully developed when first hatched.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Perinatal tyrannosaurid bones and teeth from the Campanian–Maastrichtian of western North America provide the first window into this critical period of the life of a tyrannosaurid.  An embryonic dentary (Daspletosaurus horneri) from the Two Medicine Formation of Montana, measuring just 3 cm in length, already exhibits distinctive tyrannosaurine characters like a “chin” and a deep Meckelian groove, and reveals the earliest stages of tooth development.  When considered together with a remarkably large embryonic claw bone (ungual) from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and believed to have come from an Albertosaurus sarcophagus, a minimum hatchling size for tyrannosaurids could be estimated by the research team.

Corresponding author for the paper, Gregory Funston (University of Edinburgh), stated:

“It appears that tyrannosaurs were born ready to hunt, already possessing some of the key adaptations that gave tyrannosaurs their powerful bites.  So, it’s likely that they were capable of hunting fairly quickly after birth, but we need more fossils to tell exactly how fast that was.”

Tyrannosaur Babies Bigger than Other Dinosaur Babies

The dentary and the claw bone indicate that Late Cretaceous tyrannosaurs were bigger than any other known dinosaur babies.  The researchers conclude that they must have hatched from enormous eggs, perhaps exceeding the 43 cm length of largest dinosaur eggs described to date.

The Embryonic Tyrannosaur Dentary

Daspletosaurus horneri juvenile jawbone.

The fossilised lower jawbone (dentary) of a Daspletosaurus horneri, one of the first baby tyrannosaurs ever discovered.

Picture Credit: Gregory F. Funston (University of Edinburgh)

Co-author of the paper, Mark Powers a PhD student at the University of Alberta (Canada), commented:

“Tyrannosaurs are represented by dozens of skeletons and thousands of isolated bones or partial skeletons, but despite this wealth of data for tyrannosaur biology, the smallest identifiable individuals are aged three to four years old, much larger than when they would have hatched.  No tyrannosaur eggs or embryos have been found even after 150 years of searching—until now.”

The study, focused on the two fossils representing perinatal development of tyrannosaurids.  The ungual was found near Morrin in the province of Alberta, whilst the dentary came from Montana. The ungual is approximately 71.5 million years old, and the jawbone a little older at around 75 million years old.

Comparing the Tyrannosaurid Fossil Material with Dr Funston and an Adult Albertosaurus

Comparing the juvenile tyrannosaur specimens.

This diagram compares the size of a full-grown Albertosaurus with that of palaeontologist Greg Funston and the two dinosaur embryos whose toe claw and jawbone were identified in a newly published study.

Picture Credit: Gregory F. Funston (University of Edinburgh)

Mark Powers, who completed the research as a master’s student supervised by Phil Currie added:

“The discovery of embryonic material is a huge find in our efforts to understand how some of the most popular and charismatic dinosaurs began their life and grew to immense sizes.  It provides a much-needed—and until now, missing—data point depicting the starting point for tyrannosaur growth.”

Surprising Results

The researchers were surprised to find that the small tyrannosaur teeth in the lower jaw were distinct from the teeth of older tyrannosaurids.  They had not developed true serrations running along the cutting edges.  In addition, the toe claw (specimen number UALVP 59599), came from an animal estimated to be about 1.1 metres long, whilst the tiny jawbone (MOR 268), came from a tyrannosaur around 71 cm in length.

The size estimates for perinatal tyrannosaurs based on this study reinforce the work of the late American-Canadian palaeontologist Dale Russell, who back in 1970 provided some of the first insights into tyrannosaur development and ontogeny.  This study was published in a special issue of the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences which honours the contribution made to vertebrate palaeontology by Professor Russell.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Alberta in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Baby tyrannosaurid bones and teeth from the Late Cretaceous of western North America” by Gregory F. Funston, Mark J. Powers, S. Amber Whitebone, Stephen L. Brusatte, John B. Scannella, John R. Horner and Philip J. Currie published in the Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

24 01, 2021

Updating the Feefo Platinum Award (2021)

By | January 24th, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Updating the Feefo Platinum Customer Service Award on the Everything Dinosaur Website

It has been a busy week for team members at Everything Dinosaur.  For example, as well as packing and despatching all the orders for customers, staff have been busy updating the Everything Dinosaur website to reflect their award of the Feefo Platinum Trusted Service accolade.  The announcement of this award may only have taken place a couple of days ago, but team members have not been resting on their laurels, they have been busy adding the new Feefo service badges for 2021 to the website.  In addition, the company picked up a further thirteen 5-star service scores from customers over the period January 21st to January 23rd (2021).

A New Feefo Trusted Customer Service Award Badge to Add to Everything Dinosaur’s Website

Everything Dinosaur winning an award.

Everything Dinosaur has won the Feefo Platinum Trusted Service award.  This badge has been added to the Everything Dinosaur website in recognition of this achievement.

Picture Credit: Feefo

Only the very best businesses, the ones providing a tip-top experience for their customers, as rated by genuine customer reviews get to place such a badge onto a website.

What is Feefo?

Feefo is a global technology company empowering brands to make smarter decisions and improve consumer experiences by leveraging the full potential of real customer reviews.

Feefo’s cutting-edge review platform is trusted by more than 3,500 brands including Next, Vauxhall, Iceland, Mazda, Expedia, Michael Page and JCB, who rely on it to supply smart insights that transform their ability to market, sell and build more rewarding relationships with customers.

23 01, 2021

Planning for Papo 2021/2

By | January 23rd, 2021|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Planning for Papo 2021/2

As Papo are intending to introduce just two prehistoric animal models in 2021 Everything Dinosaur has been looking at ways in which the number of new Papo models could be increased.   Like most manufacturers, Papo’s plans for 2021 were severely disrupted with the COVID-19 pandemic.  Indeed, lots of factories have had delays and difficulties with production, it is not just the prehistoric animal model industry that has suffered.

However, Papo are intensely aware of just how enthusiastically model collectors greet new Papo figures, especially those prehistoric animals in the “Les Dinosaures” range.  With only two figures to be introduced in 2021, namely a young Smilodon and a Megalodon shark model (model numbers 55081 and 55087 respectively), Papo understands that some model collectors may be feeling a little hard done by.

Two New Prehistoric Animal Figures to be Introduced by Papo in 2021

New Papo prehistoric animal models for 2021.

Two new models to be introduced by Papo in 2021 the young Smilodon (55081) and a Megalodon shark model (55087).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

No Papo Dinosaurs Planned for 2021

For the first time, there are no new dinosaur models to be added to the Papo range.  Papo has dramatically expanded its “Les Dinosaures” model range in recent years with an average of five new models being added every year to the range since 2015.  It is true that not all these figures have been new sculpts, there has been a trend in recent years to introduce colour variants of existing models, but across all Papo’s model ranges the French manufacturer had continually increased the number of figures available.

Plotting the Growth in the Number of Papo Prehistoric Animal Models Available (2015 – 2020)

Papo dinosaur and prehistoric animal model introductions 2015 - 2021.

Papo prehistoric animal model introductions 2015 to 2021.  In 2018 a “Les Dinosaures” Land of Dinosaurs play set was also added to the range.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The graph shows the number of Papo figures added to the company’s range of prehistoric animal models since 2015.  The blue Papo logo represents new sculpts, whereas the older green Papo logo represents the introduction of new colour variants or a reissue of a previously retired figure.  The last time only two new figures were added to the Papo portfolio of prehistoric animals was in 2015 when the young Apatosaurus and the Tupuxuara pterosaur model were introduced.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We have made a number of suggestions to Papo’s senior management about possibly adding to the range of figures available this year.   We have suggested the introduction of a new colour variant of the popular Papo Triceratops model, the reissue of a retired figure such as the Woolly Rhinoceros replica, or the production of a gift set for the Christmas market.  Papo have respectively listened to our proposals and in addition they have carefully considered the views and suggestions from our customers.”

With both the young Smilodon and the Megalodon model not likely to be available until later in the year (both models are scheduled for a quarter 4 introduction), there will be some time to wait before any new Papo prehistoric animal figures come into stock.  However, Everything Dinosaur and Papo are doing what they can to try to bring forward the production of new figures.

We shall do our best to keep all Papo model collectors informed.

In the meantime, to view the range of Papo prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models.

22 01, 2021

Limb Bone Confirms Large Pterosaurs Across Laramida

By | January 22nd, 2021|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Single Bone Suggests Large Pterosaurs Across Both North and South Laramidia

A single bone from a large pterosaur tentatively described as an ulna found in 2016 has confirmed the presence of large flying reptiles in terrestrial ecosystems in both north and south Laramidia during the Late Cretaceous.

Writing in the on-line, academic journal “PeerJ”, Dr Andrew Farke of the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Palaeontology (Claremont, California), reports that the 36 cm long bone from a bonebed within the middle unit of the Kaiparowits Formation (Utah), extends the distribution of large pterosaurs across terrestrial environments during the Campanian of western North America.

Views of the Single Pterosaur Bone with Accompanying Line Drawings

RAM 22574 pterosaur limb bone and line drawings

Views of the pterosaur limb bone with accompanying line drawings.  Note scale bar = 10 cm.

Picture Credit: Farke (PeerJ)

The picture above shows various views of the single pterosaur limb bone (specimen number RAM 22574).  Dorsal (A), proximal (B) with anterior (C) and dorsal (D) views, whilst E and F represent ventral and posterior views.  Line drawing (G) shows an interpretation of the posterior view with missing parts shaded and line drawing H shows a posterior view of the complete and restored bone.  The large size of the bone has permitted Dr Farke to make an estimate of the wingspan of the pterosaur.  He estimates that this bone came from an individual with a wingspan between 4.3 and 5.9 metres.   This bone is the largest pterosaur fossil reported to date from the Kaiparowits Formation.

Based on these estimates, the Kaiparowits Formation specimen is roughly comparable in size to Cryodrakon boreas an azhdarchid pterosaur known from the Dinosaur Park Formation of southern Alberta, Canada which was formally named and described in 2019: The First Pterosaur Unique to Canada is Described Cryodrakon boreas.

Significant Pterosaur Fossil Finds Associated with Terrestrial Environments in Late Cretaceous North America

Late Cretaceous major pterosaur fossil finds in western North America.

Major pterosaur fossil finds from late Campanian-aged terrestrial depositional environments in western North America.

Picture Credit: Farke (PeerJ) with additional annotation from Everything Dinosaur (silhouettes based on work from Naish and Witton)

Silhouettes are scaled to maximum estimates of wingspan for individual specimens.  The silhouette for RAM 22574 shows the minimum (black) and maximum (green) size estimates for the specimen (4.3 to 5.9 metre wingspan).

The strata in southern Alberta (Dinosaur Park Formation) from which C. boreas comes from was laid down shortly after the portion of the Kaiparowits Formation associated with this single pterosaur bone.  Thus, Dr Farke concludes that relatively large pterosaurs occurred in terrestrial ecosystems in both the northern and southern parts of Laramidia (western North America), during the late Campanian.

The scientific paper: “A large pterosaur limb bone from the Kaiparowits Formation (late Campanian) of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument, Utah, USA” by Andrew A. Farke published in PeerJ.

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