All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
21 05, 2020

Scientists Discover Giant Megaraptor

By | May 21st, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Ten-metre-long Giant from Patagonia

A team of international scientists led by Dr Fernando Novas of the Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales (Buenos Aires, Argentina), have been exploring the Upper Cretaceous, fossil rich beds at Estancia La Anita in the Province of Santa Cruz, Patagonia.  In a media release, circulated this week, the researchers from the Museo de Ciencias Naturales report the discovery of the fossilised remains of a giant megaraptorid dinosaur.  At an estimated ten metres in length, it potentially represents the largest confirmed member of the Megaraptora clade discovered to date.

A Field Team Member Carefully Removing Overburden Close to a Fossil Bone

Excavating the remains of a megaptor.

A field team member works close to a fossil bone.

Picture Credit: Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales

Upper Cretaceous Sediments

The research team, which includes scientists from a number of Argentinian universities as well as colleagues from the National Museum of Tokyo (Japan), have spent much of the early part of the southern hemisphere autumn, working in the remote and mountainous Estancia La Anita which is some 1,750 miles (2,800 km), south of Buenos Aires.  Many different vertebrate fossils were found, including those of the basal iguanodontid Isasicursor.  The palaeontologists speculate that rather than attack the titanosaurs that lived in this region during the Late Cretaceous, megaraptors may have specialised in catching smaller, more agile prey such as the five-metre-long Isasicursor.

Members of the Megaraptora were quite lightly-built, long-armed carnivores.  Very little is known about these dinosaurs, although they do seem to have been both geographically and temporally widely dispersed.  They were not closely related to the dromaeosaurids, a family of dinosaurs that includes the “raptors” such as Velociraptor.

A Speculative Life Reconstruction of the Giant Megaraptor from Argentina

Scale drawing of giant megaraptor from Argentina.

A speculative life reconstruction of the giant megaraptor from Patagonia.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Elements from the rib cage and vertebrae have been found, but sadly no skull material has been reported.  It is likely that a new genus will be erected as a result of these discoveries, the scientific paper is likely to be published next year.

The Field Team’s Campsite at the Remote Location

Remote Patagonian fossil dig.

The remote campsite at Estancia La Anita in Patagonia.

Picture Credit: Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales

One of the Last of its Kind

The fossils represent the youngest material discovered to date that have been assigned to the Megaraptora.  It is therefore quite likely that these types of theropod persisted until the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs.  Fernando Novas has been instrumental in the development of our understanding of this type of carnivorous dinosaur.  It was Dr Novas who co-authored the review of theropod dinosaurs from Argentina in 2013, that led to the establishment of the Megaraptor clade.

To read a related article from Everything Dinosaur that looks at the ancient biota from this part of the Late Cretaceous of Argentina: Dinosaurs from the End of the World.

21 05, 2020

Happy Birthday Mary Anning

By | May 21st, 2020|General Teaching, Key Stage 1/2|Comments Off on Happy Birthday Mary Anning

Happy Birthday Mary Anning

On this day in 1799, Mary Anning the famous fossil hunter from Lyme Regis was born.  Mary along with her brother Joseph was responsible for the discovery of some highly significant fossils from an area of Dorset which forms part of the UNESCO World Heritage site known as the “Jurassic Coast”.

Mary Anning 1799-1847 (Famous Fossil Collector from Dorset)

A portrait of Mary Anning.

Mary Anning 1799-1847, Mary’s dog Tray can also be seen in this portrait.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Like many children growing up in Georgian England, Mary had very little formal education, but she was able to read and in her later life she taught herself, geology and anatomy as well as becoming quite adept at scientific illustration.

She became well known for her fossil discoveries and she supplemented the family’s meagre income by selling some of her fossil finds to wealthy members of society who were encouraged to holiday in England whilst the Napoleonic Wars raged in Europe.

During her lifetime, she did not receive full credit for her discoveries including the first pterosaur (flying reptile), to be found outside Germany.  For example, as a woman, she was not permitted to join the Geological Society of London, an institute that was to remain closed to women members until 1919.

In 2010, the Royal Society named Mary Anning as one of the ten British women who have most influenced the history of science.  Learning the story of Mary Anning and her fossil discoveries is often integrated into the “Rocks and Fossils” scheme of work which forms part of the Year 3 science curriculum in England.

20 05, 2020

The First Elaphrosaurine Theropod Reported from Australia

By | May 20th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Curious Cervical Leads to Startling Conclusion

Think of a theropod dinosaur and a ferocious carnivore with a large head and big teeth probably comes to mind.  However, the Theropoda is an extremely diverse clade within the Dinosauria, not all of them were big, particularly ferocious or even had teeth.   One group the elaphrosaurines, were very bizarre indeed and the discovery of a single neck bone in Victoria has led to the conclusion that these strange, light-weight dinosaurs distantly related to Carnotaurus, roamed Australia in the Early Cretaceous.

A Life Reconstruction of the Australian Elaphrosaurine

Life reconstruction of the elaphrosaur from Victoria.

A life reconstruction of the first elaphrosaur from Australia.

Picture Credit: Ruairdh Duncan (Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria)

From the Lower Cretaceous of Australia

Volunteer Jessica Parker discovered a 5-centimetre-long bone whilst helping out at the annual Dinosaur Dreaming excavation near Cape Otway, Victoria (2015).  The sediments at the site, known as Eric the Red West, date from the late Albian faunal stage of the Lower Cretaceous and are part of the Eumeralla Formation.  At first, the bone identified as a cervical vertebra (neck bone), was thought to have come from a pterosaur.

Intriguingly for Swinburne University palaeontologist Dr Stephen Poropat and PhD student Adele Pentland, once the fossil specimen had been prepared it became clear that this was not a bone from the middle portion of the neck of a flying reptile.

Dr Poropat explained:

“Pterosaur neck vertebrae are very distinctive.  In all known pterosaurs, the body of the vertebra has a socket at the head end, and a ball or condyle at the body end.  This vertebra had sockets at both ends, so it could not have been from a pterosaur.”

The Cervical Vertebra – Evidence of Australia’s First Elaphrosaur

The cervical vertebra (elaphrosaur0.

The five-centimetre-long bone identified as a middle cervical from an elaphrosaur.

Picture Credit: Dr Stephen Poropat

Geologically Much Younger Than Most Elaphrosaurines

The taxonomic affinity of the subfamily Elaphrosaurinae within the Theropoda remains controversial.  A number of authors have placed this little-known group, characterised by their small, light, graceful bodies, tiny heads, long necks and reduced forelimbs within the Noasauridae family, which means that they are distantly related to abelisaurids such as Ekrixinatosaurus, Majungasaurus and Carnotaurus.

Most elaphrosaurs are known from the Late Jurassic, but this new elaphrosaur from Australia, lived some forty million years later. Only Huinculsaurus (H. montesi), from the Cenomanian/Turonian (early Late Cretaceous), of Argentina is geologically younger, than the Australian fossil remains.

The Fossil Find Location, Typical Elaphrosaurine Body Plan and Placing the Fossil Find in a Chronological Context

Elaphosaur timeline and typical body plan.

A silhouette of the elaphrosaur with a map showing fossil location and a timeline showing elaphrosaurine chronology.  The newly described elaphrosaurine from Victoria is geologically the second youngest member of this group known.

Picture Credit: Poropat et al (Gondwana Research)

A Dinosaur of the Polar Region

The discovery of this single, fossilised neckbone adds support to the idea that the elaphrosaurines were geographically and temporally much more widespread than previously thought.  The similarity of these dinosaurs to the much better-known ornithomimosaur theropods (bird mimics), could help to explain why few other Cretaceous elaphrosaur specimens have come to light. Fossil material may have been found but misidentified as representing ornithomimids.

As the Cape Otway location would have been situated much further south during the Early Cretaceous (110-107 million years ago), at around a latitude of 76 degrees south, this implies that elaphrosaurines were capable of tolerating near-polar palaeoenvironments.

Recently, Everything Dinosaur wrote a post about the discovery of noasaurid from an opal mine close to Lightning Ridge (New South Wales).  Noasaurids and elaphrosaurines were related, most scientists classifying them as different branches within the Abelisauroidea.  Coincidentally, the New South Wales noasaurid was identified from a single cervical vertebra too.  Both it and the Cape Otway elaphrosaurine dinosaur have not been assigned to any genus, but both fossils are likely to represent new species.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s article about the recently discovered noasaurid from New South Wales: Noasaurids from Australia.

The scientific paper: “First elaphrosaurine theropod dinosaur (Ceratosauria: Noasauridae) from Australia — A cervical vertebra from the Early Cretaceous of Victoria” by Stephen F. Poropat, Adele H. Pentland, Ruairidh J. Duncan, Joseph J. Bevitt, Patricia Vickers-Rich and Thomas H. Rich published in Gondwana Research.

19 05, 2020

Turntable Tuesday – Gryposaurus Dinosaur Model

By | May 19th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Gryposaurus “Turntable Tuesday”

It’s “Turntable Tuesday” and today, it is the turn of the award-winning Wild Safari Prehistoric World Gryposaurus to be put through its paces on the Everything Dinosaur turntable.  This fantastic model of a hadrosaur was introduced in 2013 and it was awarded the accolade of best dinosaur toy of the year by readers of the prestigious “Prehistoric Times” magazine.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Gryposaurus Dinosaur Model – “Turntable Tuesday”

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Gryposaurus Dinosaur Model

Our short video (it lasts under two minutes), shows the beautiful, blue-eyed Gryposaurus figure.  We also use this opportunity to compare it to the recently introduced Edmontosaurus model, also from Safari Ltd.  Within the large Hadrosauridae family, both Edmontosaurus and Gryposaurus are members of the Saurolophinae sub-family, sometimes referred to as the Hadrosaurinae, although these duck-billed dinosaurs were not that closely related.  Both genera are associated with the North American landmass Laramidia, in general terms, Edmontosaurus specimens tend to be associated with younger strata.  For example, Edmontosaurus annectens is confined to the late Maastrichtian, whilst the species within the Gryposaurus genus are associated with older Campanian-aged deposits.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Gryposaurus Compared to the Edmontosaurus Figure

Gryposaurus compared to Edmontosaurus.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Gryposaurus compared to the 2020 Edmontosaurus from the same model range.  The Gryposaurus (left), compared to the recently introduced Wild Safari Prehistoric World Edmontosaurus (right).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

For an article about the Gryposaurus winning the best new dinosaur toy of 2013: Gryposaurus Model Wins Top Award.

“Hook-nosed Lizard”

Named as a result of its prominent nasal arch, that gives Gryposaurus its distinctive bulbous-looking snout, this dinosaur compares very well to the 2020 Edmontosaurus.  Although no scaling for these figures is given, the two models are roughly comparable in scale, Gryposaurus being regarded as smaller than both E. regalis and E. annectens.  When these two figures are together on our turntable we refer to them as “a dazzling duo of duck-bills”.

A Close View of “Hook-nosed Lizard” – Gryposaurus

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Gryposaurus dinosaur model.

“Turntable Tuesday” Gryposaurus on display.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur on YouTube

The short video highlighting the Gryposaurus figure can be found on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel.  We plan to post up one new video a week, plus more in-depth reviews of prehistoric animal models and replicas.

To view these videos check out our YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

Sales of the Wild Safari Prehistoric World Gryposaurus model at Everything Dinosaur are accompanied with a fact sheet, researched and written by team members that provides further information on this herbivorous dinosaur.

To purchase the Gryposaurus figure (as well as the new for 2020 Wild Safari Prehistoric World Edmontosaurus), click this link: Wild Safari Prehistoric World Models and Figures.

18 05, 2020

Tiny Crystals Can Stop Contaminants in their Tracks

By | May 18th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Geology, Main Page|0 Comments

Tiny Crystals Plug Gaps Limiting the Uptake of Contaminants in Rocks

Research published today by a UK-based team of scientists has shown for the first time that the mobility of potentially harmful contaminants in crystalline rocks over long periods of time may be severely limited due to the presence of tiny crystals, meaning contaminant movement is likely to be focused to water-bearing fractures only.  Movement of contaminants through rocks below ground can act to spread contamination, an issue relevant to the geological disposal of some wastes.  Scientists and academics undertake studies to enhance their understanding of how this process works, helping to reduce uncertainties and to assess potential environmental risks.

These new results shed light on the difficult problem of how contaminants may move over extremely long time periods and should improve our ability to calculate long term risks.  This study, published in the academic journal “Scientific Reports”, examined crystalline (granite) rock samples from an underground system in Japan (Upper Cretaceous Toki Granite) and the results imply that in many cases the importance of “rock matrix diffusion” may be minimal.  Additional analyses of a contrasting crystalline rock system (Carnmenellis Granite, from the UK) confirm and corroborate these results.

The Japanese samples were taken from the Toki Granite pluton which was formed around 70 million years ago.

CT-Scans Permitted the Researchers to Map Voids and Fractures in the Granite Samples

Pore space analysis in the igneous rocks.

Pore sizes and pore distributions within the Toki and Carnmenellis granite proximate to primary fractures (indicated by solid blue regions at upper surfaces) as determined via X–ray CT analysis.

Picture Credit: Wogelius et al published in “Scientific Reports”

These findings, which apply to long-lived systems, build on previous field studies and laboratory assessments over short periods of time which also suggested that contaminant mobility in crystalline rocks, such as granite, will be limited to short distances in parts of the rock that are away from large fractures.  This new work has examined rocks from ancient crystalline rock systems in Japan and the UK to show that even over immensely long periods of geological time the movement of elements within such crystalline rock is indeed small, in large part because the formation of large quantities of small crystals during the aging of the rock acts to seal small openings and limit fluid access to only a few millimetres of the rock bordering fractures.

Professor Roy Wogelius, the senior author on this paper, commented:

“We set out to test exactly what we could resolve in terms of fluid access to the matrix of these rocks and we were amazed at the extremely limited volume involved.  But what was most amazing to us was the distribution of tiny crystals of carbonate minerals throughout what we usually think of as a uniform block of crystalline rock.  Here, unexpected little crystals of calcite appear throughout the rock plugging up all the tiny openings.  These crystals clog everything up and keep most of the fluid in large cracks with no access to smaller openings.  This effectively shuts down contaminant access to the rock mass, meaning any contaminant movement would likely focus in rock fractures only. “

This study in combination with other collaborative research projects will help geologists to produce more accurate models of how pollutants and other contaminants can persist in the environment and threaten groundwater.

The work was completed by researchers from UK academia (The University of Manchester and the University of Leeds), in partnership with the British Geological Survey, two environmental consultancies – Quintessa and NSG – and was funded as part of collaborative work with the UK organisation Radioactive Waste Management.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the help and assistance of a media release from the University of Manchester in the compilation of this article.

The scientific paper: “Mineral reaction kinetics constrain the length scale of rock matrix diffusion” by R. A. Wogelius, A. E. Milodowski, L. P. Field, R. Metcalfe, T. Lowe, A. van Veelen, G. Carpenter, S. Norris and B. Yardley published in Scientific Reports.

17 05, 2020

Preparing a Script for the Wild Past Protoceratops

By | May 17th, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Scripting a Video Review of the Wild Past Protoceratops Model

Everything Dinosaur team members have been working on a video review of the recently introduced Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model.  The model, representing Protoceratops andrewsi is the first prehistoric animal in this exciting new range.  Our video review, due to be published shortly on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel, will look at the model, the nest of young Protoceratops and comment on the excellent packaging.  We also intend to provide a little bit of scientific information about Protoceratops and the two species that currently comprise this genus (P. andrewsi and P. hellenikorhinus).

The Wild Past Protoceratops Dinosaur Model (Still from Video Review)

Wild Past Protoceratops model.

A bird-hipped dinosaur in the hand.  The Wild Past Protoceratops andrewsi model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Synonymous with Dinosaur Eggs

Protoceratops is synonymous with the discovery of dinosaur eggs.  Eggshell fragments were found in the area of the Flaming Cliffs by the American Museum of Natural History expedition in 1922 and they returned to the same area in the following year and discovered several nests full of fossilised eggs.  As Protoceratops was the most abundant dinosaur known from the Djadokhta Formation it was assumed that the nests had been created by “first horned face”.  The discovery of a fragmentary bird-like fossil found within ten centimetres from the eggs, immediately put this strange theropod under suspicion of having been overtaken by a sandstorm whilst in the process of raiding the Protoceratops nest.  This new dinosaur was subsequently named Oviraptor philoceratops which translates as “Egg thief with a liking for Protoceratops”.

A “Classic” Dinosaur Illustration Protoceratops Confronts the “Egg Thief” Oviraptor

Protoceratops defends its nest from Oviraptor.

Protoceratops confronts Oviraptor- the egg thief.  A “classic” dinosaur illustration by Rudolph F. Zallinger.  A re-interpretation of the fossil evidence indicates that “egg thief” was actually brooding the eggs on the nest.

Picture Credit: Rudolph F. Zallinger

Slandering Oviraptor

We now know that the name Oviraptor slanders this dinosaur, it was not stealing the eggs but brooding them, a more appropriate name might be “conscientious lizard”, the first oviraptorid dinosaur ever to be scientifically described, died whilst protecting its own young.  However, the rules surrounding zoological names are clear, you cannot change a name, no matter how inappropriate it subsequently turns out to be.

The Wild Past Protoceratops andrewsi with Nest

The Wild Past Protoceratops and Nest.

The Wild Past Protoceratops and the nest of Protoceratops babies that accompanies the model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

In 2011,  a scientific paper was published that finally described a nest associated Protoceratops andrewsi that had been recovered from the Djadokhta Formation.  Just like the Wild Past model, the nest contained recently hatched babies.  Analysis of their tiny fossil bones demonstrated that the baby Protoceratops were incapable of moving far on their own and that Protoceratops probably was an altricial species, that is, the young relied on their parents to feed them and to look after them.  There is much to be admired in the details shown in the Wild Past Protoceratops nest and it is great to see that this replica comes with a nest of youngsters reflecting the fossil record.

To view the Wild Past section of the Everything Dinosaur website including the Protoceratops model: Wild Past Prehistoric Animals.

16 05, 2020

More Papo Prehistoric Animals Arrive

By | May 16th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

More Papo Prehistoric Animals Arrive

This week, team members at Everything Dinosaur were able to bring in another shipment of Papo prehistoric animal models.  In total, we were able to replenish stocks of eleven Papo figures.  As part of our planning to help maintain our mail order business in the advent of a lockdown due to the coronavirus (COVID-19), we put into place some contingency stock that we could draw upon quite easily to help ensure that we could keep delivering products to our customers.

Papo Pentaceratops and Gorgosaurus Gift Box Stocks Replenished

Papo Gorgosaurus and Pentaceratops box set.

The Papo Gorgosaurus and Pentaceratops box set. Stock of this popular gift set has been replenished.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The new for 2020 Papo figures remain unlikely to become available until August at the earliest.  The Papo factory has been badly affected by the coronavirus pandemic.  If Everything Dinosaur gets news about the new for 2020 Papo prehistoric animals we shall, of course, post this information up onto our social media platforms including this site.

A Range of Papo Prehistoric Animals

The latest delivery into our warehouse consists of a range of Papo figures.   These deliveries are all part of our planning and contingency operations to keep product stocks available to our customers.  Along with the Papo Gorgosaurus and Pentaceratops gift box, the shipment also contained a small number of Papo Pentaceratops and Gorgosaurus models so we can continue to sell these figures individually.

On Hand!  The Papo Pentaceratops Dinosaur Model

Papo Pentaceratops dinosaur model.

The Papo Pentaceratops dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We continue to do all we can to protect our team members and to assist the public.  Social distancing measures have been put in place as part of a suite of measures to keep us operating as normally as possible in these far from normal times.  We know how important it is for our customers when it comes to indulging a hobby or shopping for birthday gifts and presents, so far, the steps we have taken have permitted us to keep going.  Part of our strategy was to plan for a time when deliveries to our warehouse would be difficult, so we have been able to stockpile certain items that have helped us to manage inventories effectively.”

The Warehouse Delivery Also Included the Papo Carnotaurus

Papo Carnotaurus model.

“Meat-eating Bull” from Papo.  The Papo Carnotaurus dinosaur model was also included in our latest re-supply shipment.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Maintaining Product Stocks

With so much uncertainty about with regards to factory production schedules, Everything Dinosaur is doing all it can to maintain supplies.  For example, next week, further deliveries are expected from CollectA and Rebor and plans are in place to obtain more Bullyland figures.

In the meantime, to view the Papo prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models.

15 05, 2020

Customers Praise Everything Dinosaur

By | May 15th, 2020|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Customers Praise Everything Dinosaur

These are certainly challenging times for us all.  Much of the world continues to be in lockdown due to the coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19).  We hope that everyone is keeping well and staying safe.  Our thoughts are with all those families that have been affected by this pandemic.  We would like to convey our thoughts and sympathies to all those who have been affected.

At Everything Dinosaur, we continue to do all we can to try to keep a sense of normality for our customers.  Team members have provided support and assistance as they know how important birthdays can be so they have been working extra hard to ensure parcels are despatched promptly.

We do appreciate all the kind comments and feedback that we receive.  Feefo, the independent rating company have published thousands of customer reviews about us.  We also received comments and reviews from customers on our own website.

Here are some recent examples:

Tommy wrote into Everything Dinosaur stating:

“I received my order today and can I please just say you run a fantastic website and the new dinosaurs (including the fantastic fact sheets) have made my son’s and wife’s day.  Have a fantastic day and keep up the outstanding work.”

Pam commented:

“I just wanted to say thank you for such a prompt delivery.  We are so glad we found your website.”

Dawn emailed to thank us for our speedy delivery, she wrote:

“I would like to thank you for my order.  My son was delighted with the purchase to add to his ever growing dinosaur collection.  Fast delivery; day after ordering, exceptional customer service, amazing quality dinosaur & a nice touch; the fact sheet.  We will definitely purchase again in the future.  Thank you.”

Model collector Ed reviewed the CollectA Torosaurus model that he had recently purchased from us:

“Nice to have a model of a not very well known dinosaur.  Torosaurus was in walking with dinosaurs and they made a figure as well.  A smallish model but it really shows its large head in comparison to the rest of its body.  Nice colouring to.  Good service from Everything Dinosaur.”

The CollectA Torosaurus Model is Praised Along with Everything Dinosaur

CollectA Torosaurus Prehistoric Life dinosaur model.

The CollectA Prehistoric Life Torosaurus dinosaur model.  A favourite model of Ed and lots of other dinosaur model collectors too.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Our thanks to everyone who takes the time and trouble to provide us with feedback.  We really, really appreciate your views and support.

Stay well, keep safe.

14 05, 2020

Wild Past Protoceratops Model on Display

By | May 14th, 2020|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

The Photogenic Wild Past Protoceratops

Our thanks to model collector Elizabeth who sent into Everything Dinosaur a photograph of her recently acquired Wild Past Protoceratops dinosaur model on display.  Enthusiastic collector Elizabeth had combined her Protoceratops andrewsi figure with the base from the Paleo-Creatures Moschops replica.  The result is a very effective composition, highlighting the attention to detail that can be found in both these ranges, Wild Past and Paleo-Creatures.

The Wild Past 1:35 Scale Protoceratops andrewsi Displayed on the Paleo-Creatures Moschops Base

Wild Past Protoceratops model combined with the Paleo-Creatures Moschops display base.

The Wild Past Protoceratops andrewsi combined with the base from the Paleo-Creatures Moschops figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Depicting An Ancient Environment

Elizabeth’s choice of display base for her model is very appropriate.  Protoceratops fossil remains are associated with two geological formations, the Djadochta Formation epitomised by the astonishing beauty and desolation of the Flaming Cliffs site, the type locality for this formation, from which the fossil remains of Protoceratops andrewsi have been recovered.  Secondly, the larger species Protoceratops hellenikorhinus, is known from the Bayan Mandahu Formation which outcrops some 450 km (280 miles) to the south-east of the Flaming Cliffs location.  Both formations are dominated by sandstones and remarkably, the climate in these areas today is roughly comparable to the palaeo-climate of the Late Cretaceous.  Displaying the Wild Past Protoceratops andrewsi on a sandy base is an accurate reconstruction of the habitat of this neoceratopsian.

The biota associated with the Upper Cretaceous deposits of the Djadochta and Bayan Mandahu formations occupied a harsh, arid scrubland with little permanent water.  Biologists refer to such difficult habitats as “stressed environments”, the absence of large vertebrates, such as the fossils of much bigger dinosaurs, supports the hypothesis that Protoceratops and the other Late Cretaceous residents had to endure a harsh climate.

The Paleo-Creatures Moschops Model with the Sandy Display Base

Paleo-Creatures Moschops replica.

The Paleo-Creatures Moschops figure is in 1:20 scale.  Model collector Elizabeth has used the display base for her Wild Past Protoceratops figure.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

An Exciting Start for a New Model Range

The 1:35 scale Protoceratops is the first in a new range of models (Wild Past), Elizabeth emailed to say:

“Here’s another photo for you to use if you wish.  It’s the Wild Past Protoceratops – I think this is such an exciting start to a new line.”

Ironically, both the Wild Past Protoceratops and the Paleo-Creatures Moschops have featured on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel, in a series of short videos we have entitled “turntable Tuesday”.

The Moschops and the Protoceratops andrewsi videos can be found on Everything Dinosaur’s YouTube channel: Everything Dinosaur on YouTube.

The Wild Past Protoceratops Dinosaur Model Showcased by Everything Dinosaur for “Turntable Tuesday”

Wild Past Protoceratops "turntable Tuesday" at Everything Dinosaur

The Wild Past Protoceratops ready for “turntable Tuesday” at Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Commenting upon her photograph, Elizabeth added:

“She [the Protoceratops] is gate-crashing the base of the Paleo-Creatures Moschops.  She seems intent on checking out the sizeable footprint of the animal that walked over the sand previously, perhaps while she was away foraging for her minute hatchlings in the nest!”

In our correspondence with the photographer, we highlighted a research paper published back in 2011, that examined an extremely rare event preserved in the fossil record.  A footprint of a protoceratopsid dinosaur had been found in association with the fossilised remains of a Protoceratops.  As Elizabeth’s photograph depicts a Protoceratops investigating a footprint, it could be argued that is an example of art imitating science.

Link to our blog article about the 2011 protoceratopsid body and trace fossil study: Stopping a Dinosaur Dead in its Tracks.

Our thanks to Elizabeth for sending into Everything Dinosaur such a well-composed photograph.

The Wild Past Protoceratops model can be found here: Wild Past Models.

13 05, 2020

Depicting the Western Interior Seaway

By | May 13th, 2020|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Feeding Time for a Tylosaurus

Our thanks to Mark for emailing Everything Dinosaur an illustration depicting life in the Western Interior Seaway around 75 million years ago.  Lots of Everything Dinosaur customers all over the world are in lockdown and we have been receiving more prehistoric animal drawings and other artworks than we usually do over the last few weeks.  Mark’s illustration depicts one of the apex predators of marine environments in the Late Cretaceous, a Tylosaurus (T. proriger) grabbing a marine turtle.  The turtle is described as a protostegid turtle (Protostegidae), a representative of an extinct family of marine turtles whose taxonomic position within the Order Testudines remains uncertain.  One thing known about this group, which seem to be confined to the Cretaceous, is that some of these protostegids evolved into giants!  For example, the largest turtle known to science Archelon (A. ischyros), has been assigned to the Protostegidae.  At nearly five metres in length with a flipper span of four metres, Archelon inhabited the northern sector of the Western Interior Seaway during the Late Campanian of the Cretaceous.

Tylosaurus Attacks a Protostegid Turtle (Western Interior Seaway – Late Cretaceous)

A Tylosaurus attacks a protostegid turtle.

An illustration of the Western Interior Seaway in the Late Cretaceous.  Surrounded by invertebrates and small fish, the Tylosaurus lunges and grabs the unfortunate turtle, whilst hesperornithiform seabirds go about their business catching squid.

Picture Credit: Mark Massion

In Mark’s email he explained:

“Please find enclosed a drawing of the mosasaur, Tylosaurus proriger, attacking a protostegid turtle.  This incident is taking place in the Late Cretaceous, Western Interior Sea, in what we now identify as the State of Kansas.  Kansas is located in America’s Midwest.”

The artwork shows a dorsal view (top down) of the scene.  The powerful jaws of the mosasaur have grabbed the turtle whilst hesperornithiform seabirds go about their business of catching squid.  Our thanks to Mark for sending us this illustration.

Inspired by the “Oceans of Kansas”

Mark went onto explain the inspiration behind his artwork:

“An illustration in Michael J. Everhart’s Oceans of Kansas, caught my attention and became the impetus for this drawing.  I would like to acknowledge his help and suggestions on how to correctly depict Tylosaurus.  In addition, Russell Hawley’s superb drawings in Oceans of Kansas also need to be recognised.”

Many Artists Have Been Inspired by the Fossil Discoveries from the Marine Sediments of North America

The Western Interior Seaway (Late Cretaceous)

A dramatic scene from the Western Interior Seaway painted by Zdeněk Burian (1905-1981), the Czech artist and illustrator who is credited for playing a pivotal role in the development of prehistoric animal illustration.

Picture Credit: Zdeněk Burian

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur stated:

“We are always delighted to receive drawings, illustrations and other artworks from fans of prehistory and prehistoric animals.  In these uncertain times, with many of our customers in lockdown, doing something creative such as drawing or model making can be very therapeutic and helpful.  We have seen a rise in the number of emails we have received which contain the results of these endeavours, we hope that indulging in these creative activities helps to keep people safe and well.”

Our thanks once again to Mark for sending in his illustration.

Load More Posts