All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
8 05, 2016

Happy 90th Birthday Sir David Attenborough

By | May 8th, 2016|Dinosaur Fans, Famous Figures, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Happy 90th Birthday Sir David Attenborough

On this day in 1926, the English naturalist and broadcaster David Attenborough was born.  Today, we celebrate Sir David’s (he was knighted in 1985), ninetieth birthday.  His contribution to our understanding of the natural world has been immense.  He can now add the title of nonagenarian to his array of awards and accolades.  On behalf of everyone at Everything Dinosaur we would like to wish Sir David “many happy returns”.

Happy Birthday Sir David Attenborough

Happy 'Birthday Sir David Attenborough.

Happy ‘Birthday Sir David Attenborough.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur with images from the BBC

Today, a lot of media outlets will be paying tribute to the body of work with which Sir David Attenborough has been associated.  He has been a part of so many people’s lives and documented our rapidly changing world.  Through his eyes and his narration we have seen and heard about this remarkable ecosystem that we are very much a part of, but sadly, most of us have lost touch with.

In the office over this weekend we have been sharing our thoughts about some of the amazing programmes, many of which were ground-breaking documentaries that this stalwart of British broadcasting has worked on over a BBC and programme making career that extends to more than six decades.  Some of us remember watching a programme called “Fabulous Animals” which was broadcast in the mid 1970’s and (if we recall correctly), was shown during the summer holidays.  In this series, David (not to be knighted for another ten years or so), explored stories relating to mythical creatures such as mermaids, griffins and the Loch Ness monster.  These programmes have not been seen by any of us for half a lifetime, but we can recall the enthusiastic presenter explaining and enthralling us with tales of these astonishing creatures.

Life on Earth (1979)

The documentary series “Life on Earth” was to follow, a joint venture between the BBC and Warner Bros/Reiner Moritz Productions, a thirteen-part documentary series that charted the story of life and evolution.  This seminal and highly influential television series was to form the basis of a body of work that, in our opinion has not been surpassed.

A Fascination for Fossils

As a young boy growing up in the county of Leicester, Sir David was passionate about fossil collecting, an enthusiasm he still has, although sadly with dodgy knees and a pacemaker, his days of clambering over rocks in search of petrified evidence of ancient life might be behind him.  Nonetheless, as a presenter and narrator he has still played a pivotal role in enthusing the next generation of budding palaeontologists and fossil collectors.

Sir David Discusses Trilobites with Professor Richard Fortey

Sir David Attenborough discussing Trilobites with Professor Richard Fortey.

Sir David Attenborough discussing Trilobites with Professor Richard Fortey.

Picture Credit: BBC

Over the next few days the BBC will be showing a number of programmes and documentaries that celebrate the work of this much admired naturalist and broadcaster and last week it was announced that Sir David’s first foray into television “Zoo Quest” was to be broadcast in colour for the first time.


Sir David has been honoured on numerous occasions and has a number of living and extinct species named after him as well as a polar research vessel.  For example, back in 2008, when Sir David was a sprightly eighty-two year old, Everything Dinosaur reported on the discovery of a placoderm fossil in Australia that showed evidence of viviparity (live birth).  The animal was named Materpiscis attenboroughiA Fishy Tale Indeed and fans of marine reptiles will know that the Pliosaur Attenborosaurus conybeari honours Sir David and the 19th Century English geologist William Conybeare.

The CollectA Attenborosaurus Model

Named in honour of Sir David Atttenborough.

Named in honour of Sir David Attenborough.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To purchase a model of Attenborosaurus (Attenborough’s lizard): CollectA Attenborosaurus model

From all of us at Everything Dinosaur, happy birthday Sir David.

7 05, 2016

Atopodentatus Unzipped

By | May 7th, 2016|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Atopodentatus unicus Has a Makeover

In April 2014, Everything Dinosaur reported on the discovery of a bizarre Triassic marine reptile from south-western China called Atopodentatus unicus.  The skull and jaws were described as being highly unusual, with nothing like them having been found in the fossil record of marine vertebrates before.  The upper jaw was thought to resemble a slit with small teeth forming a fine sieve or comb-like structure.  This bizarre creature was assumed to be a specialist carnivore and it was held up as an example of how the marine ecosystems had bounced back and produced strange new animals in the shadow of the End Permian extinction event.

It turns out that Atopodentatus may not have been so bizarre after all, however, its existence does help to support the theory that marine food chains did indeed recover remarkably quickly following the mass extinction that marked the end of the Palaeozoic.  In a paper published in “Science Advances”, the skull and jaws of this three-metre-long reptile have been re-examined.  Atopodentatus was certainly a specialist, but most likely a herbivore with a jaw shaped like a hammerhead used to graze on seaweeds and algae.  As such, it is the earliest example of herbivory in marine reptiles, pre-dating the previously earliest known marine animals to have eaten plants by some eight million years.

A New Interpretation of Atopodentatus unicus – A Marine Reptile Herbivore

An illustration of Atopodentatus unicus.

An illustration of Atopodentatus unicus.

Picture Credit: Y. Chen, Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology (IVPP).

“Unzipping” a Marine Reptile

More fossils unearthed in China’s Yunnan Province by scientists from the IVPP allowed researchers to see further examples of the preserved skull and jaws, although flattened and crushed like other fossil material, analysis of the jaw and skull morphology using modelling clay led the scientists to conclude that Atopodentatus did not have “zipper jaws”, but rather a hammerhead structure, which is still a remarkable adaptation.

Close up Images of Fully Prepared Atopodentatus Skull Material

A = Dorsal view of Atopodentatus skull, whilst B = Ventral view of Atopodentatus skull.

A = Dorsal view of Atopodentatus skull, whilst B = Ventral view of Atopodentatus skull.

Picture Credit: W. Gao, Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology (IVPP)

The photograph shows two views of flattened A. unicus skull material (A) a dorsal view, from the top down and (B) a ventral view, viewed from the bottom.  The scientists, which included Olivier Rieppel (The Field Museum, Chicago) and Nicholas Fraser (National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh) as well as Li Chun (IVPP) and Cheng Long (Wuhan Centre of China Geological Survey), have deduced that this marine reptile rasped off algae and plants from rocks and then sucked in the suspended plant remains filtering out the food from the seawater using its needle-like teeth.

Commenting on the research, Dr. Rieppel stated:

“It’s a very strange animal!  It’s got a hammerhead, which is unique, it’s the first time we’ve seen a reptile like this.  To figure out how the jaw fitted together and how the animal actually fed, we bought children’s clay, kind of like Play-Doh and rebuilt it with toothpicks to represent the teeth.  We looked at how the upper and lower jaw locked together and that’s how we proceeded to describe it.”

Modelling Clay Helped Map the Morphology of this Middle Triassic Marine Herbivore

Assessing the dentition and jaw morphology of Atopodentatus using modelling clay.

Assessing the dentition and jaw morphology of Atopodentatus using modelling clay.

Picture Credit: Dr. Rieppel (Field Museum)

Strange Jaws and Teeth

The hammerhead shaped jaws, also described by Everything Dinosaur team members as an “upside down T shape” had peg-like teeth along their edges.  Further back into the mouth, Atopodentatus had bunches of needle-like teeth.

How Did Atopodentatus Feed on Plant Material?

An illustration Atopodentatus feeding underwater.

An illustration Atopodentatus feeding underwater.

Picture Credit: Y. Chen (IVPP)

The scientists describe the feeding mechanism of Atopodentatus thus:

The spatulate, peg-like teeth lining the hammerhead were probably used to scrape off plant material such as seaweed and algae from submerged rocks.  This would result in large amounts of plant matter being suspended in the water.  This was then sucked into the mouth and filtered by the long, thin and closely packed needle-shaped teeth located more posteriorly in the mouth.  Not only did the jaws of Atopodentatus resemble a vacuum cleaner attachment, it sucked like a vacuum cleaner too.

Dr Rieppel observed:

“The jaw structure is clearly that of an herbivore.  It has similarities to other marine animals that ate plants with a filter-feeding system, but Atopodentatus is older than them by about eight million years.”

A Model of the Redefined Skull of Atopodentatus with Fossil Material for Comparison

A model of Atopodentatus shown against the flattened skull fossil.

A model of Atopodentatus shown against the flattened skull fossil.

Picture Credit: Nicholas Fraser (National Museums Scotland)

A Recovering Ecosystem

The evolution of such a bizarre-looking marine reptile, not long after the End Permian extinction event, helps to support the hypothesis that vertebrates bounced back relatively quickly following the mass extinction of much of the back-boned fauna of the Late Permian.  However, instead of being placed in food webs representing the eastern Tethys Ocean of the Middle Triassic as carnivore (feeding on zooplankton and crustaceans), the position of Atopodentatus will have to be modified to reflect its diet.

To read the original story describing Atopodentatus: Bizarre New Triassic Marine Reptile Described

For an article that looks at the food web of the eastern Tethys Ocean during the Triassic: Chinese Sea Dragon Hints at Triassic Marine Fauna Recovery

6 05, 2016

Antarctic Expedition Provides Window into Late Cretaceous Seacape

By | May 6th, 2016|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Fossilised Birds, Ammonites and Giant Marine Reptiles

A team of international scientists including researchers from the University of Queensland and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, have been showing off their vast collection of fossils after a very successful expedition to Antarctica earlier this year.  The fossils, estimated to weigh over 1,000 lbs, provide evidence of life in a shallow sea close to land some 71 million-years-ago (Late Cretaceous).  The specimens were collected from James Ross Island, a forty mile long island on the south-eastern side of the Antarctic peninsula, a long finger of land that points towards South America, although the island itself is more than six hundred miles from the Chilean mainland.

Some of the Fossils Found During the Two-Month Long Antarctic Expedition

Spectacular fossils preserved in nodules found in Antarctica.

Spectacular fossils preserved in nodules found in Antarctica.

Picture Credit: University of Queensland

The picture above shows a number of split nodules that contain invertebrate fossils of various kinds including a number of Ammonite specimens.  The geological hammer, probably the one used to split the nodules provides scale.  Over two hundred different fossils have been collected by the scientists.

Marine Reptiles and Dinosaurs

One of the main objectives of the research team over the two month period of the expedition (February to March) was to search for vertebrate fossils to provide information on the marine and terrestrial fauna that existed in this part of Gondwana towards the end of the Cretaceous.  Giant shark vertebrae the size of saucers, as well as Plesiosaur and Mosasaur remains along with bird fossils were discovered, these fossils along with the other specimens are currently being stored in Chile prior to onward transport to the Carnegie Museum of Natural History (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) for preparation and study.  It is likely that a number of new species will be identified.

Palaeontologists Working on a Plesiosaur Shoulder Girdle

Palaeontologists carefully excavate the shoulder girdle of a Plesiosaur (James Ross Island).

Palaeontologists carefully excavate the shoulder girdle of a Plesiosaur (James Ross Island).

Picture Credit: Dr.  Matthew Lamanna (Carnegie Museum of Natural History)

The picture above shows graduate student Abby West (American Museum of Natural History) working alongside Dr. Steve Salisbury (University of Queensland) and marine technician Julia Carlton as they carefully prepare the shoulder girdle of a Plesiosaur for extraction by helicopter.  The location of the fossil sites are so inaccessible that they only way such large specimens could be removed was by helicopter.  The choppers used to support the field team were called “raptors” – very Jurassic Park as one expedition member quipped.

The photograph was taken by Dr. Lamanna (Assistant Curator of Vertebrate Palaeontology), an expert on the terrestrial fauna of Gondwana, a few days ago, Everything Dinosaur reported on the naming of a new giant Titanosaur from Argentina that had been named based on the extensive study of a beautifully preserved skull and neck elements that had been found some years before (Sarmientosaurus musacchioi).

To read more about this story: Late Cretaceous Titanosaur from Patagonia

Identifying New Fossil Sites

The scientists are part of an international Antarctic research project – Antarctic Peninsula Paleontology Project (forgive the Americanised spelling), or AP3 for short.  Consisting of specialists in vertebrate palaeontology and geology, the team heralds from universities and museums from the United States, Australia, South Africa, Chile and the UK.  Located a gruelling six mile hike from the team’s base camp the main fossil bearing beds are located on the steeply sloping south-western flank at Sandwich Bluff on Vega Island, which is located just a few thousand metres to the north-west of James Ross Island.  Much of the strata exposed around James Ross Island dates from the very Late Cretaceous and from the very Early Palaeogene.  A number of new fossil bearing sites have already been located including several plant remains beds and two previously undocumented Cretaceous exposures that were targeted for future field work.

The Late Antarctic Summer – Hiking Looking for Fossils

Isolated and very difficult to reach - fossil hunting in Antarctica.

Isolated and very difficult to reach – fossil hunting in Antarctica.

Picture Credit: The Carnegie Museum of Natural History

The Antarctic A Potential Treasure Trove of Fossils

The James Ross Island basin is one of the few parts of Antarctica where the snow and ice melts sufficiently to expose the rock strata below.  The absence of soil helps with the exploration, although we tip our hard hats to the research team members who braved freezing temperatures, howling gales and sea sickness just to reach the fossil quarries.  The specimens were excavated from the Upper Cretaceous Sandwich Bluff Member of the López de Bertodano Formation.  The beds here represent deposits in a shallow, marine environment with occasional occurrences of terrestrial material (particularly plant remains) that would have been washed into the sea from the nearby land.  Dinosaur fossils were found, although fragmentary, the palaeontologists are confident that these fossils will help to extend our understanding of the Late Cretaceous dinosaur fauna of Antarctica.

Commenting on the research, Dr. Salisbury explained:

“It’s a very hard place to work, but it’s an even harder place to get to.  A lot of the bigger bones will need quite a bit of preparation before we can do much research on them.  Working in Antarctica is tough!”

Fossilised remains of birds were also found, including early ducks dating from the end of the Cretaceous period.

It’s a Tough Job – Searching for Fossils in the James Ross Island Basin

Lying down on the job!  Looking for fossils in the Antarctic.

Lying down on the job! Looking for fossils in the Antarctic.

Picture Credit: Carnegie Museum of Natural History

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur paid tribute to the research team and their supporters stating:

“The Antarctic provides vertebrate palaeontologists the opportunity to explore pristine fossil bearing environments without the risk of damage from vandals or illegal fossil hunters.  This treasure trove of fossils, currently in Chile, will provide scientists with a great deal of data regarding the fauna and flora at what was a pivotal moment in the history of life on Earth.”

In the summer of 2015, Everything Dinosaur reported on the discovery of a Plesiosaur, but this time from the other end of the world – the Arctic.

To read an article about this amazing fossil find: Elasmosaur Fossil from Alaska

5 05, 2016

A Dinosaur Display

By | May 5th, 2016|General Teaching, Key Stage 1/2|Comments Off on A Dinosaur Display

An Attractive Classroom Dinosaur Display

Whilst visiting Great Wood Primary school in Lancashire to deliver a dinosaur themed workshop for two classes of Year 2 children, Everything Dinosaur’s fossil expert was given the opportunity to view the spacious classrooms.  The school, located in Morecambe is expanding and a number of building projects have taken place but skilful planning has kept any disruption to the teaching scheme of work to a minimum.  The Year 2 children are just starting their dinosaur term topic and under the enthusiastic tutelage of the teaching team they have already explored a number of key ideas related to life in the past.

Dinosaurs – Part of a Display Area in One of the Classrooms

Helping to inspire the next generation of young palaeontologists.

Helping to inspire the next generation of young palaeontologists.

Picture Credit: Great Wood Primary School/Everything Dinosaur

 The photograph above shows one of the walls of the classroom which has been prepared to help the children learn all about different prehistoric animals and where they lived.  This will help to tie in cross-curriculum aspects of the term topic, in this instance, scientific working exploring dinosaurs being linked to geography.  The wall, part of a series of “wow walls” set up by the teachers to showcase the children’s work all have plenty of space on them to allow some of the work undertaken by the children, examples of dinosaur posters and fiction writing, to be posted up so that parents and other school visitors can view how the topic has been developed.

The children really enjoyed the dinosaur workshops we delivered and given the exciting scheme of work the teaching team have developed, we are confident that these budding young scientists will find this topic great fun.

5 05, 2016

Ancient Multi-cellular Fossils from New Burgess Shale Type Deposit

By | May 5th, 2016|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Ancient Seaweed Fossils from Mongolia

Research conducted by a team of international scientists from Mongolia, Japan and the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (United States), have identified two new species of ancient multi-cellular marine algae from a newly discovered Burgess Shale Type deposit located in the Zavkhan Basin of Zavkhan Province (western Mongolia).  The fossils are exceptionally rare and date from approximately 555 million years ago (Ediacaran geological period), they are helping researchers to pinpoint the development of complex lifeforms from the Kingdom Plantae, the ancestors of all plants that exist today.   A paper on the research into the thin shale beds (representing the  Zuun-Arts biota), has been published in the online, open access journal “Scientific Reports”.

Lead Author of the Study Associate Professor Stephen Dornbos Holds One of the Fossil Specimens

Ediacaran fossil specimen held by palaeontologist Stephen Dornbos.

Ediacaran fossil specimen held by palaeontologist Stephen Dornbos.

Picture Credit: University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

The preservation of soft-bodied organisms such as these remains of algae are exceptionally rare in the fossil record.  One such method of preservation is carbonisation in fine-grained strata.  These deposits of exceptional preservation are referred to as Burgess Shale Type deposits, after the famous Cambrian site in British Columbia.  Burgess Shale Type deposits preserving the remains of organisms that lived before the Burgess Shales themselves were formed, can provide scientists with a tantalising glimpse into marine life prior to the evolution of animals with hard bodies such as exoskeletons and shells, but only a handful of pre-Cambrian (Ediacaran) Burgess Shale Type deposits are known.  The research team were exploring ancient marine rocks in western Mongolia when the thin black shales containing carbonised remnants of the prehistoric seaweeds were discovered.

Two species of multi-cellular marine algae have been identified, the most common fossils representing the newly described Chinggiskhaania bifurcata.  The other species, known from just three fossil specimens has been named Zuunartsphyton delicatum.

A Cross Polarised Light Image of C. bifurcata

Chinggiskhaania bifurcata fossil (scale bar = 5mm)

Chinggiskhaania bifurcata fossil (scale bar = 5 mm)

Picture Credit:  University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Under polarised light the structure of the fine filaments of the ancient seaweed can be clearly seen.  Contrast this picture with the photograph of Stephen Dornbos holding a specimen.  The fossils consist of aluminosilicate clay minerals and some carbon, just like the Burgess Shale fossils, and as such, spotting fossils is a very difficult task.  Natural light has to strike the fossil at the correct angle, otherwise the specimen cannot be distinguished from the surrounding matrix.

Commenting on the discovery of the Zuun-Arts biota, Associate Professor Stephen Dornbos stated:

“This discovery helps tell us more about life in a period that is relatively undocumented.  It can help us correlate the changes in life forms with what we know about the Earth’s ancient environments.  It is a major evolutionary step toward life as we know it today.”

Extremely Hard to Classify

Burgess Shale Type fossils dating from the Proterozoic Eon usually are classified as one of two categories, algae, like seaweed, which is the case of the  Zuun-Arts biota, or the remains of extinct types of organisms so unlike living organisms today, that identifying what they might have been like is very difficult to do.  As a result, interpretation of Ediacaran fossil material is a very controversial area of palaeontology.

Explaining this problem, Stephen Dornbos commented:

“If you find a fossil from this time frame, you really need strong support for your interpretation of what it was.   The further back you go in geologic time, the more contested the fossil interpretations are.”

An Illustration Depicting Life in the Ediacaran Geological Period

Life in the Ediacaran.

Life in the Ediacaran.

Picture Credit: John Sibbick

4 05, 2016

Minisauripus – The Smallest Dinosaur Known?

By | May 4th, 2016|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Ancient Tracks Hint at Tiny-saurus

A team of international scientists including researchers from Bristol University and the China University of Geosciences (based in Beijing), have published a paper reporting on tiny three-toed tracks found in south-western China that might support the idea that some Theropod dinosaurs were very small indeed.  The footprints suggest that a dinosaur no bigger than a house sparrow ran across a mud flat more than 125 million years ago.  The dinosaur is referred to as Minisauripus (pronounced min-nee-sore-ree-pus), it is an ichnogenus, the term applied to an animal that is only known from fossil footprints and trackways.  Although the researchers don’t rule out the possibility that these prints might have been made by juveniles of a larger species, all the described examples assigned to this ichnogenus are small and so it is possible this is evidence of one of the smallest kinds of dinosaur to have existed.

A Minisauripus (Foreground) Chased by a Larger Jialingpus (Background)

Minisauripus, potentially the smallest dinosaur known to science.

Minisauripus, potentially the smallest dinosaur known to science.

Picture Credit: Zhang Zongda/China Daily

The picture above shows an artist’s impression of Minisauripus which may have been a compsognathid being pursued by a much larger Theropod, also known from fossil tracks – Jialingpus.  The tracks are from exposed strata that make up the extensive Lower Cretaceous Feitianshan Formation, these rocks preserve trace fossils made on soft sand and silts that represent a low-energy lake (lacustrine) environment.  A number of different types of dinosaur footprints have been identified at this location close to the town of Yangmozu (in Zhaojue County, Sichuan Province), twenty Theropod dinosaur tracks have been found, seventeen of these have been assigned to the larger Jialingpus, the remaining three tiny tracks are associated with Minisauripus.  In total around seventy individual footprints have been identified from a 26 square metre section of rock.  A scientific paper detailing this research has been published in the academic journal “Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology”.

One of the lead authors of the paper, Lida Xing (a PhD student at the China University of Geosciences) commented:

“The discovery of Minisauripus may challenge people’s traditional thinking that all dinosaurs were big guys with scary teeth and claws.  On the contrary, the footprints discovered in Zhaojue County belong to a small, fluffy dinosaur the size of a bird.”

Other fossils assigned to this ichnogenus have been found elsewhere in China, there is also evidence of Minisauripus tracks recorded from Lower Cretaceous rocks in Korea.

Size Comparison Minisauripus versus Oviraptorid and the Hind Foot of Giganotosaurus

The ichnogenus Minisauripus compared to an oviraptorid and the hind foot of a Giganotosaurus.

The ichnogenus Minisauripus compared to an oviraptorid and the hind foot of a Giganotosaurus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture above shows the minimum size estimated for Minisauripus (around 12 cm long), compared to a typical oviraptorid at around two metres and the hind leg of a giant Theropod (Giganotosaurus).  The researchers cannot be certain that the tracks assigned to Minisauripus represent those made by fully grown individuals, however, all known examples of this ichnotaxon are small.  All unequivocally identified Minisauripus tracks fall in the size range of from 1.0–6.1 cm.  Assuming a small adult animal in each case, and based on standard foot length, leg length and body length ratios, all Minisauripus tracks indicate trackmakers with hip heights of less than 5 cm and ranging to 28 cm.  This gives an approximate body size range of between 12 cm and 72 cm.

Threatened by Mining

Zhaojue County is officially recognised by the Chinese authorities as being one of the poorest parts of south-western China.  There are plans to develop the mining industry in this part of Sichuan Province and scientists are lobbying the Government asking for safeguards to protect the ancient trackways and other fossil sites.

3 05, 2016

Tiny Titanosaur Suggests Rapetosaurus Not Good at “Bringing Up Baby”

By | May 3rd, 2016|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans|0 Comments

Scientists Suggest Rapetosaurus Was Precocial

Titanosaurs are a bit like buses, yes they are.  In fact, these bus-sized members of the Sauropodomorpha were a lot like buses, you wait for ages to write about the Titanosauridae and then two stories come along in quick succession.  First, there was yesterday’s article all about a remarkable study into the skull of a South American Titanosaur (Sarmientosaurus musacchioi), that, thanks to CT scans, had provided researchers with an insight into the dinosaur’s senses and now, we write about another Titanosaur study which suggests that these herbivores did not require much or perhaps any parental care after hatching.

Titanosaurs – The Largest Land Vertebrates Known

Huge dinosaur from southern Patagonia.

Huge dinosaur from southern Patagonia – Dreadnoughtus schrani.

Picture Credit: Jennifer Hall

To read more about the study of the skull of Sarmientosaurus musacchioi: A New Late Cretaceous Titanosaur from Patagonia

Tiny Titanosaur from Late Cretaceous Madagascar

The fossilised bones of a baby Titanosaur have been analysed by a team of scientists supported by funding from the National Science Foundation.  The team found that hatchlings were mini versions of the adults and just like many birds and reptiles today, these Sauropodomorphs were relatively independent at birth, capable of leaving the nesting area and fending for themselves just a short time after hatching.  In short, the study suggests that Titanosaurs were precocial, the parents having relatively little to do with the raising of the offspring, the youngsters being more than capable of fending for themselves and foraging to find food.

Precocial behaviour inferred from this study contrasts with different parenting behaviours seen in other types of dinosaur such as Ornithopods and the Theropoda.  Dinosaurs such as Maiasaura (Ornithopod) and Oviraptor (Theropod) may have had different parenting strategies.  Although, dinosaur nests, embryo fossils and fossils of very young dinosaurs are exceptionally rare there is a degree of evidence, most notably from the “Egg Mountain” site in Montana where the majority of Maiasaura fossils have been unearthed that some dinosaurs at least, were altricial, that is, the young were relatively helpless at birth and they relied on their parents to look after them and to bring food to the nest.

Rapetosaurus karusei – Every Fossil Tells a Story

The Titanosaur is Rapetosaurus (R. karusei), fossils of which are associated with the Upper Cretaceous Maevarano Formation of north-western Madagascar.  These plant-eaters, roamed the island of Madagascar some 70 million years ago (Maastrichtian faunal stage).  Several bones collected between 1998 and 2003 and stored at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and catalogued as crocodilian fossils caught the eye of palaeontologist Kristina Curry Rogers.  Kristina has seen fossils like these before and she knew that they were not from any crocodile species, in fact, the bones represented a very young Rapetosaurus.  Why was the Associate Professor so confident?  Simple, Kristina was one of the researchers which named and described Rapetosaurus (pronounced Rah-pay-too-sore-us) back in 2001.

Some of the Rapetosaurus Material Used in the Study

The preserved skeleton of the baby Rapetosaurus, including vertebrae from the hip and tail and the femur.

The preserved skeleton of the baby Rapetosaurus, including vertebrae from the hip and tail and limb bones.

Picture Credit: Kristi Curry Rogers

The research was funded the National Science Foundation (United States) and Associate Professor Curry Rogers (Macalester College, St Paul, Minnesota), was the lead author, working with colleagues from Adelphi University, (Garden City, New York),  the University of Minnesota and the University of Washington.  Looking at the shape of the femur and comparing it to examples from older animals, the bone shape was very similar, this suggested that hatchlings were very mobile and further study indicated that they were capable of a wider range of movements than the cumbersome adults.

Kristina explained:

“This baby’s limbs at birth were built for its later adult mass; as an infant, however, it weighed just a fraction of its future size.  This is our first opportunity to explore the life of a Sauropod just after hatching, at the earliest stage of its life.”

Shinbone (Tibia) Reveals Data

The team studied thin-sections of the tibia (the bones seen on the left of the picture above), using a high-powered CT scanner to get a closer look at the micro-structures preserved inside the fossil limb bones.  The patterns and structures identified were similar to those found in extant animals which made it possible for the scientists to build up a picture of the few short weeks of this dinosaur’s life.

Associate Professor Curry Rogers stated:

“We looked at the preserved patterns of blood supply, growth cartilages at the ends of limb bones, and at bone remodelling.  These features indicate that Rapetosaurus grew as rapidly as a newborn mammal and was only a few weeks old when it died.”

One key finding was the identification of the hatching line, a shift in the internal structure of the bone that in modern lizards and crocodilians indicates when an animal emerged from its egg.  This enabled the research team to calculate the size of the baby dinosaur at hatching (around 3.4 kilogrammes).  The average human baby birth weight in the UK is a fraction heavier at around 3.5 kilogrammes.  However, unlike our babies which are highly altricial (dependent on parental care), Rapetosaurus grew rapidly and in the 39 to 77 days of its life it grew to be more than ten times its hatching weight.

A Baby Rapetosaurus Dinosaur Provides Fresh Insight into Titanosaur Growth and Development

A baby Rapetosaurus provides fresh insight into Titanosaur growth and development (ontogeny).

A baby Rapetosaurus provides fresh insight into Titanosaur growth and development (ontogeny).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur based on an original diagram by Kristi Curry Rogers

Demise in a drought

The baby Rapetosaurus did not live very long and the scientists report that this little herbivore may have starved to death.  How did they deduce that?  An analysis of cartilage growth plates preserved on the limb bones bears a strong resemblance to the modified growth of cartilage that occurs in living vertebrates when the animal is under stress due to lack of food.  The Maevarano Formation represents strata laid down in a flat, alluvial plain criss-crossed by a number of rivers which flowed from the central highlands.  Debris such as large boulders preserved in the strata indicates that the flow of water along these rivers varied a great deal.  This suggests a semi-arid environment with prolonged periods of drought, interspersed by periods of heavy rainfall.  The Late Cretaceous of Madagascar was a drought-stressed ecosystem and for this hatchling a lack of food was very probably its downfall.

Thanks to the work of Kristina Curry Rogers and her collaborators, scientists have been able to piece together some information about the short life of this Titanosaur.

As Associate Professor Curry Rogers states:

“Between its hatching and death just a few weeks later, this baby Rapetosaurus fended for itself in a harsh and unforgiving environment.”

To read an article about potential precocial behaviour in the Pterosauria: New Species of Flying Reptile from “Pterosaur Graveyard”

3 05, 2016

Fossil Skull Provides Insight into Dinosaur Senses

By | May 3rd, 2016|General Teaching|Comments Off on Fossil Skull Provides Insight into Dinosaur Senses

Titanosaur Fossil Skull Provides Evidence of Dinosaur Senses

The almost perfectly preserved fossilised skull of a giant, long-necked dinosaur found in Argentina has helped provide palaeontologists with an improved understanding of the senses of dinosaurs.  The fossil skull was excavated from Upper Cretaceous strata in the Chubut Province of southern Argentina some years ago, but it was only recently restored and subjected to detailed CT (computerised tomography) scans that allowed scientists to gain an understanding of the size and the structure of the dinosaur’s brain.

Scientists Marvel at the 95 million-year-old Dinosaur Skull

Dr. Martinez (right) and Dr. Lamanna (left) with Sarmientosaurus skull.

Dr. Martinez (right) and Dr. Lamanna (left) with the Sarmientosaurus skull.

Picture Credit: Carnegie Museum of Natural History

Authors of the scientific paper that has been published in the on line journal PLOS One include Dr. Rubén D. F. Martínez (National University of Patagonia) and Dr. Matthew Lamanna (Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), state that this dinosaur skull, a Titanosaur, known as Sarmientosaurus is exceptionally rare.  Four such skulls have been found to date from locations as far apart as Madagascar and Mongolia but this fossil found in Patagonia, is the best preserved.

Analysis of the CT scans has enabled the research team to build up a picture of this large, plant-eating dinosaur’s senses.  It had large eyes and very probably excellent eyesight.  It also had good hearing, especially well adapted to picking up low frequency airborne sounds.  The tooth of a large meat-eating dinosaur was found near the skull fossil, such sharp senses would have been very useful for this Late Cretaceous dinosaur, helping to keep it safe from predators.

2 05, 2016

A New Late Cretaceous Titanosaur from Patagonia

By | May 2nd, 2016|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Sarmientosaurus musacchioi – A “Drop Head” Dinosaur

The beautifully preserved skull of a new type of Titanosaur is helping scientists to understand the evolution of these herbivorous dinosaurs.  Titanosaur skull fossils are exceptionally rare, but thanks to the skull of Sarmientosaurus musacchioi, palaeontologists have got a “heads up” on basal Titanosaurs, ironically computer modelling and an analysis of the skull morphology suggests that this dinosaur may have specialised in feeding on low growing vegetation.  If that was the case, then this long-necked dinosaur probably spent a lot of its time with its head pointing downwards towards the ground.

An Illustration of Sarmientosaurus musacchioi

New basal Titanosauriform from Argentina (Sarmientosaurus).

New basal Titanosauriform from Argentina (Sarmientosaurus).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur (background from the artwork of Julius Csotonyi

Rare Titanosaur Skull Fossil Discovery

Reporting in the on line academic journal PLOS One, the team of palaeontologists which includes lead author Dr. Rubén D. F. Martínez (National University of Patagonia), describe a beautifully preserved and almost complete skull specimen excavated from strata which makes up the Lower Member of the Upper Cretaceous Bajo Barreal Formation in south, central Chubut Province, Patagonia (southern Argentina).  The fossils, comprising the skull plus elements from the neck are believed to date from around 95 million years ago (Middle Cenomanian stage of the Late Cretaceous).

Scientists Show Off the Beautifully Preserved Dinosaur Skull

Dr. Martinez (right) and Dr. Lamanna (left) with Sarmientosaurus skull.

Dr. Martinez (right) and Dr. Lamanna (left) with Sarmientosaurus skull.

Picture Credit: Carnegie Museum of Natural History

The skulls of members of the Sauropodomorpha, the Sub-Order of Dinosaurs to which the Titanosaurs belong, tend to be disproportionately small when compared to the size of the body.  In addition, the skulls of these dinosaurs are at the end of a long neck.  When an animal died and the carcase rotted away, then the skull bones were likely to become detached from the rest of the skeleton.  Skull fossils of Sauropods are exceptionally rare.  In Titanosauriforms, only three other skull fossils are known:

  • Rapetosaurus (from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar)
  • Tapuiasaurus (from the Early Cretaceous of Brazil)
  • Nemegtosaurus (from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia

The discovery of an almost complete Titanosaur skull will help scientists to understand more about the anatomy, evolution and behaviour of these dinosaurs.  For example, analysis of the orbit within the skull and the relative position of the eye suggests that this dinosaur had particularly good vision.  Such is the completeness of the fossil material that the scientists, which included Gondwana Titanosaur specialist Dr. Matthew Lamanna (Carnegie Museum of Natural History), have been able to piece together an endocast of the brain and demonstrate the shape of the inner ear.

Views of the Skull of Sarmientosaurus (Sarmientosaurus musacchioi)

A view of the skull (lateral views)

A view of the skull (lateral views)

Picture Credit: PLOS One

The picture above shows the prepared skull seen in right lateral view (photograph A and line drawing B) and left lateral view (C).  The naris slopes gently downwards towards the premaxilla and the orbit (eye-socket) is quite large.  The simple, peg-like teeth (57 teeth associated with the fossil), project forward, an adaptation perhaps to assist with the combing action of feeding.  The scale bar in the picture above represents ten centimetres.

Dr. Lamanna noted:

“Titanosaurs included the biggest land animals ever, so we want to know as much about them as we can.  But to truly understand a creature, you need to have its head and because Titanosaur skulls are super-rare, lots of important aspects of how these dinosaurs lived and behaved have really been anybody’s guess.”

CAT Scans Reveal Previously Unseen Features in Titanosaur Fossil Material

The skull fossil has provided palaeontologists with their first really good view of a basal Titanosaur and it has provided new information regarding the shape of the brain case and the senses of these dinosaurs.  For example, CAT scans have enabled the researchers to model the structure of the inner ear, from this they have deduced that this dinosaur had good hearing, able to detect a wide range of low frequency airborne sounds.  This perhaps provides a clue to how these herding animals communicated.

The Excavation of the Rare Titanosaur Fossil Material

Sarmientosaurus fossils at the dig site.

Sarmientosaurus fossils at the dig site.

Picture Credit: PLOS One

The photographs above show the articulated skull lying upside down partially eroded out of the rock (A), note that the skull is seen in ventral view (viewed from underneath) and that the geological hammer provides an approximate scale.  The black arrow in photograph A shows the position of an ossified cervical tendon lying very close to the back of the skull.  Photographs B and C show two views of the articulated skull and the partial cervical series (neck bones) exposed in the rock (ventral view).  The black arrows indicate the position of cervical tendons.  Photograph D shows a cervical rib (white arrow) and its relationship in the matrix to an ossified cervical tendon (black arrow), the field instruments provide an approximate scale.

Ossified Bony Tendons

When compared to the Tapuiasaurus fossil skull from Brazil which dates from around 115 million years ago, the teeth and skull morphology of Sarmientosaurus are relatively primitive.  The researchers have concluded that radically different Titanosauriforms probably co-existed for much of the Cretaceous.  This suggests that different types of Titanosaur evolved to fill different ecological niches and perhaps this might help to explain why these types of plant-eaters made up a substantial portion of the herbivorous mega fauna fossils associated with the southern hemisphere in the Late Cretaceous.

Views of the Restored Skull of Sarmientosaurus

Views of the prepared skull of Sarmientosaurus (scale bar = 10cm).

Views of the prepared skull of Sarmientosaurus (scale bar = 10cm).

Picture Credit: PLOS One

In the picture above, A, C and E are photographs of the skull in various views.  A frontal view (A), a view of the back (B) and a caudodorsal view (C) which is a view of the back of the skull from the orientation of looking down on it from the top.  The images B, D and F are diagrams that show the individual bones and skull features as preserved in the fossil material.  Sarmientosaurus is the first non-avian dinosaur to show evidence of a very long bony tendon in the neck.  The research team compare the thin ossified tendon with that found in extant Cranes.  The function of this structure is not known.

Superior Senses When Compared to Other Sauropodomorphs

The CAT scans provided a remarkable amount of detailed information regarding the sensory capabilities of this Titanosaur.  The large eye-socket indicated good eyesight and the orientation of the balance organ of the inner ear suggests that this dinosaur probably held its head with the snout facing downward.  From this it has been inferred that Sarmientosaurus fed mainly on low-growing plants.

Professor Lawrence Witmer, a specialist in cranial anatomy and one of the co-authors of the scientific paper explained:

“The Sarmientosaurus skull is beautifully-preserved, which meant that we could tease out a ton of information.  It was really exciting for us to work through the CT scan data because it gave us a glimpse into the biology and lifestyle of this animal like we rarely get with dinosaurs.”

What’s in a Name?

The genus name honours the small town of Sarmiento in Chubut Province which is close to the fossil quarry where the skull was found.  The trivial name is in tribute to the late Dr. Eduardo Musacchio, a palaeontologist and professor at the National University of Patagonia who was a mentor to Dr. Martínez as well as a close friend.

1 05, 2016

Everything Dinosaur – Battat Terra Dinosaurs

By | May 1st, 2016|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases|0 Comments

Battat Terra Dinosaurs Added to the Range

Everything Dinosaur is delighted to announce that the Battat Terra dinosaurs model range is being added to the UK-based company’s inventory.  All twelve of the prehistoric animal models, including the discontinued therizinosaurid, Nanshiungosaurus (pronounced Nan-she-ung-oh-sore-us) are going to be stocked by Everything Dinosaur.  The models are due to arrive early next week and we expect them to be on line and available for sale in about 72 hours.

If you would like to reserve one of these excellent models, of if you would like more information, drop us a line: Email Everything Dinosaur

Battat Terra Dinosaurs – Added to the Everything Dinosaur Model Range

Available on line from Everything Dinosaur in early May 2016.

Available on line from Everything Dinosaur in early May 2016.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur Honours Dan LoRusso

The figures sculpted by Dan LoRusso for the Terra product line are re-painted versions of replicas originally designed for the Museum of Science (Boston).  Everything Dinosaur is proud to add the Battat Terra dinosaurs to its, already extensive model range, a fitting tribute to highly respected Dan LoRusso, who sadly passed away last year.

The Battat Terra Carnotaurus Dinosaur Model

The Battat Terra Carnotaurus dinosaur model.

The Battat Terra Carnotaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture above shows the splendid Carnotaurus (C. sastrei) replica, which is one of six Theropod dinosaurs to feature in this twelve model series.  Everything Dinosaur will offer all twelve models for sale plus, for a limited time, the complete set of all twelve replicas will be available to buy in a single purchase and at a very special introductory price.

Commenting on the addition of the Battat Terra dinosaurs to Everything Dinosaur’s extensive portfolio of prehistoric animal figures, a spokesperson for the UK company stated:

“It is great to see all twelve of the first wave of the Battat Terra dinosaurs added to our model range.  The shipment is due to arrive in the next couple of days and then they will be available on the company website.  These models are ideal for collectors and dinosaur fans and we are delighted to announce that a number of the Battat Terra replicas will be exclusive to Everything Dinosaur.”

Battat Terra Dinosaurs – A Wonderful Model Range

The Battat Terra series features a mix of different types of dinosaur.  Very well-known dinosaurs such as Tyrannosaurus rex, Stegosaurus, Pachyrhinosaurus and Parasaurolophus are included along with some of the more unusual members of the Dinosauria such as the armoured dinosaur Euoplocephalus, Dacentrurus, Cryolophosaurus and Amargasaurus.  Naturally, as with all the named prehistoric animal figures sold by Everything Dinosaur, each replica will be supplied with its own fact sheet which will tell customers about the dinosaur, when it lived, what it ate and so forth.

Battat Terra Dinosaur Models Available from Everything Dinosaur

The excellent Battat Terra dinosaur models.

The excellent Battat Terra dinosaur models.

Picture Credit: Battat

The picture above features a Battat Terra Pachyrhinosaurus, with a Dacentrurus model in the middle and the beautiful therizinosaurid Nanshiungosaurus on the left.  Lurking in the background is one of the meat-eaters in this model series – Cryolophosaurus.

No need to pre-order but if you would like to reserve one of these excellent models, of if you would like more information, simply: Email Everything Dinosaur

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