All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
/2011
23 12, 2011

New Apatosaurus/Brachiosaurus Models From Schleich of Germany

By | December 23rd, 2011|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products|1 Comment

New Sauropod Replicas

Schleich of Germany has revised their prehistoric animal model range.  A number of replicas have been retired, most notably the remaining prehistoric mammal models they used to make (two Mammoths and a Smilodon).  The Saurus range has been reduced and there are some new colour variants of existing models plus some brand new additions to the “World of History” product category.

New Apatosaurus from Schleich

Available in May 2012

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Schleich

It is pleasing to see a Sauropod model with the nostrils depicted in the right place, not down the snout but further up on the top of the skull.

In addition to the new Apatosaurus there is a new Brachiosaurus replica, one that team members at Everything Dinosaur have nicknamed “dusky maiden” as a result of the model’s colouration.

Brachiosaurus Model (Schleich)

The “dusky maiden”

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Schleich

23 12, 2011

Update on Schleich Prehistoric Animal Models

By | December 23rd, 2011|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Press Releases, Product Reviews|0 Comments

Great Changes for Schleich Prehistoric Animal Model Range

The first image we have of the new colour scheme of the Schleich Giganotosaurus scale model. Schleich’s new artistic team have revamped the Saurus range and introduced a number of new models and colour variants. Sadly the not to scale “Di” range as we call them as been reduced to six – gone is Saichania and Apatosaurus, plus the Mammoths and Sabre-Tooth cat models have been retired – more news and images soon.

The new Schleich Giganotosaurus Colour Variant

Giganotosaurus with a new paint job from Schleich

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Schleich

22 12, 2011

Winton Dinosaur Museum gets $100,000 Australian Dollars

By | December 22nd, 2011|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories|0 Comments

Dinosaur Museum gets Big Financial Boost

Winton in Queensland (Australia) is at the very centre of some important dinosaur research with a number of new dinosaur species having been discovered in recent years.  Now the town is one step closer to getting a world-class dinosaur themed visitor attraction after the Queensland State Government granted an additional $100,000 Australian dollars in funding.

The Member for Mount Isa, Betty Kiernan, made the announcement yesterday in Winton, north-west of Longreach.  Before the many dinosaur discoveries, Winton’s chief claim to fame was that it was the town where the famous Australian song “Waltzing Matilda” was written.

The Australian Age of Dinosaurs has been planning and constructing the museum east of Winton for several years and is hoping to open stage two by April 2012.

Spokesman David Elliott says the funding will pay for an operations manager to oversee the project for another year.

He stated:

“It is in a bit of a critical stage at the moment with stage two just opening its doors and we’ve put all our resources into that and we have cut ourselves to the bone to do it.  We’ve just got to get back on top now so we can start consolidating, so I am really, really happy about it”.

Commenting on the additional $100.000 dollar contribution David added:

“It is just good to be able to get this support at a time when we’ve put so much money out to pay for variations on the building.”

Although, Winton is relatively remote, it has become a centre for dinosaur research due to the extensive Cretaceous strata that is exposed in the region, leading to the discovery of a number of new dinosaur genera.

To read about some of the dinosaur discoveries found in the Winton area: A Trio of Dinosaurs from Down Under

21 12, 2011

All the Better to See You – The Superb Vision of Anomalocaris

By | December 21st, 2011|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories|0 Comments

Analysis of Compound Eye Fossil Indicates that Apex Predator had Fantastic Vision

Back in June, team members at Everything Dinosaur wrote a brief article on the remarkable research being undertaken by South Australian Museum and University of Adelaide scientists working on fossils of compound eyes dating from more than 500 million years ago.  The fossils from the Emu Bay area of Kangaroo Island show that by the Mid Cambrian some invertebrates had evolved very sophisticated vision, much better than many types of extant insects and crustaceans and perhaps at least as good as those aerial masters the dragonflies.

This months edition of the scientific journal “Nature” will contain a feature on the work of the research team and the front cover will consist of an artist’s impression of the super predator that the compound eyes probably belonged to – the world’s first apex predator – Anomalocaris.

To read the earlier article on the Kangaroo Island fossils: World’s Oldest Fossil Eye Discovered in Australia

The international team behind this study includes two Adelaide researchers Associate Professor Michael Lee (South Australia Museum and University of Adelaide) and Dr. Jim Jago (South Australia Museum).  From our understanding of the fossil evidence, the advanced compound eye probably belonged to the largest predator known from strata dating from the same geological period – Anomalocaris.  This invertebrate, a member of the Arthropoda, the largest phylum of animals is distantly related to crustaceans such as lobsters and shrimps.  At up to a metre in length, this is the largest animal known from Cambrian strata.  Fossils ascribed to  Anomalocaris have been found in Southern China as well as these from Australia that the scientists studied, but perhaps most famously, this fierce predator is associated with the Burgess Shale deposits of British Columbia (Canada).

An Illustration of Anomalocaris

The Terror of the Trilobites – Anomalocaris

Picture Credit: BBC Worldwide/Framestore

Anomalocaris is the stuff of nightmares and sci-fi movies.  It is considered to be at the top of the earliest food chains because of its large body size, formidable grasping claws armed with sharp spikes and a circular mouth positioned under the head with its razor-sharp serrations.

Fossils of  Trilobites contemporaneous to Anomalocaris fossil material are testament to this formidable predator.   Some of the Trilobite fossils show signs of severe damage and there has even been some five hundred million year old fossilised poo (coprolite) containing crushed and smashed pieces of Trilobite exoskeleton – the remains of an Amomalocaris meal perhaps?

The discovery of superbly preserved eye fossils, the remains of the calcite based compound eyes that were supported on the end of a stiff stalk each side of the head, show astonishing detail of the optical design.  Having excellent vision, far better than its prey would have given animals like Anomalocaris a huge advantage when hunting.  Bio-mechanical studies have shown that Anomalocaris was nektonic (free swimming), but not a very fast swimmer.  However, with much more advanced eyesight than most of its prey, this armoured giant of the Cambrian seas would have been a very effective hunter.

The fossils represent compound eyes – the multi-faceted variety seen in Arthropods such as flies, crabs and such like.  However, the fossils represent compound eyes that are up to three centimetres in diameter.  They are amongst the largest to have compound eyes ever to have evolved.  Each eye contains up to 16,000 individual lenses, that is like having two 16-kilo pixel cameras perched on stalks either side of the head.  This would have given this predator excellent almost 300 degree vision.

The number of lenses and other aspects of their optical design suggest that Anomalocaris would have seen its world with exceptional clarity whilst hunting in well-lit waters.  Only a few Arthropods, such as modern predatory dragonflies, have similar resolution.

One of the Beautifully Preserved Compound Eye Fossils (Emu Bay)

Inset – show details of individual lenses

Picture Credit: John Paterson, University of New England.

The international research team conclude that the existence of highly sophisticated, visual hunters within Cambrian communities would have accelerated the predator/prey “arms race” that began during this important phase in early animal evolution over half a billion years ago.  Such a predator/prey relationship would have helped to speed up evolution, perhaps helping to explain the rapid diversification of marine animal forms during this geological period.

The discovery of powerful compound eyes in Anomalocaris confirms it is a close relative of Arthropods, and has other far-reaching evolutionary implications. It demonstrates that this particular type of visual organ appeared and was elaborated upon very early during Arthropod evolution, originating before other characteristic anatomical structures of this group, such as a hardened exoskeleton and walking legs.

The superb artwork, that is featured on the front cover of “Nature” was painted by Adelaide based artist Katrina Kenny.  Katrina has a passion for fossils and her love of the subject plus her skills in biological illustration have helped bring back this fearsome predator of the Cambrian.  The painting was commissioned by the University of Adelaide.

Katrina Kenny with her Anomalocaris Artwork

Katrina with her Artwork

Picture Credit:  Katrina Kenny/South Australian Museum/University of Adelaide.

The South Australia Museum and the University of Adelaide have summarised the research in a short video.

A Video Providing Further Information on the International Research Team’s Work

Video Credit: South Australia Museum/University of Adelaide

20 12, 2011

Last Day for First Class Post for Christmas Mail

By | December 20th, 2011|Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Press Releases|0 Comments

Tuesday 20th December Last Recommended Day for First Class Post

Team members at Everything Dinosaur continue to prepare, pack and despatch orders for customers as quickly as they can.  Staff have worked until 10pm most nights to ensure that the volume of orders that the company has received has been managed successfully.  A spokesperson for the British based, dinosaur company stated that they would continue to work right up to the 23rd December sorting out orders and deliveries for customers, but it was pointed out that today, Tuesday 20th, was the last recommended day for first class post to reach destinations in time for Christmas.

The volume of mail in the UK has led to delays in the delivery of parcels, however, customers can be assured that orders placed with Everything Dinosaur are packed and despatched as quickly as possible, therefore minimising any potential delays.

19 12, 2011

Titanosaurs of the Antarctic

By | December 19th, 2011|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories|0 Comments

Research Team Reveals Evidence of Titanosaurs Having lived in Antarctica

The discovery of a single, fossilised bone could help scientists solve a puzzle concerning the largest land animals of all time – the Sauropods.  Fossils of these giant, long-necked dinosaurs have been found on every continent, except one, the land mass of Antarctica.  However, a team of Argentinian scientists have unearthed evidence that one group of Sauropods – the Titanosaurs may have roamed the southernmost continent after all.

The fossil, believed to represent a portion of the dinosaur’s tail (caudal vertebra), was discovered on James Ross Island by an Argentinian-led team.  The bone measures almost twenty centimetres in length and is believed to have come from the middle third of the dinosaur’s long tail.  Although, it is not possible to identify the dinosaur genus from such a fragment of the skeleton, the scientists have stated that the bone probably belongs to a “lithostrotian Titanosaur”.  The Lithostrotia are a clade of Titanosaurs (a group of anatomically and probably closely related, similar Titanosaurs), which are associated with Upper Cretaceous strata from South America and Madagascar.

The discovery was first presented at a recent palaeontological conference held in Nevada, but it has just been published in the German scientific journal -Naturwissenschaften  (translates as “The Science of Nature”).

Authors Dr Ignacio Alejandro Cerda, from the Conicet research institute in Argentina, and colleagues wrote:

“Our finding indicates that advanced Titanosaurs achieved a global distribution at least by the Late Cretaceous.”  

During the Cretaceous the super-continent of Gondwanaland in the southern hemisphere continued to break up, Antarctica had once formed part of this huge landmass along with India, Australia, South America and Africa but by about ninety million years ago, only Australia remained joined to Antarctica.  As the break up continued, the land bridges that connected Antarctica to Australia became more and more tenuous until by the end of the Cretaceous, Antarctica was isolated.  For much of the Cretaceous Antarctica was covered by lush, conifer and fern forests and it was much, much warmer than it is today, for this remaining part of Gondwanaland was heated as a result of ocean currents sweeping down from the equator.  However, by the Late Cretaceous the climate on Antarctica had begun to change dramatically and this landmass became much colder.

An Illustration of a Typical Titanosaur (Saltasaurus)

Scientists don’t know whether the Antarctica Titanosaur had dermal armour.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The discovery of this single vertebra raises intriguing questions.  For example, if there was a large, herbivorous dinosaur living on what was to become Antarctica as late as seventy million years ago (Campanian faunal stage), then the flora must have been rich enough to support such large animals.  If there was a large herbivore in the ecosystem, could there have been a large, Theropod predator?  Perhaps a “living fossil” such as an Allosaurid, a type of meat-eating dinosaur that had become extinct elsewhere in the world by the end of the Cretaceous but may have hung on in isolated pockets where other Theropods such as Abelisaurids or Tyrannosaurs could not reach due to the lack of land bridges.  This is further prove that dinosaurs lived in Antarctica.

There have been fossils of other long-necked dinosaurs found on Antarctica before, but as far as we at Everything Dinosaur know, these fossilised bones represent very primitive, early members of the Sauropoda family, know as Sauropodomorpha.  An example would be the Early Jurassic Glacialisaurus which was discovered in 2007.

To read more about the discovery of this early, long-necked dinosaur: Primitive Long-necked dinosaurs from Antarctica

The authors conclude in their paper:

“Our discovery, and subsequent report, of these sauropod dinosaur remains from Antarctica improves our current knowledge of the dinosaurian faunas during the Late Cretaceous on this continent.”

The Fossilised Bone and Illustrations showing the Complete Vertebra

Twenty centimetre long fossil bone reveals presence of advanced Titanosaurs in Late Cretaceous Antarctica

Picture Credit: Cerda/Naturwissenschaften

The picture above shows the fossil bone (pictures a-c) with illustrations (d-f) showing the fossil fragments in association to the rest of the single tail bone.  The fossil is actually a centrum (central, cylindrical component of a vertebra).  It is the concave/convex shape of the anterior and posterior portions of the centrum that have enabled scientists to identify this fossil bone as belonging to an advanced Titanosaur from the lithostrotian clade.

The picture shows the caudal vertebra centrum viewed from the front (anterior view) in “a” and “d”; viewed from the right side (right lateral view) in “b” and “e” and finally from the rear (posterior view) in “c” and “f”.

18 12, 2011

Strange Place to Find an Iguanodon Bone – Sunderland

By | December 18th, 2011|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories|0 Comments

Pensioner Unearths Iguanodontid Bone in Sunderland Garden

Iguanodon fossils, although rare, do sometimes get found in southern England, places such as East Sussex and the Isle of Wight for example, but to have an Iguanodontid vertebra turn up in a garden 300 miles further north from where most of the UK Iguanodontid fossils come from is bizarre.

The fossilised bone about the size of a football has been identified as belonging to an Early Cretaceous Ornithopod Dinosaur – an Iguanodontid, but the single bone and its unusual location makes it very difficult to tie down to a specific genus.

Palaeontologists remain puzzled as to how a bone from a Cretaceous dinosaur ended up in a pensioner’s back garden in Sunderland.  Team members at Everything Dinosaur has been informed of this remarkable discovery several weeks ago and a spokesperson for the company commented:

“When we were first told about the fossil find, we could not believe our ears.  We asked for clarification and it was only when we saw the pictures that we believed this story.”

The pensioner, who wishes to remain anonymous took the specimen to a local museum, where experts confirmed it was a dinosaur bone.  Staff at the Natural History Museum (London) have confirmed this and concluded that the bone probably came from a large Iguanodon, a herbivorous dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous.

The Football-sized Dinosaur Bone

Unusual Place to Find a Dinosaur

Picture Credit: Press Association

How the bone came to be in Sunderland remains a mystery.  The underlying strata is much older than rocks which contain dinosaur bones this means the bone must have been deposited there later on.

Many of the Iguanodontid fossils unearthed in the UK were found in the East Sussex area, more than 300 miles to the south of Sunderland.  They lived 130-115 million years ago, at a time when southern England was a warm, lush tropical paradise in which dinosaurs and Pterosaurs flourished.  Experts will never know how the bone made it to Wearside , but glacial disturbance or human interference were considered most likely.  Rocks could have been transported by glacial action and re-deposited or perhaps this specimen was found in southern England and brought up north by an amateur fossil hunter.

An Illustration of an Iguanodon

A Drawing of Iguanodon

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Jo Cunningham, manager of Sunderland Museums, stated:

“We’re very grateful to our museum visitor for bringing this amazing find in to us; it will always remain a mystery as to how it found its way there, and if they hadn’t been digging up their garden it could have lain undiscovered.”

She went onto add:

“The person who found it wishes to remain anonymous, but has kindly agreed to loan it to Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens so that the people of the region can enjoy this unusual find.”

Most of the underlying strata in the Wearside area dates from the Late Palaeozoic era, being composed of mainly limestones, mudstones and sandstones dating from the Permian period.  There is a small band of Permian rocks which run roughly in a line from Nottingham in the East Midlands, northwards to the city of Sunderland before disappearing out under the North Sea, these rocks are largely devoid of fossils.

Dr Angela Milner, from the Palaeontology Department at the Natural History Museum, London, said:

“The bone is the solid part (the centrum) of vertebra from the tail of an Iguanodon-like dinosaur.  It is not complete enough to identify it more precisely.  The rocks around Sunderland are much too old to contain dinosaur bones so there are only two explanations as to how it got there – either by glacial transport or a one-time souvenir from the south coast of England where Iguanodon bones are not infrequently found by fossil hunters.”

Team members at Everything Dinosaur have heard of dinosaur bones turning up in some very unusual places, one staff member literally tripped over a number of caudal vertebrae belonging to an Edmontosaurus when inspecting a motocross trackway in Alberta – you just never know what might turn up.  However, to find a dinosaur fossil bone in a garden in Sunderland must go down as one of the more bizarre locations to find the remains of a dinosaur.

17 12, 2011

Last Recommended Posting Date for Second Class Post

By | December 17th, 2011|Everything Dinosaur News and Updates|0 Comments

Saturday is Last Day for Second Class Post

Today is the last recommended posting date for second class post in the United Kingdom according to Royal Mail.  Our team members are working from 7am until 10pm every day in the run up to Christmas doing all we can to despatch customers orders in time for the big day.  If you have a query about our products and services, or if you simply want to ask a question about dinosaurs, feel free to email us and we will do our best to help.

Email Everything Dinosaur: Contact Everything Dinosaur

Everything Dinosaur staff have been busy working late on Friday evening preparing parcels and some team members went to the Post Office themselves this morning to ensure parcels were despatched in time for a Royal Mail collection.  We will also have staff working on Sunday (18th) to ensure that there is no delay in despatching orders that have been placed over the weekend.

16 12, 2011

Exotic Pets – Victims of the Economic Downturn

By | December 16th, 2011|Animal News Stories|0 Comments

Caiman Dumped Outside Pet Shop

With the economic downturn and with a large number of people finding it hard to manage their finances many expensive to keep, exotic pets are being abandoned.  A three-foot long crocodile was dumped outside a pet shop in the West Midlands yesterday (Thursday).

Jim Wick, owner of Wickid Pets in Wolverhampton, found the South American reptile in a plastic box when he arrived at work on Thursday.  The Caiman, which measures nearly a metre long and would have been quite capable of doing Mr Wick some serious damage had it chosen to,  has been taken in by the exotic animal specialist, who admits he was lucky not to lose a chunk of his arm after making the discovery.

This is one of a number of recent examples of rare and exotic pets being abandoned by their thoughtless owners, perhaps after out-growing their homes or simply as a result of the owner deciding not to keep their expensive pet any more.

Crocodiles May be “Cute” as Hatchlings but they Soon Grow

Crocodiles do not make good pets

Picture Credit: Blue Planet

Jim stated:

“I thought it might have been kittens or turtles because we often have animals left outside by people who don’t want them any more.  I put my hand in straight away to test the warmth of the water.  I’m lucky it wasn’t aggressive because it could have had my hand off.”

Mr Wick recovered quickly from the surprise, and picked up the animal and took it to one of his reptile vivariums.  He hopes to be able to re-home this Crocodylian, an animal more accustomed to the Amazon than Wolverhampton, at a local Safari park.

Staff at the pet shop have been looking after the female Caiman, which they have named “Snappy the Christmas Crocodile”, it is possible the animal was lost and the staff are hoping that the reptile can be reclaimed, however, given how the animal was found, it is suspected that this unfortunate reptile had simply been abandoned by its former owner.  The crocodile has not been micro-chipped so it is quite probably an animal that has entered the country illegally part of the large, illicit exotic pet trade in the United Kingdom.

Mr Wick said he was more than happy to keep caring for his latest visitor, which is capable of growing to a length approaching three metres.

Mr Wick has contacted the police to find out whether there have been any reports of missing crocodiles but to no avail. However, he has his own suspicions about what has happened.

“Some people aren’t given the correct facts when they buy animals like this and they find them too much to cope with.” 

Given the expense of keeping such an exotic pet it is also likely that the former owner simply could not afford to keep their pet any more.  This instance is one of a number of recent cases of exotic pets being abandoned as the economic downturn bites.  It seems that even crocodiles are not immune to the recession.

A spokesperson for Everything Dinosaur urged anyone considering the purchase of an exotic pet, perhaps as a Christmas gift to think very carefully and to take professional advice before making a such a commitment.  The spokesperson commented that crocodiles are not appropriate pets and even hatchlings are capable of injuring people.  They went onto add that any exotic pet procurement needs to be “thought through extremely carefully, as it represents a commitment of many, many years”.

15 12, 2011

Spiked Dinosaur Proved “Thorny” Problem for Museum Geologist

By | December 15th, 2011|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans|3 Comments

New Species of Horned Dinosaur Announced – After Geologist thought Fossils Too Fragmentary to Exhibit

With the vast amount of dinosaur fossil material not on public display there are bound to be one or two surprises in store for those scientists who explore museum collections.  A number of museums contain a vast depository of fossil material, including dinosaur fossils, some of this material may yet to be studied, whilst other specimens may be wrongly labelled.  So, if you want to find a new dinosaur species, you might want to explore in the field, or you could go through the museum’s existing collection to see what wonders you can unearth.

This is exactly what a team of palaeontologists did, exploring the fossil collection of the Natural History Museum (London) and, as a result, a new species of horned dinosaur (Ceratopsian) has been named and described – Spinops sternbergorum.

Part of the skulls from at least two individuals were discovered in 1916 by Charles and Levi Sternberg, whilst exploring the fossil rich sediments of Alberta (Canada).

Led by their father, Charles, the Sternberg family made a number of spectacular dinosaur discoveries in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries as they explored Canada.  Charles Sternberg, for example was responsible for naming and describing the Hadrosaur Edmontosaurus, as well as a number of other dinosaurs and several other vertebrates.

As with a number of fossil bones excavated from the Canadian provinces, the elements of the dinosaur skulls were dispatched to London for preparation and further study at the Natural History Museum.

However, so fragmentary were the fossils that a geologist at the museum at the time, Arthur Smith Woodward, declared them unfit to exhibit and doomed the seventy-six million-year-old specimens to remain locked away.  It took a team of scientists to recognise the importance of the specimens, to have them cleaned and finally studied.

Spinops sternbergorum (the name honours the Sternberg family and means “Old Spine Face”), was a member of the Centrosaurinae – horned dinosaurs with relatively short neck frills.  Perhaps closely related to Centrosaurus and the likes of Styracosaurus, this 2,000 kilogramme herbivore had a single large horn projecting from the top of the nose and a bony neck frill that sported at least two long, backward pointing spikes as well as two forward-curving bony hooks.   There were also two smaller horns, projecting upwards on the top of the orbit (eye socket).

An Illustration of Spinops sternbergorum

Introducing “Sternbergs Old Spine Face”

Picture Credit: Dmitry Bogdanov, courtesy of Raymond M. Alf Museum of Palaeontology

Andrew Farke of the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Palaeontology, in Claremont, California (United States) and lead author on the study naming and describing this newest member of the Centrosaurinae stated:

“My colleagues and I were pleasantly surprised to find these fossils on the museum shelf, and even more astonished when we determined that they were a previously unknown species of dinosaur.”

This is not the first time a new dinosaur species has been discovered in this manner, nor do we think that it will be the last. To read about the discovery of a new type of long-necked dinosaur (Sauropod) found in the Natural History Museum: Where’s the best place to find a new Dinosaur species? In a Dinosaur museum of course!

The fossil fragments that compose the holotype material for this new plant-eating dinosaur may be fragmentary, but they were discovered in close proximity to each other in  a single deposit and from this material the Sternbergs were sure they had found something unique and exciting.

An Illustration Showing Some of the Fossil Material Related to a Skull

Shaded grey areas indicate fossil bone.

Picture Credit: Raymond M. Alf Museum of Palaeontology

Ironically, these fragmentary specimens dismissed as “rubbish” more than ninety years ago, may prove to be extremely important to palaeontologists.  Not only do these fossils represent a new species, but they may provide an insight into the evolution of the bizarre horns and head crests of the Ceratopsians.  Spinops sternbergorum may be closely related to the likes of Centrosaurus and Styracosaurus, but the unique anatomy and morphology of the bony neck frill may give scientists a better understanding of how such structures evolved.

Specifically, these fossils clarify the identification of the long frill spikes common in some horned dinosaurs. – such as Styracosaurus spp.

Prior to the careful study of the Spinops material, palaeontologists had thought that spikes on the neck frill had evolved only once in the Ceratopsian group.  However, these fossils of Spinops show that the bases of the spikes are located in different positions compared to the likes of Styracosaurus, implying that these structures evolved independently.

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