Potentially One Step Closer to Woolly Mammoth Resurrection
Researchers at Harvard Medical School led by genetics professor George Church have combined laboratory grown elephant cells with genetic material retrieved from the frozen remains of Siberian Woolly Mammoths. The genetic material, a total of fourteen genes, was spliced into the skin cells of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), the closest living relative to the extinct Woolly Mammoth. The results are promising with the altered skin cells functioning properly in their petri dish environment, but the scientists stress that cloning a viable Woolly Mammoth is still a very long way off.
Investigating the Possibility of a Return for the Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius)
Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur
Scientists from Harvard Medical School are working on a number of genetic projects, including research into the Woolly Mammoth genome. They are however, competing against a number of other institutes including South Korea’s Sooam Biotech Research Foundation in a bid to extract viable DNA from a long dead animal with a view of investigating the possibility of cloning.
The ancient genetic material was inserted into the cells using a complicated cut and splicing technique, an analogy would be to think of a film editor cutting and stitching snippets of film together so as to make a coherent movie. The system used was CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat). Although this work has yet to be peer reviewed and no paper has been published describing the research in detail, preliminary findings suggest that the mutated cells are functioning normally. If this is the case, then this is the first time that Woolly Mammoth genetic material has functioned since the very last of these Ice Age creatures became extinct the best part of 4,000 years ago. Having a established a thorough understanding of the Mammoth genome, the team focused on identifying and then adding to the elephant skin cells those genes which are responsible for the Mammoth’s adaptations to a cold climate, genes such as those for small ears, long body hair and thick layers of subcutaneous fat.
Professor Church pointed out that they were a long way off from “Mammoth de-extinction”, despite some remarkable finds in recent years, including one amazingly well-preserved female Woolly Mammoth carcase, nick-named Buttercup, that was the subject of a number of cloning documentaries that aired recently.
To read more about the Woolly Mammoth called “Buttercup”: To Clone or Not to Clone a Woolly Mammoth
The genetics laboratory is the largest research facility at Harvard University and the researchers have been responsible for a number of important genome studies in recent years. Much of the team’s work involves studying the human genome as well as working on how to manipulate the genes of mosquitoes to help fight the spread of malaria and other diseases such as dengue fever.
Professor Church commenting on their success with the combining of elephant cells and Woolly Mammoth genes stated:
“We won’t be seeing Woolly Mammoths prancing around any time soon, because there is more work to do. But we plan to do so.”
Splicing the DNA into the skin cells of Asian elephants is only the first step in, what will be a very long process. The next hurdle is to find a way of turning the hybrid cells into specialised tissues, to see if they produce the correct traits and characteristics. For example, will the genes for small ears, actually produce ears that are small and able to lose less heat. With animal rights groups preventing the use of elephants as surrogate mothers, hybrid cells will have to be adapt to being grown in an artificial womb. If a viable embryo is created, then it is a case of being able to bring that embryo to term and to produce a viable offspring.
Preserved Remains Like This are Providing Woolly Mammoth Genetic Material
Picture Credit: Semyon Grigoriev/Mammoth Museum
If all this goes to plan and cold-adapted, hybrid elephants are produced then more and more Mammoth DNA can be introduced into subsequent generations to drive out the Asian elephant traits. The Harvard team hope to genetically engineer an elephant that can survive in inhospitable, sparsely populated habitats, where such creatures would face fewer threats from humans. A long term aim would be to develop herds of Woolly Mammoths, once more roaming the steppes of the northern hemisphere.
Team members at Everything Dinosaur wait to read more about this research and to see the peer reviewed comments, although we have made a wager that by 2045, a viable Woolly Mammoth will be produced somewhere in the world. Just thirty years to go then.