All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
20 09, 2020

5-Star Feedback from Customers All Over Europe

By | September 20th, 2020|Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

5-Star Feedback from Customers All Over Europe

Things are difficult at the moment but team members at Everything Dinosaur are doing all they can to maintain the high levels of service our customers have come to expect.  Throughout this COVID-19 pandemic we have been able to maintain our 5-star customer service rating from the independent ratings company Feefo.  We understand that on-line shopping has become the mainstay for many people, others have just started out using the internet to make purchases.  With the festive season approaching and more lockdown measures likely to follow suit, Everything Dinosaur is doing all it can to ensure that parcels are despatched promptly and that our customers get the support and assistance they require.

Everything Dinosaur Maintaining the 5-star Service Rating

Everything Dinosaur 5-star Feefo rating.

5-star rating for Everything Dinosaur.  Our top service rating has been maintained throughout the COVID-19 pandemic.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Customers Provide Feedback to Everything Dinosaur

Feefo are an independent provider of reviews, one of the largest organisations of their kind in the world.  Feefo is committed to collecting genuine customer feedback on behalf of the businesses that they work with, such as Everything Dinosaur for example.  To stop people from leaving fake reviews, Feefo contacts customers directly following their purchasing experience and invites them to leave a review.  Everything Dinosaur has received thousands of reviews, all of them are then uploaded for all the world to see.

Visit Everything Dinosaur’s page on Feefo: Everything Dinosaur on Feefo.

Everything Dinosaur Received the Highest Customer Service Award from Feefo in 2020

Platinum Standard Service from Everything Dinosaur.

Everything Dinosaur has won the Feefo Platinum Service Award for 2020.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

As an example of what our customers think about us here are a selection of recent reviews from customers in Europe.

Edoardo from Italy provided feedback:

“Precisi, competenti e affidabili.  Avevo già acquistato da loro e sapevo che non mi sarei sbagliato.”

This translates as “precise, competent and reliable.  I had already bought from them and knew I wouldn’t be wrong.”

Grazie for your kind comments Edoardo.

Pablo from Spain wrote:

“A really great community who put a lot of effort into compiling the best collections of prehistoric creatures from brands all around the world and to make them accessible for anyone at reasonable shipping prices.  If you have any questions they are fairly quick to answer.  I also value the fact that they make educational content with up-to-date scientific information to show which figures are better depicted.  As a dinosaur and prehistoric life enthusiast, I can’t recommend this site enough!  Congratulations to all the team and staff of Everything Dinosaur from Valencia, Spain!”

Our thanks Pablo, gracias.


Mate from Hungary stated:

“Excellent service and fast administration.  Fantastic figure.  Very nice.”

Thank you for your kind comments Mate – Köszönöm.

We are grateful for all the feedback and comments we receive, our thanks to everyone who provides us feedback, it helps to make us a better business.

19 09, 2020

Spinosaurus – Very Much at Home in the River

By | September 19th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Spinosaurus A River Monster

An examination of more than a thousand fossil dinosaur teeth collected from an ancient Cretaceous-aged riverbed in Morocco suggests that the giant theropod Spinosaurus was very much at home in an aquatic environment.  This new study, conducted by researchers from the University of Portsmouth, lends further support to the idea that Spinosaurus spent a great deal of time in water, that this enormous theropod, arguably one of the largest of all the carnivorous dinosaurs was a “river monster”.

More Evidence Suggests that Spinosaurus was an Aquatic Animal

Swimming Spinosaurus (2020)

View of the crocodile-like snout of Spinosaurus and the new interpretation of the tail.  This new paper supports the earlier hypothesis that Spinosaurus aegyptiacus was an aquatic animal.

Picture Credit: Davide Bonadonna/National Geographic

This new study builds on a research paper published in the journal “Nature”, earlier this year, which also involved co-author Professor David Martill (University of Portsmouth).  The May (2020) paper focused on the examination of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus caudal vertebrae, it was concluded that Spinosaurus had a wide, flexible, fin-like tail, ideal for helping the dinosaur to propel itself through the water.

To read more about the Spinosaurus tail bones: Spinosaurus – The River Monster.

A Study of Fossil Teeth from the Kem Kem Formation

Writing in the academic journal “Cretaceous Research”, the scientists conclude that Spinosaurus was a water-dwelling dinosaur, a giant “river monster”.

A total of 1,200 broken teeth were collected from the site of an ancient riverbed in the Kem Kem Formation of Morocco.  Each tooth was carefully analysed and documented and it was discovered that Spinosaurus teeth made up the majority of the fossil specimens.

Professor David Martill, Professor of Palaeobiology at the University of Portsmouth explained:

“From this research we are able to confirm this location as the place where this gigantic dinosaur not only lived but also died.  The results are fully consistent with the idea of a truly water-dwelling, “river monster”.”

Examples of Typical Fossils from the Kem Kem Formation (Morocco)

Fossil remains (Kem Kem beds).

Assorted vertebrate fossil remains from the Kem Kem beds of Morocco.  The elongated conical tooth (top left) and the large, slender conical tooth which is partially obscured (far left) are likely to be spinosaurid.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Around forty-five percent of all the teeth fossils were ascribed to Spinosaurus.

Professor Martill added:

“The huge number of teeth we collected in the prehistoric riverbed reveals that Spinosaurus was there in huge numbers, accounting for 45 per cent of the total dental remains.  We know of no other location where such a mass of dinosaur teeth have been found in bone-bearing rock.  The enhanced abundance of Spinosaurus teeth, relative to other dinosaurs, is a reflection of their aquatic lifestyle.  An animal living much of its life in water is much more likely to contribute teeth to the river deposit than those dinosaurs that perhaps only visited the river for drinking and feeding along its banks.”

Professor Martill worked alongside two students (Aaron Quigley and Thomas Beevor), studying for the Masters Degree in Palaeontology at the university.

Thomas Beevor commented:

“The Kem Kem riverbeds are an amazing source of Spinosaurus remains.  They also preserve the remains of many other Cretaceous creatures including sawfish, coelacanths, crocodiles, flying reptiles and other land-living dinosaurs.  With such an abundance of Spinosaurus teeth, it is highly likely that this animal was living mostly within the river rather than along its banks.”

Identifying Spinosaurus Teeth

Sorting fossil teeth can be quite a challenging process.  However, enough is known about the Kem Kem biota to enable most of the teeth remains to be assigned to a genus or at least at the family level.  Numerous theropod dinosaurs are known from this geological formation, but spinosaurid teeth are distinctive.  They are conical, lack serrations and are not recurved.  Aaron Quigley explained that the teeth of Spinosaurus have a distinct surface.  They have a smooth, round cross-section which glints when held up to the light.

A Model of Spinosaurus Introduced in 2019 (Papo Spinosaurus)

Papo Limited Edition Spinosaurus Model.

The Papo Limited Edition Spinosaurus dinosaur model (2019).  Depicting Spinosaurus as an aquatic animal with deep, fin-like tail.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Sigilmassasaurus Confusion

Whilst the prevalence of spinosaurid teeth in the sample might indicate that spinosaurids spent more time in close proximity to the ancient river than other dinosaurs, this research does not represent definitive proof that Spinosaurus was aquatic.  It lends weight to the idea.  A large amount of spinosaurid teeth associated with the site, could be a result of some form of depositional bias or general taphonomy.  In addition, the paucity of Spinosaurus remains from the Kem Kem Formation has led to controversy over the classification of fossil bones.  For example, in 1996 a second genus of spinosaurid was named and described from fossilised cervical vertebrae found close to the Tafilalt Oasis in eastern Morocco.  This dinosaur was named Sigilmassasaurus brevicollis (Russell), but its taxonomic validity remains in doubt.  Sigilmassasaurus may be a valid genus, if it is, then it was very closely related to Spinosaurus aegyptiacus.  Other scientists think that S. brevicollis is not a valid genus and a junior synonym of Spinosaurus.  It is possible that the teeth involved in this study could represent another type of spinosaurid, other than S. aegyptiacus.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a media release from the University of Portsmouth in the compilation of this article.

18 09, 2020

Rebor T. rex Carcass “Bites the Dust” Pair Plain and Jungle

By | September 18th, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor T. rex Carcass “Bites the Dust” Pair Plain and Jungle

The Rebor T. rex carcass “Bites the Dust” models are in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  These two figures (jungle and plain colour variants), have arrived at our warehouse and team members have been busy contacting all those customers who asked to be emailed about the latest additions to our inventory and the Rebor range.

The Rebor Tyrannosaurus rex Carcass Model Plain Colour Variant “Bites the Dust”

Rebor T. rex Carcass Bites the Dust - Plain.

The Rebor Tyrannosaurus rex dinosaur model in 1:35 scale.  The Rebor T. rex carcass “Bites the Dust” – plain.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Tale of a Theropod Dinosaur that Met Its Demise

From the pathology recorded on the fossilised bones of this apex predator, palaeontologists are fairly certain that T. rex had a very tough life.  It was a question of kill or be killed and it has been suggested that tyrannosaurs were cannibalistic and that these dinosaurs had to cope with vicious intraspecific combats, essentially fights with other tyrannosaurs, possibly over hunting territories, mates or kills.  As hypercarnivores most likely specialising in the hunting of large prey animals such as hadrosaurs and ceratopsians, attacks could go wrong, with perhaps fatal consequences.  We congratulate Rebor for creating such carefully crafted figures.

The Rebor T. rex carcass is available in two colour variants, plain (see photograph above) and jungle (see below).   Each figure measures around 34 cm in length and depicts a dead Tyrannosaurus rex.  They will make really exciting additions to a dinosaur model collection and provide an opportunity for model makers to build some amazing prehistoric animal dioramas.

The Rebor Tyrannosaurus rex Carcass Model Jungle Colour Variant “Bites the Dust”

Rebor T. rex carcass - "Bites the Dust".

The Rebor T. rex carcass in the jungle colour scheme (Bites the Dust).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Queen Motif Continues

Collectors of Rebor models will notice that the rock group Queen motif continues with the introduction of these two fine figures.  In the spring of 2019, Rebor introduced a pair of T. rex replicas under the title of “Killer Queen” a possible homage to a track and later a single from the British rock band’s “Sheer Heart Attack” album from the mid-1970s.  Queen released a single entitled “Another One Bites the Dust” in 1980, it was a worldwide hit, reaching number 7 in the UK singles chart and topping the U.S. Billboard Hot 100.  We think these two fabulous fatality figures will prove to be a big hit with model collectors and fans of Rebor too.

Everything Dinosaur is Offering the Pair at a Special Discounted Price (Whilst Stocks Last)

Two Rebor replicas. Buy the pair!

Buy the Pair – purchase the Rebor T. rex carcass “Bites the Dust” colour variants plain and jungle.  Everything Dinosaur customers can purchase the pair at a special discounted price (whilst stocks last).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Rebor T. rex carcass “Bites the Dust” plain and colour variants can be found here: Rebor Models and Figures.

17 09, 2020

Carnian Pluvial Episode – Late Triassic Mass Extinction

By | September 17th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Getting to Grips with a Mass Extinction Event – Carnian Pluvial Episode

The fossil record of the Phanerozoic (the Eon of visible life), indicates that there were five major mass extinction events.  The fossil record marks huge and very rapid (at least in geological terms anyway), reductions in the diversity of life on a world-wide scale.  Our planet might well be going through a mass extinction event at the moment, but for one team of scientists their attention has been on the Late Triassic (Carnian faunal stage), plotting a time of extensive terrestrial and marine faunal turnover.  The researchers, which include scientists from Bristol University, the University of Ferrara (Italy), the University of Vienna and the China University of Geosciences in Wuhan Province, conclude that around 233 million years ago about a third of all marine genera disappeared.

Terrestrial Fauna in the Late Triassic – Did a Major Extinction Event Help to Trigger the Rise of the Dinosaurs

Late Triassic terrestrial fauna.

Life in the Late Triassic, an explosion in dinosaur diversity.  Did the Crocodylomorpha and the Dinosauria benefit from the Late Triassic Carnian Pluvial Episode?

Picture Credit:  Davide Bonadonna

Many types of land-living animal did no better.  The herbivorous rhynchosaurs and dicynodonts were greatly reduced in diversity during the Carnian, but intriguingly crocodylomorphs and those other archosaurs, the Dinosauria seem to have benefitted from the extinction of other types of tetrapod, with both the Crocodylomorpha and dinosaurs diversifying towards the end of the Carnian.  The scientists postulate that the rise of the dinosaurs to dominance might have been a direct consequence of the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE).

To read an earlier blog article that links the CPE with dinosaur diversification: Out with a Bang! In with a Bang! The story of the Dinosauria.

 A Time of Immense Global Environmental Change

The Carnian Pluvial Episode took place from around 234 to 232 million years ago.  There was a marked rise in rainfall (at least four episodes of increased rainfall have been deduced from sedimentary and palaeontological data).  The Earth got warmer and more humid.  This led to extensive environmental changes and the subsequent demise and then collapse of many ecological systems.  Writing in the academic journal “Science Advances”, the scientists throw their collective weight behind the theory that enormous volcanic eruptions in the Wrangellia Province of western Canada, that resulted in the deposition of vast amounts of basalt, were probably the cause of the global environmental changes.

Co-author of the paper Jacopo Dal Corso (China University of Geosciences), explained:

“The eruptions peaked in the Carnian.  I was studying the geochemical signature of the eruptions a few years ago and identified some massive effects on the atmosphere worldwide.  The eruptions were so huge, they pumped vast amounts of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and there were spikes of global warming”.

This warming resulted in the increased humidity and higher levels of rainfall, a phenomenon first detected by geologists Mike Simms and Alastair Ruffell in the 1980s.  The climate change caused major biodiversity loss in the ocean and on land, but just after the extinction event new groups took over, forming more modern-like ecosystems.

Environmental and Geochemical Changes of the CPE

Environmental and geochemical changes associated with the Carnian Pluvial Event.

(A) Calculating the age of the CPE based on geochemical indicators and (B) Palaeogeography during the Carnian, the map showing where sedimentary and palaeontological data has been obtained documenting changes in environmental conditions.

Picture Credit: Jacopo Dal Corso et al/Science Advances

The environmental changes had a profound effect on life on our planet.  As well as a diversification of the dinosaurs, many other modern groups of animals and plants appeared at this time, including lizards and the first mammals.  When mapping the losses of marine fauna at the genus level, the team concluded that whilst the CPE was not as devastating as the either the end-Triassic or end-Cretaceous extinction events, some 33% of all marine genera died out.

A Comparison of Marine Faunal Turnover During Major Extinction Events

Plotting marine extinctions and faunal turnover over the Carnian Pluvial Event.

(A) Comparison of extinction rates of all marine genera during the CPE with those of major Phanerozoic mass extinction events.

Picture Credit: Jacopo Dal Corso et al/Science Advances

The Effect on Plant Life

The shifts in climate encouraged substantial changes in global flora too.  Many new types of plants emerged that were more suited to the humid climate.  Several modern fern families emerged and the Bennettitales (cycad-like plants), diversified.  Extensive coal deposits formed once again, the first substantial coal seams being produced since the Permian.  Conifers seem to have benefitted and the researchers, which include Professor Mike Benton (Bristol University), remark that the CPE provides the first major finds of amber in the fossil record.  As tree resin is usually produced when plants are under stress, this suggests that terrestrial ecosystems were in a state of flux during this period in Earth’s history.

Professor Benton stated:

“The new floras probably provided slim pickings for the surviving herbivorous reptiles.  I had noted a floral switch and ecological catastrophe among the herbivores back in 1983 when I completed my PhD.  We now know that dinosaurs originated some 20 million years before this event, but they remained quite rare and unimportant until the Carnian Pluvial Episode hit.  It was the sudden arid conditions after the humid episode that gave dinosaurs their chance.”

Terrestrial Extinctions and Originations During the Carnian (Late Triassic)

Mapping the major biological changes amongst plants, insects and vertebrates during the Carnian.

Plotting the major biological changes amongst plants, insects and vertebrates during the Carnian.  Trackmaker assemblages from the Southern Alps suggest a faunal turnover within the Archosauria with the dinosaurs replacing the crocodylomorphs as a significant component of terrestrial ecosystems.

Picture Credit: Jacopo Dal Corso et al/Science Advances

The researchers conclude that the CPE may not have been as significant as the big five Phanerozoic mass extinctions but it did have a dramatic impact on terrestrial and marine environments and helped to bring in a variety of new types of plants and animals, marking an important step towards the origins of the types of ecosystems we see around us today.

The scientific paper: “Extinction and dawn of the modern world in the Carnian (Late Triassic)” by Jacopo Dal Corso et al published in Science Advances.

16 09, 2020

CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia Video Review

By | September 16th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani Video Review

Everything Dinosaur has created a short video review of the new for 2020 CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani model.  As well as reviewing the figure, we have provided an outline of some of the science behind the discovery and naming of this huge, Late Triassic dicynodont.  In the video, (it lasts just over ten minutes), we also discuss a “secret” Placerias replica and pose the question which prehistoric animal models would you put in a diorama with these two members of the Dicynodontia?

Everything Dinosaur’s Video Review of the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani Model (Dynamic Dicynodonts)

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Dicynodont Duo

There are not that many dicynodont models made by mainstream manufacturers.  Creatures from the Triassic tend to be somewhat underrepresented in model ranges when compared to prehistoric animals that lived during the Jurassic or Cretaceous.  However, fans of the Dicynodontia have two protomammals to choose from.  There is the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani, which was introduced this year (2020) and an eye-catching Placerias replica to add to your collection.

A Dicynodont Duo – Lisowicia and Placerias

CollectA Lisowicia and a Placerias model.

The CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani model (background) and a Placerias replica (foreground).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The CollectA Deluxe 1:20 scale Lisowicia bojani model can be found in this section of our website: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life Models and Figures.

Model Measurements

In the short video review, we measure the two models and comment on their size and scale.  The CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia replica measures around nineteen centimetres in length, stands approximately 7 cm high at the shoulder and that high-arched back is more than 10 cm tall.  The Placerias figure, is smaller, it measures about 10 cm in length and it stands around 5 cm high.  The sizing is apt, as although Placerias was a large dicynodont, it would have been dwarfed by the elephant-sized Lisowicia, should a Placerias ever encounter one.

Measuring a Prehistoric Protomammal – The Tale of the Tape (Lisowicia bojani)

Measuring the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia model.

In the Everything Dinosaur video review the CollectA Lisowicia replica is measured.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Helping to Inform and Educate

One of the aims of our videos is to help explain some of the science behind the prehistoric animal that a particular figure might represent.  In our video review of the Lisowicia, we highlight where the fossils of this giant dicynodont were found and what other fossils were discovered in association with the remains.  Thanks to the thousands of bones that have been excavated from the Lisowicia dig site, researchers have been able to build up a comprehensive picture of the many different types of animals that co-existed with L. bojani.  For example, the narrator comments upon the discovery of the archosaur Smok wawelski and points out the difficulties in classifying this predator as either a member of the Theropoda or a rauisuchid – a diverse group of predatory archosaurs that sit on the crocodilian segment of the Archosauria family tree.

To view Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.  We recommend that you subscribe to our YouTube channel.

15 09, 2020

“Prehistoric Pets” – New Book Links Pets with Their Ancestors

By | September 15th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Book Reviews, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos, Press Releases|0 Comments

“Prehistoric Pets” – New Book Links Pets with Their Ancestors

A new book is due to be published shortly entitled “Prehistoric Pets”.  It has been written by the very talented palaeontologist Dr Dean Lomax, with illustrations by Mike Love.  This exciting forthcoming publication links pets with their prehistoric ancestors, helping to bridge a gap in children’s understanding about fossils and deep geological time.

The Front Cover of “Prehistoric Pets” by Dr Dean Lomax with Illustrations by Mike Love

The front cover of "Prehistoric Pets".

This colourful and well-written book takes the reader on a journey back in time, linking common household pets today with their prehistoric ancestors.  If you have ever wondered about the ancestors of cats, dogs and guinea pigs, then this exciting new publication will provide the answers.

Picture Credit: Templar Books/Everything Dinosaur

Highly Informative, Fact Filled and Humorous

Dr Dean Lomax is one of a very select number of academics who have the ability to communicate complex ideas in simple terms so that general readers can comprehend.  The book is crammed full of fascinating facts and snippets of information that children will relish.  Beautifully designed pop-ups feature amazing prehistoric creatures, animals such as the tiny Sifrhippus (siff-rip-uss), the oldest known ancestor of the modern horse.  A cat-sized creature that roamed Wyoming during the Eocene Epoch.

“Prehistoric Pets” – Tracing the Ancestry of the Modern Horse

Horses feature in the book "Prehistoric Pets".

One of the beautiful animal illustrations from the book “Prehistoric Pets” by Dr Dean Lomax (illustrated by Mike Love).

Picture Credit: Templar Books/Everything Dinosaur

This awesome book is due to be published next month (October 2020), it will make an ideal Christmas gift for a young palaeontologist.

When this book is available, Everything Dinosaur will be writing a review of “Prehistoric Pets”.

Well-written and Cleverly Designed – A Great Christmas Gift Idea “Prehistoric Pets”

"Prehistoric Pets" - brilliant bird facts.

Brilliant bird facts in the awesome new book written by Dr Dean Lomax and illustrated by Mike Love.  The book contains lots of amazing information and facts.  Written in a humorous style, “Prehistoric Pets” takes the reader on a journey back in time, linking familiar pets alive today with their prehistoric ancestors. 

Picture Credit: Templar Books/Everything Dinosaur

14 09, 2020

Pachycephalosaur Squamosals

By | September 14th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Pachycephalosaur Squamosals

As Everything Dinosaur team members prepare for the arrival of the new for 2020 Papo Stygimoloch dinosaur model, team members have been examining the scientific papers that led to the erection of this pachycephalosaur genus (Peter Galton and Hans-Dieter Sues in 1983).  An isolated fossil bone referred to as a left squamosal (a bone from the back part of the skull) was found in Hell Creek Formation deposits located in McCone County, eastern Montana.  This fossil bone was given the catalogue number UCMP 119433 and although its prominent horns and raised bony bumps were very distinctive, it was not formerly described until 1983.  This fossil bone became the holotype fossil for the new species of North American pachycephalosaur Stygimoloch spinifer.

Distinctive Squamosal Bones Attributed to S. spinifer

Squamosal Bones Associated with Stygimoloch spinifer

The holotype left squamosal (UCMP 119433) in (A) and a right squamosal (UCMP 131163) in (B) in posterior view.  Note scale bar equals 5 cm.

Picture Credit: Horner and Goodwin (published in PLOS One)

The picture (above), shows the holotype left squamosal (UCMP 119433) alongside a right squamosal which also comes from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana (UCMP 131163).   When first described, the flat-headed, narrow skull of Stygimoloch with its array of horns and bumps that were most prominent at the back of the skull, was thought to represent a different type of pachycephalosaur than the dome-skulled species such as Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis.  Stygimoloch had been described from extremely scrappy fossil remains.  Although a more complete skull found in North Dakota was also assigned to this genus, Stygimoloch remained poorly known.

The New for 2020 Papo Stygimoloch Dinosaur Model

Papo Stygimoloch model.

A view of one of the production prototypes of the Papo Stygimoloch dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Stygimoloch is Probably a Subadult Pachycephalosaurus

A paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology in 2007 challenged the validity of the Stygimoloch taxon.  Palaeontologists John (Jack) Horner of the Museum of the Rockies, Montana State University and Mark Goodwin of the Museum of Paleontology at the University of California, Berkeley published a paper in the on-line, peer reviewed journal PLOS One (2009), that proposed that both Dracorex hogwartsia and Stygimoloch spinifer represented younger individuals of the Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis species.

More recent fossil discoveries from the Hell Creek Formation and further analysis of existing pachycephalosaur fossil material from North America supports the idea that Dracorex hogwartsia, Stygimoloch spinifer and Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis are the same taxon.

Pachycephalosaur Ontogeny – Three Hell Creek Formation Taxa May Actually Represent Just One Taxon

Different skull shapes and ornamentation linked to different growth stages.

It has been proposed that the cranial ornamentation and skull shape of pachycephalosaurs changes as these animals grow and mature.  This can cause confusion when trying to identify species.

Picture Credit: Kari Scannella with additional annotation by Everything Dinosaur

When first described, (Galton and Sues), the suggested morphology of the skull of Stygimoloch (narrow and lacking a raised, thickened dome), led the researchers to propose that unlike other pachycephalosaurs Stygimoloch probably did not indulge in any head-butting behaviour.

To view the range of Papo figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur, including a Pachycephalosaurus figure (whilst stocks last): Papo Models and Figures.

The 2009 scientific paper: “Extreme Cranial Ontogeny in the Upper Cretaceous Dinosaur Pachycephalosaurus” by John R Horner and Mark B Goodwin published in PLOS One.

13 09, 2020

A Dinosaur Water Bottle

By | September 13th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases, Product Reviews|0 Comments

A Colourful Dinosaur Water Bottle

The return to school for the start of the autumn term has been very strange for many children.  Thanks to the COVID-19 pandemic, some pupils in the UK have not been in school since March.  This term is likely to very different for children, teachers and teaching assistants alike.  Everything Dinosaur has seen sales of its dinosaur-themed water bottle surge as parents, grandparents, guardians and carers prepared for the start of the new school year.  Children are encouraged to bring their own reusable water bottles and our tough, robust, dishwasher safe, plastic dinosaur water bottle with its large 500 millilitre capacity, has proved to be very popular with young dinosaur fans.

The Dinosaur Themed Water Bottle from Everything Dinosaur

A 500 ml capacity dinosaur water bottle.

The plastic dinosaur drinking bottle available from Everything Dinosaur (whilst stocks last).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

An Ideal Water Bottle for School

The plastic water bottle is ideal for school.  It is dishwater safe and very sturdy.  The bottle has a large screw-on lid making it easy for little ones to top up and a secure flip cap top to permit no-spill drinking.  Just what a budding, young palaeontologist needs to quench their thirst.  The colourful dinosaur design in the front features a trio of dinosaurs, a Tyrannosaurus rex, a long-necked, plant-eating dinosaur with some prehistoric plants and trees to munch and a fabulous Triceratops.  There are even a couple of terrific pterosaurs to keep the dinosaurs company.

A Colourful Triceratops Features on the Front of the Dinosaur Water Bottle

A colourful Triceratops illustration.

A colourful Triceratops adorns the dinosaur water bottle.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The water bottle has been made from BPA-free plastic (free from bisphenol A or any other bisphenol compounds.  It is impact resistant and exceptionally tough, helping to extend the useful life of water bottles, potentially reducing plastic waste.  This product has exceptional dishwasher durability, encouraging proper sanitation and helping to keep plastic surfaces clean and free from bacteria and viruses.  With a substantial 500 ml capacity the bottle is big enough to provide plenty of refreshment, but it is lighter than glass, making it easier to handle for small hands without the fear of breaking.

By using this refillable bottle, you have will have helped to reduce the plastic pollution threat to oceans.

At just £4.16 plus tax (if applicable) and postage, this colourful dinosaur themed drinking vessel makes a welcome addition to a young person’s rucksack or school bag.  Prices accurate on date of publication (September 2020).

The dinosaur water bottle can be found (whilst stocks last), on this section of Everything Dinosaur’s website: Dinosaur Themed School Items (Back to School).

12 09, 2020

A Predator of Lisowicia – Smok wawelski

By | September 12th, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A Predator of Lisowicia – Smok wawelski

Prehistoric animal model collectors have been eager to get their hands on the new for 2020 CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani, dicynodont model.  Everything Dinosaur team members are busy creating a short video review of the model entitled “Dynamic Dicynodonts”.  Our YouTube video aims to showcase the CollectA 1:20 scale figure and to discuss dicynodonts in general.  Ironically, in the Late Triassic there was a predator that the elephant-sized Lisowicia might have feared.  The bonebed in southern Poland has revealed the presence of a five-metre plus archosaurian carnivore.  A powerful animal scientifically described in 2011, the meat-eater has been named Smok wawelski and although a fully grown Lisowicia was probably invulnerable to attack, Smok would have been capable of bringing down juvenile or sick individuals, as Smok is the largest terrestrial predator known from the Late Triassic of central Europe.

Dangerous Company for Lisowicia bojaniSmok wawelski

Skeletal reconstruction of Smok wawelski

A skeletal reconstruction of Smok wawelski (known bones in white) along with views of key elements from the fossil remains.  Although originally believed to be a theropod dinosaur related to the Allosauroidea, Smok wawelski could be a member of the crocodile lineage of the Archosauria.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani Dicynodont Model

The CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojani model.

The ruler helps to show the size of the CollectA Lisowicia model.  The Lisowicia replica measures around 19 cm long and the model has an articulated lower jaw.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the CollectA Deluxe Lisowicia bojaniCollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life Models.

The “Dragon of Lisowice”

Smok had a skull which was more than half a metre in length.  It was the apex predator of a diverse biota revealed by the clay pit fossils found close to the village of Lisowice in Silesia, southern Poland.  The first evidence of this large animal, consisting of cranial material was discovered in 2007, based on these fossils it was assigned to the Theropoda.  The braincase was similar to that seen in allosaurs, hence the classification.  However, more recent fossil discoveries have thrown doubts upon this taxonomic assessment.  It may not belong to the dinosaur/bird lineage of the Archosauria at all, Smok could be a member of the Rauisuchidae, a globally diverse family of archosaurs from the crocodile branch of the Archosauria.

Femur Bone Comparison Smok wawelski Compared to a Theropod (Liliensternus) and a Rauisuchid (Postosuchus)

Archosaur bone comparison (thigh bone comparison).

The femur of S. wawelski is compared to femori representing two other archosaurs, one from the Theropoda (Liliensternus) and a femur from the rauisuchid Postosuchus.  When first described Smok wawelski was thought to be a theropod but further fossil discoveries led to its placement within the Archosauria becoming more uncertain.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Once completed Everything Dinosaur’s video review of Lisowicia bojani and the information on Smok wawelski will be posted up on the company’s YouTube channel.  Click here to visit Everything Dinosaur on YouTube: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

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11 09, 2020

A Dinosaur “Begs” to Differ

By | September 11th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

A Neoceratopsian from Mongolia – Beg tse

A new species of basal neoceratopsian has been described from fossils found near the town of Barunnbayan in the Gobi Desert of Mongolia.  The little dinosaur, which was probably less than a metre long, has been named Beg tse in honour of the Himalayan deity Beg-tse.  In Mongolian culture, prior to the spread of Buddhism, Beg-tse was a god of war, often depicted as heavily armoured with large, roughened patches on its body.  The researchers studying the fossil material noted that, like other members of the Neoceratopsia, Beg had rugosities (roughened areas), on its skull, notably on the jugal and the surangular.

The Compressed Skull of Beg tse with an Accompanying Line Drawing

Beg tse skull and line drawing.

Lateral view of the holotype skull of Beg tse with line drawing.  The compressed skull measures 14 cm in length approximately.

Picture Credit: Yu et al (Nature)

The Most Basal Neoceratopsian Described to Date

The only known specimen of Beg tse (specimen reference: IGM 100/3652), was discovered by a joint American Museum of Nature/Mongolian Academy of Sciences expedition in 2015.  The fossils probably represent a single individual and consist of an articulated partial skull along with postcranial elements consisting of a fragmentary right ischium, a partial left scapula, one rib bone and numerous bone fragments.  A phylogenetic analysis conducted by the scientists, which included Dr Mark Norell (American Museum of Natural History),  indicates that Beg is the most basal neoceratopsian dinosaur known to date and is more derived than both the Psittacosauridae and Jurassic Chaoyangsauridae.

A Speculative Life Reconstruction of the Basal Neoceratopsian Beg tse

Beg tse life reconstruction.

A speculative life reconstruction of the basal neoceratopsian Beg tse.  The illustration has been based on the neoceratopsian Liaoceratops yanzigouensis from north-eastern China.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Proving Difficult to Date

It is difficult to estimate the date of the fossil bearing strata for many of the Gobi Desert dig sites due to the lack of detailed geological mapping and the limited number of sediments suitable for radiometric dating.  The sandstone dominated deposit has been dated to between 113 – 94 million years ago, with a most probable date of circa 100 million years ago.  As a result, the researchers conclude that Beg dates from the latest Early Cretaceous or the earliest Late Cretaceous.  The Ceratopsia may have originated around the Middle Jurassic, but the skull of Beg tse exhibits a combination of primitive and more derived traits which suggests that the basic ceratopsian bodyplan persisted until at least the Early-Late Cretaceous boundary.  Beg along with other Asian neoceratopsians such as Auroraceratops and Mosaiceratops represent transitional forms between basal ceratopsians and more derived forms.  With a wide geographical range from South Korea, China and Mongolia and a long time span from the Aptian to possibly the Campanian, the early evolutionary history of the horned dinosaurs is probably much more complex than previously thought.

The scientific paper: “A neoceratopsian dinosaur from the early Cretaceous of Mongolia and the early evolution of the ceratopsia” by Congyu Yu, Albert Prieto-Marquez, Tsogtbaatar Chinzorig, Zorigt Badamkhatan and Mark Norell published in Nature (Communications Biology).

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