All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
/2019
14 07, 2019

Customising a Pegasus Hobbies Spinosaurus

By | July 14th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Pegasus Hobbies Spinosaurus Made Ready for Warhammer

At Everything Dinosaur, we are always amazed at how talented and creative some of our customers can be.  For example, we were sent some photographs recently from model maker ANTi GRAV who had been busy customising a Pegasus Hobbies Spinosaurus in readiness for participation in Warhammer games.  We are aware that a number of the prehistoric animal models that we supply get modified for use in various wargaming activities, however, we congratulate ANTi GRAV for such a splendid piece of creative model making.

Work in Progress – Pegasus Spinosaurus Getting Customised

A fearsome modified Pegasus Spinosaurus kit.

The modified Pegasus Spinosaurus kit ready for Warhammer.

Picture Credit: ANTi GRAV/Everything Dinosaur

Spinosaurus and Warhammer

For the uninitiated, Warhammer is a table top battle game that involves players taking control of armies comprised of an amazing array of fantasy creatures and figures.  Participants build up their forces of miniature, skilfully crafted models, all with different powers and specialities when it comes to combat.  These figures are then sent to battle it out on behalf of their human masters in what is a highly complex and addictive strategy game.  Generals can move their forces and the fate of the pieces are decided by dice rolls.  The Pegasus Spinosaurus kit has been customised and is being prepared to do battle.

Commenting on his partially completed work, ANTi GRAV stated:

“Here is some work in progress after I’ve primed it, all of the elongated teeth and decoration are custom made.”

Spinosaurus Being Prepared for Battle

Customising a Pegasus Kit Spinosaurus

Modified Pegasus Spinosaurus kit ready for Warhammer.

Picture Credit: ANTi GRAV/Everything Dinosaur

Combat with a Spinosaurus

Many palaeontologists consider Spinosaurus (S. aegyptiacus), to be largest carnivorous dinosaur known to science.  Its exact size remains controversial, a lack of fossils of Spinosaurus aegyptiacus keeps palaeontologists speculating, but Spinosaurus has been estimated at around sixteen metres in length with a body mass in excess of seven tonnes.

A Completed Pegasus Spinosaurus Model Kit

The finished Pegasus Spinosaurus model kit.

The completed Pegasus Spinosaurus model kit.  It depicts Spinosaurus as a dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Martin

The Warhammer series of games has been around for several decades, it is extremely popular.  We are aware that many of the different types of dinosaur model we supply have been customised for use in fantasy battles and dioramas, this is a superb custom-made Spinosaurus, our congratulations to the model maker.  Just like the Dinosauria, Warhammer evolves, it has gone through numerous editions and we think this fearsome, feisty Spinosaurus will fit right in when table top battle commences.

Our thanks to ANTi GRAV for sending in these photographs of the work in progress.  He has promised to send in some more pictures once the model has been completed – we can’t wait!

To view the range of dinosaur models in the Pegasus Hobbies series available from Everything Dinosaur: Pegasus Hobbies Dinosaur Model Kits

13 07, 2019

Microraptor Ate Lizards

By | July 13th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Stomach Contents Reveal New Species of Early Cretaceous Lizard

Scientists writing in the academic journal “Current Biology”, have described a new specimen of Microraptor (M. zhaoianus) from Liaoning Province (north-eastern China), that preserves the remains of a small lizard in its body cavity.  The remains of the lizard, inside what would have been the stomach of this little feathered dinosaur, are largely intact and articulated.  This indicates that the unfortunate lizard was swallowed head first, a feeding behaviour seen in extant carnivorous birds and many small reptiles.  The fossilised bones of the lizard represent a new species, it has been named Indrasaurus wangi.

Microraptor is now known to have fed on a variety of small vertebrates, supporting the interpretation that it was an opportunistic predator.

Microraptor About to Swallow the Unfortunate Indrasaurus

Microraptor feeds on Indrasaurus.

A life reconstruction of a Microraptor consuming the lizard Indrasaurus.  The position of the lizard’s remains inside the body cavity of Microraptor indicate that the lizard was swallowed head first.

Picture Credit: Doyle Trankina

Direct Evidence of Predator-Prey Interactions from the Jehol Biota

Direct evidence of diet and predator-prey relationships are extremely rare in the fossil record.  However, the exceptional preservation conditions associated with the Liaoning deposits have resulted in four examples of stomach contents in Microraptor specimens having been identified.  Microraptor is now known to have been a generalist, eating a variety of small vertebrates including  mammals, birds, fish, and with this new discovery, lizards.

Photograph of the Microraptor Specimen (STM5-32) Preserving the Lizard Indrasaurus wangi in the Body Cavity

Microraptor ate lizards.

The Microraptor fossil specimen (STM5-32) the white box indicates location of lizard remains.

Picture Credit: O’Connor et al (Current Biology)

The white lines in the photograph indicate the body cavity area of the Microraptor and show the location of the lizard fossil remains.  The genus name Indrasaurus comes from Hindu scriptures in which the deity Indra was swallowed by the dragon Vritra during their battle.  The species (trivial name), honours Yuan Wang, for his extensive work on the Jehol Biota and his assistance in helping to promote Chinese fossils through museum events and exhibitions.

An Interpretative Line Drawing Showing the Remains of Indrasaurus (I. wangi) in the Abdominal Cavity

The remains of the lizard inside the Microraptor.

A line drawing showing the remains of the lizard Indrasaurus wangi within the stomach cavity of a Microraptor (M. zhaoianus).

Picture Credit: O’Connor et al (Current Biology)

The interpretative drawing (above), shows the contents within the white box outlined in the specimen (STM5-32).  Analysis of the lizard’s bones indicate that it was probably a sub-adult when it met its doom.  Ironically, the Microraptor itself died shortly after eating the lizard, although this would probably have not been much comfort to Indrasaurus had it known this at the time.

Most scientists believe that Microraptor could fly, it is not known whether this little lizard was caught in a tree or captured on the ground after a terrestrial pursuit.  Perhaps Microraptor swooped down onto its prey from a lofty vantage point, a tactic common to many carnivorous birds today.  The probable troodontid Anchiornis from the older Late Jurassic Yanliao Biota is roughly the same size as Microraptor and fossils of Anchiornis reveal that this dinosaur ate lizards too.  However, comparison of the fossilised remains of prey suggests that dromaeosaurids such as Microraptor ingested prey that were fully digested, whereas, Anchiornis may have regurgitated undigested body parts, bringing up a pellet as demonstrated in many bird species alive today.  This feeding behaviour supports a closer relationship between true birds and Anchiornis and suggests that powered flight did not precipitate the evolution of pellet regurgitation (egestion), in these reptiles.

The scientific paper: “Microraptor with Ingested Lizard Suggests Non-specialized Digestive Function by Microraptor with Ingested Lizard Suggests Non-specialized Digestive Function” by Jingmai O’Connor, Xiaoting Zheng, Liping Dong, Yan Wang, Xiaomei Zhang and Zhonghe Zhou published in the journal “Current Biology”.

12 07, 2019

New Theropod Dinosaur from the Late Triassic of Switzerland

By | July 12th, 2019|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Notatesseraeraptor frickensis – A Mixture of Coelophysid and Dilophosaurid Characteristics

A new European theropod dinosaur from the Late Triassic of Switzerland has been named and described this week.  This is big news, as very little is known about Late Triassic theropods that roamed Europe more than 200 million years ago, only a handful have been described to date, just four species.  The dinosaur has been named Notatesseraeraptor frickensis (No-tah-tess-er-ray-rap-tor frick-ensis), the genus name derives from the Latin “nota” meaning feature and “tesserae”, a Latin term to describe tiles used to create a mosaic, a reference to the mixture of anatomical features (dilophosaurid and coelophysoid) identified in the fossil bones. The trivial name honours the Swiss town of Frick, where the fossils were found.

The Body Plan, Known Fossil Material and a Skeletal Reconstruction of N. frickensis

Skeletal anatomy of Notatesseraeraptor frickensis

The silhouette shows the body plan of Notatesseraeraptor, known fossil material and pictures of the blocks that make up the holotype specimen.

Picture Credit: Nature: Ecology and Evolution

Lizard-eating Dinosaur

The partially articulated specimen was collected in 2006 from the famous Gruhalde clay pit in the town of Frick (Aargau Canton, northern Switzerland).  This clay pit has yielded large numbers of Plateosaurus fossils, although Notatesseraeraptor layer is located above the classic Plateosaurus bone beds.  The strata are from the middle part of the Gruhalde Member of the Klettgau Formation and represents Late Triassic (end-Norian) sediments.  The fossils associated with N. frickensis include a nearly complete skull, articulated forelimbs, vertebrae, hip bones and ribs.  The body cavity revealed the remains of a Clevosaurus, a lizard-like rhynchocephalian, distantly related to the extant Tuatara of New Zealand.  It is likely that the Clevosaurus remains represent this dinosaur’s last meal.

The Skull of Notatesseraeraptor frickensis

Notatesseraeraptor frickensis cranial material.

A view of the skull and upper jaw (Notatesseraeraptor frickensis).  Around 90% of the cranial fossil material was recovered.

A Carnivorous Dinosaur Reported from Switzerland

Around 90% of the skull material was excavated, giving Notatesseraeraptor one of the most complete carnivorous dinosaur skulls known from before the Late Jurassic.   Although, our knowledge of early theropod dinosaurs has improved greatly since the turn of the century, thanks mainly to fossil discoveries from North and South America, very little is known about the evolution and radiation of Late Triassic/Early Jurassic European theropods, their fossil record is notably sparse.  This new theropod species is the first meat-eating dinosaur to be described from Switzerland.

Notatesseraeraptor displays a mix of characteristics typically seen either in coelophysids or in dilophosaurids.  A phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a member of the Neotheropoda clade with affinities to Dilophosaurus of the Early Jurassic and that Notatesseraeraptor is a basal member of that line of theropods that led to the Averostra (a group, of carnivorous dinosaurs that includes the Ceratosaurs).

The Late Triassic/Early Jurassic European Theropods

The nearly complete skull will help palaeontologists to better understand the evolutionary relationships between different types of Late Triassic/Early Jurassic theropod dinosaur.  The fossil specimen suggests a sub-adult with a length of between 2.6 to 3 metres, but this is speculation based on comparative analysis with dinosaurs such as Coelophysis and Tawa as the length of the tail of Notatesseraeraptor is not known.

A Life Reconstruction of a Typical Coelophysid Dinosaur (Coelophysis bauri)

Coelophysis model.

A life reconstruction of Coelophysis bauri.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The three previously described species of Late Triassic European theropod are:

  • Liliensternus liliensterni – named in 1934 (von Huene) from the Middle and Late Norian of Germany
  • Procompsognathus triassicus – named in 1913 (Fraas) also from the Middle to Late Norian of Germany
  • Lophostropheus airelensis named in 1993 known from slightly younger rocks (Late Rhetian to Hettangian – Late Triassic to possibly Early Jurassic)

With the exception of a few scraps of bone associated with Liliensternus skull material and the recently described  Dracoraptor hanigani from south-Wales, no other skull material has been found relating to a neotheropod dinosaur from the Late Triassic/Early Jurassic  in the whole of Europe.

11 07, 2019

Terrestrial Bird-like Dinosaur Oldest Known from North America

By | July 11th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Hesperornithoides miessleri – Helping to Map Out the Bird Family Tree

A joint team of British and American palaeontologists have announced the discovery of a new species of dinosaur that roamed the Late Jurassic of Wyoming.  The specimen consisting of both cranial and postcranial material lived around 150 million years ago and it has been tentatively placed within the troodontid branch of the Paraves part of the Theropoda.  It could help scientists to better understand the evolutionary relationships between feathered dinosaurs and true birds and it raises intriguing questions as to when powered flight evolved within the Dinosauria.

The little dinosaur, estimated to have measured less than a metre in length (single known specimen is either an adult or a sub-adult), has been named Hesperornithoides miessleri.

A Life Reconstruction of the Newly Described Dinosaur H. miessleri

Hesperornithoides miessleri - life reconstruction.

A life reconstruction of Hesperornithoides miessleri.

Picture Credit: Gabriel Ugueto

An Inhabitant of Wetlands

Writing in the academic journal PeerJ, the authors which include scientists from the University of Manchester, report the taphonomy of the fossil material suggests that this dinosaur was an inhabitant of wetland environments for at least a portion of its life history.  The fossil material was actually discovered back in 2001, whilst excavation work was being carried out on the fossil material associated with Supersaurus.  The fossil comes from Converse County (Wyoming), from strata making up the middle portion of the famous Morrison Formation.  The fossil-bearing strata from the “Jimbo Quarry” has been variously dated to the Oxfordian and Tithonian ages of the Jurassic.

Full Skeleton of Hesperornithoides miessleri

Known fossil material associated with Hesperornithoides miessleri.

Hesperornithoides fossil material “left” (A) and “right” (B) sides of the blocks after final preparation (B).  Scale bar = one cm.

Picture Credit: Levi Shinkle

A Resident of the Famous Morrison Formation

The Morrison Formation is famous for its vertebrate fossils, including many examples of dinosaurs, such as Allosaurus, Ceratosaurus, Diplodocus, Brontosaurus and Camarasaurus.  The carnivorous Hesperornithoides is the smallest dinosaur described to date from Wyoming.

Palaeontologist Bill Wahl  (Wyoming Dinosaur Centre), a co-author of the scientific paper, recalled how excited the field team were when they uncovered the block containing the partially articulated bones.

He stated:

“We were removing a ledge of overburden rock and found, unfortunately with a shovel, some tiny, delicate bones poking out.  We immediately stopped, collected as much of the bones as possible and spent the next few days frantically searching for more.  Only after some of the bones were cleaned did we realise that we had found something spectacular.”

In 2005, the fossil specimen was donated to the Big Horn Basin Foundation, a research and education-based not-for-profit organisation that was merged with the Wyoming Dinosaur Centre back in 2016.  This is how Hesperornithoides miessleri came into the Wyoming Dinosaur Centre’s fossil collection.  The fossil, now known as WYDICE-DML-001, was nicknamed “Lori”  and was examined by Dean Lomax (University of Manchester) and co-author of the study back in 2008, a successful crowdfunding campaign permitted extensive research to be undertaken.

Dean commented:

“I remember the first time I laid my eyes on this little dinosaur.  Even back then, I knew it was a significant discovery.  But, it wasn’t until 2015 when our dino team formed and we began to study ‘Lori’ in much more detail than ever before.”

Reconstructed Quarry Map of “Lori” (Hesperornithoides miessleri)

A quarry map of the fossil material asociated with Hesperornithoides.

Association of skeletal elements assembled from 3-D scans of specimen blocks prior to final mechanical preparation.

Picture Credit: PeerJ

Found on Private Land

The specimen was found on private land owned by the Miessler family.  The trivial name honours their help, support and assistance in bringing this little theropod to the attention of the scientific community.  The genus name is a combination of “Hesper”, referring to its discovery in the American West and “ornis” a nod to its very bird-like anatomy.

A Reconstruction of the Skeleton of Hesperornithoides miessleri

Hesperornithoides miessleri skeleton reconstruction.

Skeletal Reconstruction Hesperornithoides miessleri (scale bar = 25 cm).

Picture Credit: Scott Hartmann

A Key Conclusion of the Study

A key conclusion of the scientific paper relates to the origin of powered flight within the Dinosauria.  Hesperornithoides was very probably entirely terrestrial.  It could not fly, but it has a very bird-like body, suggesting that many features associated with an avian anatomy evolved in dinosaurs that lived out their lives on the ground.  It is the oldest dinosaur of this type, known from more than just teeth fossils from North America.  The terrestrial and flightless lifestyle is consistent with the base of Paraves, and with the base of paravian subclades, suggesting that avian flight evolved within the Avialae, most likely in the Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous.

Lead author of the paper and PhD student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Scott Hartman stated:

“We wanted to expand the dataset used to test dinosaur-bird relationships, so we added hundreds of new species and tens of thousands of new characters.  We found that Lori is a primitive member of a group of dinosaurs that includes Troodon, but perhaps more importantly we discovered that the smaller details of the family tree of bird-like dinosaurs isn’t quite as resolved as some researchers would claim.”

Scott Hartman continued:

“For example, it only takes a few changes in the dataset for Hesperornithoides to be found as a closer relative of Velociraptor than of Troodon.  One robust finding we did come up with is that even as the interrelationships changed, the primitive members of all these groups were non-flying ground dwelling dinosaurs.  That means that some small relatives of Velociraptor such as Microraptor that looks like it could have glided evolved this separately from the modern bird family.”

Hesperornithoides Cranial Material

Fossil material and accompanying line drawings Hesperornithoides.

Hesperornithoides cranial material and interpretative line drawings.

Picture Credit: Levi Shinkle

The scientific paper: “A new paravian dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of North America supports a late acquisition of avian flight” by Hartman, S., Mortimer, M., Wahl, W. R., Lomax, D. R., Lippincott, J. and Lovelace, D. M and published in PeerJ.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the help of a media release from the University of Manchester in the compilation of this article.

9 07, 2019

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Parasaurolophus

By | July 9th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Parasaurolophus

Safari Ltd have published a series of images depicting some of the latest introductions in the Wild Safari Prehistoric World model range.  Today, we feature the Parasaurolophus, a dinosaur that has been depicted several times over the history of Safari Ltd models.  The latest incarnation of Parasaurolophus, was introduced in 2017, one of thirteen prehistoric animal models launched by the U.S.-based company that year.

The Wild Safari Prehistoric World Parasaurolophus Dinosaur Model

Wild Safari Prehistoric World Parasaurolophus dinosaur model.

A pair of Parasaurolophus cooling off in the Late Cretaceous of North America.

Picture Credit: Safari Ltd/Everything Dinosaur

Parasaurolophus walkeri

Known from numerous very nearly complete and partial skeletons, Parasaurolophus was geographically widely distributed (Alberta to New Mexico – possibly), it is known from the Late Cretaceous (Campanian faunal stage), although there are some unverified reports that this dinosaur may have persisted into the Maastrichtian faunal stage of the Cretaceous.  It is easily recognisable for its long, backward pointing head crest.   Despite the amount of fossil material scientists have to study, the exact size of this herbivorous dinosaur remains open to speculation, with some estimates putting this dinosaur’s maximum length at more than ten metres.  Measurements of the femur (thigh bone), indicate that this duck-billed dinosaur may have weighed more than three tonnes.  Several species have been assigned to the Parasaurolophus genus, perhaps the best known of which is P. walkeri, mainly because this Parasaurolophus species had the more spectacular crest compared to other species in this genus.

Parasaurolophus walkeri – Scale Drawing

Scale drawing Parasaurolophus walkeri.

A crested, duck-billed dinosaur.  A scale drawing of the Late Cretaceous lamebeosaurine dinosaur Parasaurolophus walkeri.  Note the thick-set upper legs and the wide tail.  Recent studies indicate that this facultative biped was very robust.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

8 07, 2019

Preparing for PNSO Models

By | July 8th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Drawings, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Preparing for PNSO Models

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have been kept very busy preparing for the arrival of the latest delivery of PNSO dinosaur and prehistoric animals at the company’s warehouse.  The shipment will contain a number of new PNSO models including Lucas the Giganotosaurus, Lucio the Amargasaurus and the battling pair of Dayong the Yangchuanosaurus and Xiaobei the Chungkingosaurus.  In preparation for the arrival of a Yangchuanosaurus replica, we have commissioned a scale drawing as well as researching and writing a fact sheet about this theropod from the Middle Jurassic of south-western China.

A Scale Drawing of the Middle Jurassic Chinese Theropod – Yangchuanosaurus (Y. shangyouensis)

Scale drawing of Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis

A scale drawing of Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

PNSO Prehistoric Animal Models and Replicas

PNSO have created a range of different prehistoric animal models and figures.  They have a small prehistoric animal model range, (toys that accompany your growth), which currently has forty-eight figures within it and then there are the larger PNSO models (some of them are huge).  These models are promoted as the “Age of Dinosaurs” model range but not all of them are dinosaurs.  For instance, PNSO recently introduced a large model of the ichthyosaur Ophthalmosaurus, joining substantial models of Basilosaurus and the ferocious Megalodon (Carcharocles megalodon).

Naturally, Everything Dinosaur has produced fact sheets for all these replicas and all these fact sheets include a scale drawing.

An Illustration of the Early Jurassic Sauropod Mamenchisaurus

An illustration of the long-necked dinosaur (sauropod) Mamenchisaurus

Mamenchisaurus drawing.  An illustration commissioned as Everything Dinosaur prepares a fact sheet on this dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

PNSO Dayong the Yangchuanosaurus and Xiaobei the Chungkingosaurus

The latest shipment of PNSO models will include the Dayong the Yangchuanosaurus and Xiaobei the Chungkingosaurus diorama.  Construction projects in Sichuan Province have unearthed a variety of different types of dinosaur.  These fossil finds rival the amazing Morrison Formation of the western United States, although the Chinese rocks are older.  Numerous sauropods and stegosaurs have been described and two distinct biotas identified.

The Dayong the Yangchuanosaurus and Xiaobei the Chungkingosaurus

PNSO Yangchuanosaurus and Chungkingosaurus dinosaur diorama.

PNSO dinosaur diorama “Dayong” the Yangchuanosaurus battles “Xiaobei” the Chungkingosaurus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“We are expecting a large shipment of PNSO models.  It is going to be a very busy couple of weeks for our warehouse team, what with all these new PNSO figures coming into stock along with deliveries from Papo, Mojo Fun, CollectA and Safari Ltd.  We planned to provide at least fifty new models this year, we are well on target to achieve this and in fact, with all these new additions, this target is going to be exceeded.  These are exciting times for dinosaur fans and model collectors.”

To view the PNSO Age of Dinosaurs range available from Everything Dinosaur: PNSO Age of Dinosaurs

6 07, 2019

Rebor Dilophosaurus Figures “Green Day” and “Oasis” are in Stock

By | July 6th, 2019|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor Dilophosaurus Figures “Green Day” and “Oasis” are in Stock

The two new Rebor Dilophosaurus figures “Green Day” and ” Oasis” are in stock at Everything Dinosaur.  These are the latest additions to the impressive Rebor range of scale model prehistoric animal replicas and Everything Dinosaur team members have been busy contacting dinosaur model fans on the company’s priority reserve list to ensure customers are aware of the arrival of these two exciting dinosaur figures.

In Stock at Everything Dinosaur – Rebor Dilophosaurus Models “Green Day” and “Oasis”

Rebor Dilophosaurus models "Green Day" and "Oasis"

The Rebor Dilophosaurus replicas “Green Day” and “Oasis”.  Spectacular Rebor prehistoric animal figures in stock at Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Rebor Dilophosaurus Dinosaur Models

The Rebor models can be purchased separately, or as a pair from Everything Dinosaur.  Each model has an articulated lower jaw, a flexible, bendy tail and articulated forelimbs.  Subtle variations in the paint scheme of each model highlight the perceived differences between the male figure “Green Day” and the female “Oasis”.  In an earlier blog article, Everything Dinosaur posted up information on how collectors can customise their Dilophosaurus figures by adding a colourful ruff, an adornment inspired by a very famous movie.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s article featuring the Dilophosaurus dinosaur ruff: Dinosaur Ruffs

The Rebor Dilophosaurus Dinosaur Model “Oasis”

Rebor Dilophosaurus "Green Day".

The Rebor Dilophosaurus model “Oasis”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Beautiful Display Pieces

These beautiful display pieces are provided with their own bases and the models can be put together to make a two dinosaur replica diorama.  The male Dilophosaurus model “Green Day” measures over 23 centimetres in length and the female figure “Oasis” is comparable in size.  They are certainly stunning prehistoric animal models and their bases are very detailed too.

The Base for the Female Dilophosaurus Features an Early Jurassic Tree Stump

Rebor Dilophosaurus "Oasis" - display base.

The base for the Rebor Dilophosaurus figure “Oasis”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

It is the different sized bases that explains the difference in the packaging sizes.  The Rebor Dilophosaurus “Oasis” model is supplied in a larger box.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“These two new Dilophosaurus models are just the latest in a number of theropod models that have been added to the range.  The Rebor range includes Tyrannosaurs, Carnotaurus, Compsognathus, Ceratosaurus, Acrocanthosaurus and of course, lots of dromaeosaurids, colloquially known as the “Raptors”.  We are delighted to be able to add these Dilophosaurus models to our inventory.”

To view the Rebor Dilophosaurus dinosaur models and the other figures in the Rebor range available from Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals

5 07, 2019

Repeated Evolution of Herbivorous Crocodyliforms

By | July 5th, 2019|Animal News Stories, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Fossil Teeth Suggests Lots of Different Types of Mesozoic Crocodiles

Researchers from the University of Utah have studied the teeth of extinct crocodyliforms and concluded that crocodiles occupied a large range of different ecological niches during the Age of Dinosaurs.  Furthermore, these geographically widespread and speciose reptiles adapted to a variety of diets and that herbivorous crocodyliforms evolved at least three times independently.  This suggests that plant-eating was a beneficial dietary strategy and not a unique occurrence.  Many of these crocodyliforms lived alongside omnivorous or herbivorous synapsids, illustrating an ecological partition that is not found today.

The Diets of Extinct Crocodyliforms were Diverse with Many Examples of Herbivory Identified

Extinct crocodyliforms had different shaped teeth.

Life reconstructions of extinct crocodyliforms. Differences in tooth shape are related to differences in diets.

Picture Credit: Jorge Gonzalez

Writing in the academic paper “Current Biology”, the researchers Keegan Melstrom and Randall Irmis at the Natural History Museum of Utah at the University of Utah, discovered that multiple ancient groups of crocodyliforms (the group including living and extinct relatives of crocodiles and alligators), were not all carnivorous.  Research has been conducted before on the various potential dietary niches of ancient crocodiles, but this new study proposes that vegetarianism arose at least three times within this group.

Commenting on the significance of this new study, doctoral student Keegan Melstrom stated:

“The most interesting thing we discovered was how frequently it seems extinct crocodyliforms ate plants.  Our study indicates that complexly shaped teeth, which we infer to indicate herbivory, appear in the extinct relatives of crocodiles at least three times and maybe as many as six.”

Teeth Variation within Crocodyliforms (Extinct and Extant)

Heterodonty in Crocodyliforms.

False colour 3-D images showing the range in shape of crocodyliform teeth.  Carnivores (left), such as the living Caiman, have simple teeth, whereas herbivores (right) have much more complex teeth.

Picture Credit: Keegan Melstrom (The Natural History Museum of Utah)

The Tip of the Crocodyliform Iceberg

The twenty plus species of crocodylians alive today possess a similar general body shape and ecology.  They are mainly generalist hypercarnivores and semi-aquatic, confined to lower latitudes.  Although, consuming fruit and vegetable matter has been observed in several extant species.  In 2013, Everything Dinosaur wrote an article about fruit consumption (frugivory), in crocodiles.

To read the article: New Study Suggests a Number of Different Types of Crocodylian Consume Fruit.

The crocodiles alive today, all have similar, simple conical teeth but the fossil record shows that extinct crocodyliforms were much more diverse.  Today’s crocodiles are just the remnants from a once much richer and more specious group of reptiles, consider the living crocodylians as the “tip of the crocodyliform iceberg”.

Living Crocodiles are Generalist Ambush Predators (Hypercarnivores)

Saltwater crocodile (Estuarine crocodile).

A Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), the largest living reptile which is an apex predator (hypercarnivore).

The researchers identified different teeth morphologies (heterodonty) and this suggests that in the past crocodile-like creatures had a variety of diets.

Melstrom added:

“Carnivores possess simple teeth whereas herbivores have much more complex teeth.  Omnivores, organisms that eat both plant and animal material, fall somewhere in between.  Part of my earlier research showed that this pattern holds in living reptiles that have teeth, such as crocodylians and lizards.  So, these results told us that the basic pattern between diet and teeth is found in both mammals and reptiles, despite very different tooth shapes, and is applicable to extinct reptiles.”

Keegan Melstrom (The Natural History Museum of Utah) with Some of the Casts Used in the Study

Examing three-dimensional prints of fossil jaws.

Keegan Melstrom, the study’s lead author, with the fossil jaw of Brachychampsa and 3-D prints of other extinct crocodyliforms (blue).

Picture Credit: The Natural History Museum of Utah

Comparing Tooth Complexity – Extinct versus Extant

To deduce what long dead crocodyliforms most likely consumed, Melstrom with the assistance of his graduate advisor ( Randall B. Irmis), compared the tooth complexity of extinct crocodyliforms to those of living animals using a research methodology originally designed to study mammalian heterodonty.  In total, 146 teeth from 16 different species of extinct crocodyliforms were incorporated into the study.

Using a combination of quantitative dental measurements and an assessment morphological features, the scientists reconstructed the diets of those extinct animals.  The results indicate that these animals had a wider range of dental complexities and presumed dietary ecologies than had been appreciated previously.  Quantitative analyses also revealed that some species with complex dentition were likely to be herbivorous.

The researchers conclude that plant-eating crocodyliforms appeared early in the group, perhaps shortly after the end-Triassic mass extinction event and herbivory persisted until the end of the Age of Dinosaurs.  The analysis suggests that herbivory arose independently a minimum of three times, and possibly six times, in Mesozoic crocodyliforms.

Melstrom stated:

“Our work demonstrates that extinct crocodyliforms had an incredibly varied diet.  Some were similar to living crocodylians and were primarily carnivorous, others were omnivores and still others likely specialised in eating plants.  The herbivores lived on different continents at different times, some alongside mammals and mammal relatives, and others did not.  This suggests that herbivorous crocodyliforms were successful in a variety of environments!”

As many of these herbivorous crocodyliforms co-existed with plant-eating synapsids including Mammaliaformes, some of which were the ancestors of today’s mammals, this was an ecological partition that is no longer found on our planet.

The scientific paper: “Repeated Evolution of Herbivorous Crocodyliforms during the Age of Dinosaurs” by Keegan M. Melstrom and Randall B. Irmis published in Current Biology.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the assistance of a press release from the University of Utah in the compilation of this article.

4 07, 2019

Celebrating New Schleich and CollectA Models

By | July 4th, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Newsletter Features New Schleich and CollectA Prehistoric Animals

New prehistoric animal models and figures are coming into stock at Everything Dinosaur at an express pace.  Our latest newsletter features another seven new figures, four from Schleich and three from CollectA in what will be a stunning summer of new model additions to our ranges.  It is going to be a very busy time for our team members but we have made contingency plans to ensure that orders get despatched super quick!

The Early July CollectA Newsletter Features New CollectA and Schleich Prehistoric Animal Figures

A Schleich Elasmotherium and a Schleich juvenile Giganotosaurus

The early July Everything Dinosaur newsletter features new Schleich and CollectA prehistoric animal models.  The new for 2019 CollectA Deluxe Elasmotherium and the Schleich juvenile Giganotosaurus are in stock.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

At the end of last year, Everything Dinosaur team members predicted that 2019 would see a further fifty prehistoric animal models added to the company’s already impressive range.  The new CollectA models are the “Prehistoric Life” Fukuiraptor, the CollectA Deluxe Elasmotherium and the 1:40 scale Deluxe Baryonyx.  The four new Schleich figures comprise, a Plesiosaurus and three dinosaurs, namely Dracorex, Diabloceratops and a juvenile Giganotosaurus.

Exciting New Prehistoric Animal Models from CollectA and Schleich

Schleich and CollectA models feature in the newsletter.

The early July Everything Dinosaur newsletter features new CollectA and Schleich prehistoric animal models.  The models are the Schleich Diabloceratops (top left), the CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Baryonyx (top right), the Schleich Plesiosaurus (bottom left) and the CollectA Fukuiraptor (bottom right).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of Schleich prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: Schleich Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models

All Figures Supplied with a Fact Sheet

Everything Dinosaur has prepared fact sheets for all seven of these new models.  Customers purchasing these figures from Everything Dinosaur will be sent a fact sheet with their purchase.  The fact sheet includes a scale drawing of the prehistoric animal along with fascinating facts and snippets of information.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“For virtually every prehistoric animal figure we sell, we supply a fact sheet about that animal.  We take care to research these long extinct creatures and then we produce an A4-sized fact sheet which is then sent out with model purchases.  We are currently working on a further three new fact sheets so that we can provide these sheets when other new models come into stock.”

The Schleich Dracorex Dinosaur Model and Please “Like” our Facebook Page

Schleich Dracorex and please "like" us on Facebook.

The Schleich Dracorex (left) and a request for newsletter subscribers to please “like” us on Facebook.

 

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Schleich Dracorex

The North American Dracorex (D. hogwartsia) is the last of the new models to be featured.  Measuring over nineteen centimetres in length this is a beautifully detailed model of a pachycephalosaur.  Our newsletter subscribers have also been asked to “like” Everything Dinosaur’s Facebook page.  Our Facebook page is followed by a large number of dinosaur fans and our posts reach thousands of enthusiasts every week.  We currently have a total of over 6,400 genuine page likes which makes us extremely proud.  We hope to get to 6,500 Facebook page likes by the end of this month.

To view the CollectA Baryonyx and the Deluxe Elasmotherium model: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life Models

For the CollectA Fukuiraptor figure, a stunning model of a dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Japan: CollectA Prehistoric Life

3 07, 2019

CollectA Deluxe Baryonyx – Articulated Jaw

By | July 3rd, 2019|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Product Reviews|0 Comments

The CollectA Deluxe Baryonyx – Articulated Jaw

We have been asked by dinosaur fans and model collectors to post up more pictures and information about some of the new for 2019 prehistoric animal models that have come into stock at Everything Dinosaur.  Our team members are happy to acquiesce and we have recently posted up onto our Facebook, Instagram and Pinterest pages pictures of some of the new Schleich and CollectA figures.  One of the questions we have been asked is whether or not the new CollectA Deluxe Baryonyx dinosaur model (1:40 scale), has an articulated jaw.  Yes, it does, we even shot a short video to demonstrate this.

Demonstrating the Articulated Lower Jaw (CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Baryonyx Dinosaur Model

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Short Baryonyx Video

In this short, YouTube video (it lasts around 20 seconds), we show the CollectA Baryonyx and we demonstrate the lower jaw.  This is a carefully crafted dinosaur figure and the jaw reflects the dentition associated with baryonychid dinosaurs and the upper jaw has that distinctive “notch” that is associated with the holotype fossil material retrieved from a Surrey clay pit (Weald Clay Formation), after the initial fossil discovery in 1983.

A Close View of the Head and Jaw of the CollectA Baryonyx Dinosaur Model

The CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Baryonyx dinosaur model.

CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Baryonyx dinosaur model.  A close-up view of that carefully sculpted skull and the articulated lower jaw.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the CollectA Deluxe Baryonyx dinosaur model and the rest of the figures in the CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life range: The CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life Range.

Details on the Base

In order to best represent the anatomical proportions of this dinosaur, the design team at CollectA opted to place this 2019 version of Baryonyx on a base.  However, the base is far from just a support for the model, it has been beautifully sculpted and shows lots of detail.  For example, there are some plant fronds to be found on the base and the effect is to indicate that the Baryonyx is walking along a muddy, slippery riverbank, an environment in which this semi-aquatic dinosaur would have been very much at home.

A Close-up View of the Base of the CollectA Baryonyx Dinosaur Model

A close-up view of the base of the new for 2019 CollectA Baryonyx model.

Close-up view of the base of the new for 2019 CollectA Baryonyx model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Webbed Feet – Baryonyx

Although it is difficult to spot on the actual model, the design team at CollectA were keen to give the impression of webbed feet on this dinosaur.  Palaeontologists have speculated that this theropod may have had webbing between its toes, an adaptation to help it to move around in its aquatic environment.

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