All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
//July
21 07, 2009

Jurassic Coast says goodbye to Tyrannosaurus rex

By | July 21st, 2009|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page|0 Comments

T. rex Statue Removed from Beach by Public Health and Safety Officials

A six-metre long metal sculpture of the skeleton of a Tyrannosaurus rex has been impounded by safety officers after it was sited on a Dorset beach.  The large model, approximately half the size of an adult Tyrannosaurus was towed out into Weymouth Bay in Dorset (England) and deposited there, in a publicity stunt to promote the UNESCO world heritage site, claim the sculptures owners.

The unusual sight of the skeleton a large meat-eating dinosaur in the middle of Jurassic coast caused some amusement amongst the watching holiday makers but the local council and police failed to see the joke.  Stating that this statue was in breach of health and safety rules, council employees assisted by the local police removed T. rex from his watery resting place and have impounded the sculpture.

“Tex” on the Beach at Weymouth

Picture Credit: INS

The owner of the statue, Mr Paul Swaffield is demanding that the local council return the sculpture, which he has nicknamed “Tex”.  The model was made several years ago to help promote a maze maize that Mr Swaffield owns.  We note that the placing of the statue in Weymouth Bay coincides with the opening of many maize mazes at the start of the school holidays and being cynics we suspect that the promotion of the UNESCO world heritage site was secondary to the need to generate publicity for the opening of a maze tourist attraction.  It certainly is a novel way of generating publicity, but the local authorities don’t see the funny side of the story.

Mr Swaffield commented:

 “I just wanted people who saw it to say whether it is a good idea.  The model is on wheels and I used a 110hp tractor to tow it down the slipway and into the sea at low tide.  I drove it as far as I could – about 150 yards out – and left it there.  It was an incredible sight and people thought it was the funniest thing that had happened in Weymouth for many a year”.

Unfortunately, for Mr Swaffield and Tex, local officials and beach lifeguards soon condemned the publicity stunt and demanded that the statue be removed.

He went on to state:

“Members of the public saw the reaction of the officials as the typical state the country is in today, which is lacking in fun.”

Fearing that the dinosaur may cause harm to bathers the local council called Dorset police and they helped to remove the statue to a local police compound.  A spokesperson for the council stated that Mr Swaffield did not have any permission to put the statue up and the model had to be taken away for public safety.

The spokesperson added:

“It was quite a hazard so we had to take it away.  It had metal spikes so we could not leave it on the beach.  The dinosaur had to have a police escort when it was taken along the road as it was not a safe structure”.

This is certainly a novel way of generating publicity for a tourist attraction, but we can’t condone what has taken place at the Dorset beach.   What may be a good idea for the likes of Anthony Gormley, does not seem to be every-body’s cup of tea.  Besides, the idea of a Late Cretaceous Theropod being used to promote Jurassic marine sediments is a little bizarre in the first place.  Had the statue been a life-size model of a Plesiosaur, then who knows what the council officials might have said.

20 07, 2009

Anniversary of Apollo 11 Moon Landing “One small Step for Man..”

By | July 20th, 2009|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page|0 Comments

Anniversary of First Man on the Moon – Dinosaurs in Space

Today, marks the fortieth anniversary of the first manned moon landing.  The first people to walk on the moon were the American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.  The Command Module pilot, Michael Collins remained in the lunar module and did not set foot on the moon.  The Apollo 11 mission was successfully completed and the team returned to Earth, bringing with them the first samples of moon rocks.  Over 20 kilogrammes of material was collected, the rocks were identified as igneous basalts and have been estimated to be over 3.7 billion years old.  The lunar module landed in the Sea of Tranquillity, a relatively flat part of the moon, but the actual landing was over 6,000 metres from the initial aim point.

The astronauts safely returned to Earth having spent a total of approximately 21 hours on the lunar surface.  The return craft safely splashed down in the Pacific ocean on July 24th and the warship USS Hornet was able to pick them up and retrieve the Command Module.  The total mission length was just over 195 hours.  The first manned mission to the moon with the first manned moon landing and moon walk on July 20th 1969, could arguably be regarded as mankind’s greatest technological achievement.

Dinosaurs have also made it into space.  As far as we know two species of dinosaur have made it beyond the Earth’s atmosphere.  The first dinosaur in space was Maiasaura peeblesorum a Hadrosaurine dinosaur.  A piece of bone from a baby Maiasaura and Maiasaura eggshell was taken up into space by an astronaut on a NASA mission in 1985.  This dinosaur is known from a nesting colony found in Montana (United States) in the 1970s.  It lived in large herds and nested in colonies, migrating to the same nesting site each year.  More than 200 fossil skeletons ranging from embryos to mature adults have been found.

An Illustration of Maiasaura and a Nest

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Just one small step for man, a great leap for a late Cretaceous Hadrosaurine.

To read more about dinosaurs in space Maiasaura and Coelophysis: dinosaurs in space – Maiasaura

19 07, 2009

Dinosaur Event at Bournemouth Pulls in the Crowds

By | July 19th, 2009|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page|0 Comments

Dinosaur Exhibition at Bournemouth International Centre Pulls in the Crowds

If there are any young dinosaur fans at a loose end between now and August 31st, then a trip to the Bournemouth International Centre (BIC), Bournemouth, Dorset, is recommended as dinosaurs return to the Jurassic coast.

The BIC is hosting the “Dinosaur Encounter” exhibition a joint effort with the experts and palaeontologists of the Natural History Museum teaming up with animatronic specialists Kokoro to produce an exhibit featuring giant robotic dinosaurs.  The prehistoric creatures include Ornithomimids, life-size Oviraptors, plus a Triceratops and its young, a fearsome Ankylosaurus plus of course some meat-eating dinosaurs added for good measure.

Visitors can marvel at the bizarre Baryonyx, an English dinosaur (fossil remains found in Surrey and in Spain), plus of course there are a couple of fierce Tyrannosaurs to keep you amused, should you be brave enough to venture close enough to stare at the metre long jaws of the Tyrannosaurus rex.  This large T. rex model is one of the biggest of its kind in the world, and the exhibit permits visitors to get up close and personal with these huge prehistoric beasts.

Commenting on the event, a team member from Everything Dinosaur who had helped out over the opening weekend of the exhibit stated:

“This is a great family exhibit, at a very family friendly venue, giving young dinosaur fans the opportunity to see some of the best animatronic models of dinosaurs in the world.  The detail is amazing, you really get the feeling that a T. rex is watching you”.

Press Cutting from the BIC (Bournemouth, Dorset) Event

Picture Credit: Bournemouth Echo

In addition to running the dinosaur exhibit, the BIC have also opened an ice rink for the Summer holidays, ice skating another fun, filled family activity – why not having visited the dinosaurs try out a little bit of the Ice Age?

18 07, 2009

Update on the Isle of Man Archaeological Excavations

By | July 18th, 2009|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Educational Activities, Main Page|0 Comments

Ronaldsway Site Yields Exciting Prehistoric Artifacts

The excavation on the site of the new taxiway at Ronaldsway airport on the Isle of Man is nearing completion, as the archaeologists strive to ensure that all the work is completed on schedule before the builders move in.  The highlight of the dig has been the discovery of remains of a large Mesolithic dwelling, dated to approximately 8,000 years ago.  This is the oldest building of this nature ever found on the island and dates from the time shortly after the last Ice Age when the Isle of Man was settled.  Interestingly, until evidence of this structure was found, archaeologists had assumed that the first settlers on the island were mainly nomadic, but this substantial structure indicates that at least for part of the time the people were sedentary.

The team of archaeologists unearthed the remains of this wooden shelter, which would have measured something like 7 metres across and by studying the post holes it would have been a substantial, imposing building.

The excavation is being carried out by a team of scientists from Oxford Archaeology North.  To date the archaeologists have discovered 15,000 pieces of worked flint plus evidence of the diet of these settlers and other artifacts dating from 3,000 years before Stonehenge was built.

We first reported on this particular archaeological dig back in June 2008, when the first evidence of Mesolithic remains were found.  To read the first article in full:

Runway Extension reveals signs of Stone Age people on the Isle of Man

It is hoped that the work will be completed in time to let the contractors back onto the site to start building the new runway extension in the next few weeks.

Excavation of the Ronaldsway Mesolithic Dwelling

Picture Credit: Oxford Archaeology North

The picture shows archaeologists working on the large dwelling, the post holes can be seen.  Commenting on the excavation, Gemma Jones of Oxford Archaeology North stated:

We have uncovered deposits to a depth of 30-40 centimetres.  These will now be returned to our Cambridge office for further study”.

The groundworks for the new runway extension has been continuing whilst the scientists worked, the contractors involved with the project have co-operated fully with the archaeologists, allowing this unique insight into the ancient inhabitants of the Isle of Man.

17 07, 2009

My First Dinosaur Model Set

By | July 17th, 2009|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page|0 Comments

My First Dinosaur Model Set

Developed with very young dinosaur fans in mind, the team at Everything Dinosaur have introduced a set of four, colourful dinosaur models especially for the very young.  The bright and colourful, soft and squeezy rubber dinosaur model set features Triceratops, Brachiosaurus, Parasaurolophus and a Stegosaurus.  These four plant-eating dinosaurs are very popular with children, each one regularly features in the Everything Dinosaur most popular dinosaur survey.

Suitable for children aged 3 years and up, these robust, rubber models make an excellent first dinosaur set for young dinosaur fans.  They are super dinosaur toys for toddlers.

The “My First Dinosaur” Model Set

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view this special dinosaur model set and other dinosaurs: Dinosaur Toys for Boys and Girls

16 07, 2009

New Species of Nothronychus Discovered in Utah

By | July 16th, 2009|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page|0 Comments

Say Hello to Nothronychus graffami

The discovery of the most complete fossilised skeleton of a species of Nothronychus in the United States has been announced in the online scientific publication the Journal of Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.  It is hoped that this new fossil of a Therizinosaurid (scythe lizards), discovered in southern Utah, will help improve our understanding of these bizarre Theropod dinosaurs.

The Therizinosaurid group (pronounced Ther-ih-zine-oh-sore-id), are Theropod dinosaurs a sub-order of the Saurischia which possess adaptations for plant-eating, although many of their relatives were fierce meat-eaters.  Hopefully, the fossils of this new species Nothronychus graffami may help explain how these animals evolved such characteristics and where in the late Cretaceous eco-system they fitted.  Such fossil remains may provide evidence of the evolution of vegetarian Theropods, an adaptation that may be older than previously thought.  Famous predatory dinosaurs such as the Dromaeosaurs (Troodon and Velociraptor for example), may have evolved from less fearsome, plant-eating ancestors.

N. graffami was named after Merle Graffam a member of the University of Northern Arizona’s excavation team who first discovered the beautifully preserved fossil remains of this 4 metre high dinosaur.   The fossil skeleton has been dated to approximately 93 million years ago (Cenemanian faunal stage) and the scientists estimate that this species of Nothronychus pre-dates the other Nothronychus species known from the United States Nothronychus mckinleyi.  When N. mckinleyi was formerly named and described in 2001, it became the first Therizinosaurid to have lived outside of Asia.  It is likely that these strange sloth-like animals (Nothronychus means “sloth-like claw”),evolved in Asia and migrated into other parts of the northern hemisphere during the mid to late Cretaceous.

The small head, had a beak, this was perched on a long, slender neck.  The teeth are leaf shaped and adapted to eating tough plant material.  The heavy, pot-belied body with broad hips was carried along by short stumpy hind legs, the strong arms ended in three-clawed hands.  The claws are very characteristic of “scythe lizards”, indeed this is how this particular group of dinosaurs got their name.  In the case of N. graffami, the three fingered hands ended in broad,claws over 20cm long.

An Illustration of Nothronychus graffami

Picture Credit: Victor Leshyk

It is believed that Therizinosaurs may have been covered in primitive feathers and that they may have lived like giant sloths, using their strong, powerful claws to pull down branches so that they could graze on the leaves.

Commenting on the strange-looking creature Lindsay Zanno of the Field Museum in Chicago stated:

“It takes a lot of gut-time to digest plants, plant-eaters have to develop long digestive tracts to get the energy they need to survive”.

The Fossilised Claws of the Therizinosaur (N. graffami)

Therizinosaur Hand showing Claws

Picture Credit: David D. Gillette

The picture shows the restored and mounted manus (hand) of this dinosaur, the curved, sickle-like claws can be clearly seen.  Scientists believe that the Therizinosaurids are a type of Maniraptoran dinosaur, although most Maniraptoran dinosaurs are believed to have been meat-eaters this new fossil has helped shed light on the evolution of the group as a whole.

In a bid to find out more information regarding the evolution of Theropods and in particular the herbivorous forms, Dr. Zanno and her colleagues compared the anatomy of the newly discovered genus of Nothronychus with specimens from seventy-five other types of Theropod.  Their research indicates that the Therizinosaurids are perhaps the most primitive group of Maniraptorans.  This could mean that Maniraptorans also originated in Asia, before migrating across the ancient dinosaur world.

The team conclude that plant-eating may have been a trait of early Maniraptorans, certainly several types of Maniraptoran dinosaur show adaptations for a partial herbivorous or at least an omnivorous habit.  The Ornithomimosaurs and the Oviraptorids are examples of this type of dinosaur with adaptations for a non meat specific diet.

Dr. Zanno commentated:

“Before this we thought that plant-eating Theropods like Therizinosaurs were a rare occurrence.  We knew they must have evolved from meat-eaters somewhere in their ancestry, but before our study it seemed like plant-eating was the exception not the norm for Maniraptoran Theropods”.

Rather than being the exception to the meat-eating rule, Dr. Zanno and her fellow researchers claim that eating plants exclusively or in combination with meat can be traced back to the origins of the Maniraptoran group as a whole.  It is possible that many types of Maniraptoran dinosaurs ate some portion of vegetable matter in their diets, an inherited trait from the common ancestor of the whole Maniraptoran group, the scientists state.  The American based team have speculated that the ability to eat plant matter may have allowed the Maniraptorans to migrant to new areas and exploit new niches in the Mesozoic eco-system as plants themselves evolved.  This may help to explain their variety and diversity.

The Therizinosaurs are certainly very strange animals, although these new fossils will help shed more light on the group they remain very enigmatic and extremely rare in the fossil record.

Model makers are beginning to recognise the Therizinosaurs and recently a number of models of these types of dinosaur, including a Nothronychus have been introduced.

The Collecta Nothronychus Model

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the model of the Nothronychus: Dinosaur Models and Dinosaur Toys for Girls and Boys

15 07, 2009

Bournemouth Dinosaur Exhibition a Roaring Success

By | July 15th, 2009|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page|0 Comments

Bournemouth International Centre – Dinosaur Encounter Exhibition/Summer Ice Rink

“Mum, Dad what can we do today”?  This is the question that a lot of Mums and Dads are going to be asked over the next few weeks as the school holidays begin.  With young ones to entertain and amuse over the Summer, why not take a trip to the Bournemouth International Centre (Bournemouth, Dorset) for a day out with a difference!

The Bournemouth International Centre (BIC) offers two fun activities for the Summer holidays, especially designed with families in mind.  Firstly, get your skates on and get down to the BIC as the Summer Ice Rink has just opened.   This ice rink, built in association with Heart 102.3FM is the UK’s largest indoor temporary event providing the opportunity for the whole family to try ice skating in a safe, and friendly environment.  There is even a special section of ice for very young skaters with their Mums and Dads to have a go. Who knows you could end up an Olympic champion!

Running alongside the ice skating is the Dinosaur Encounter exhibition, a chance for families to get up close and personal with huge, animatronic models of some of the most famous dinosaurs known in the fossil record.  Are you brave enough to come face to face with a Triceratops and its babies?  Could you scare away a flock of Oviraptors as they attempt to steal eggs from a dinosaur nest?  Are you fast enough to run from an angry Ankylosaurus when it swings its massive tail club at you?

The Ankylosaurus at the Dinosaur Encounter Exhibition (BIC)

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur (BIC)

The animatronic dinosaurs are some of the largest models in the world and with the support of the Natural History Museum – London, you can be guaranteed that they depict these prehistoric giants accurately.  The highlight of the exhibit is the 2/3 size Tyrannosaurus rex, it really is a monster!  Watch young children’s jaws drop as they get up close to one of the largest and fiercest animals ever to live on our planet.

The Animatronic Tyrannosaurus rex (BIC)

Ferocious T. rex

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Are you brave enough to stare back at a T. rex?

The ice skating rink is open until Sunday 6th September and the Dinosaurs Encounter Exhibit is open daily from 10am until August 31st.

For further information visit the BIC website or check out the Everything Dinosaur blog.

14 07, 2009

What was a Kronosaurus?

By | July 14th, 2009|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Kronosaurus – A Fierce Cretaceous Marine Predator

Kronosaurus was an enormous marine reptile, not a Dinosaur but a Pliosaur, a short-necked member of the Plesiosauria.  Fossils of this animal have been found in Australia (Queensland) and South America.  It was an apex predator of marine environments during the mid Cretaceous, with the largest species such as Kronosaurus queenslandicus reaching lengths in excess of 10 metres.

The massive head of Kronosaurus accounted for approximately 25% of its total length.  The jaws ran almost the length of the skull, giving this predator an enormous gape.  The largest teeth in an adult Kronosaurus were over 7 inches long.

An Illustration of Kronosaurus

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The first fossils of this marine predator were found in 1889, it was named and described in 1901.  Kronosaurus had very strong gastralia (belly ribs), when compared to other Pliosaurs.  Scientists have speculated that this animal may have spent more time out of the water than other Pliosaurs.  It has also been suggested that these animals did go onto land to lay eggs, like modern turtles.

13 07, 2009

Not all Fossils are Dinosaurs

By | July 13th, 2009|Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

Not All Fossils are Dinosaurs

Everything Dinosaur team members are often asked questions by school children about the biggest and fiercest meat-eaters.  The students may ask whether Giganotosaurus really was bigger than T. rex for example.  Whilst trying to answer their many questions we do try to stress that the fossil record is not made up of just dinosaurs.

When the fossil record is examined, dinosaurs make up only a tiny portion, indeed the fossil record is dominated by marine organisms (as far as we know all dinosaurs lived on land) and it is the invertebrates who make up the vast majority of fossils.

Many invertebrate groups, Trilobites and Ammonites are much more important to palaeontologists than vertebrate fossils.  Identifying strata by examining the types of fossils they contain has been a process of enquiry since the early 19th Century.  Indeed, engineers such as William Smith were able to work out the relationships between different rock layers based on the different types of invertebrate fossils they contained.  This method of using fossils to identify the relative age of strata is called biostratigraphy. The stratigraphic column (rock strata), is divided into zones, sometimes called biozones, these are characterised by one or more specific fossil species.  These in turn are called zone fossils.

To be a helpful zone fossil, an organism needs to be relatively abundant, live in a marine environment and rapidly evolving so as to develop many different forms.  The more geographically dispersed the better, so Ammonites and Trilobites make very effective zone fossils.

Despite all the hyperbole and media attention given to the Dinosauria, they really only make up a tiny portion of the known fossil record.  Being rare, often found as incomplete, partial skeletons and terrestrial; dinosaurs are not good zone fossils.  Whilst talking to some palaeontology students from Canada the other day, we were not unduly surprised to hear that in three years of lectures, the dinosaurs had been covered in a single afternoon.

12 07, 2009

Themed Dinosaur Party Food

By | July 12th, 2009|Educational Activities, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Main Page|0 Comments

Food for Dinosaur Parties

When it comes to organising that dinosaur themed birthday party for a dinosaur obsessed youngster one of the many questions we get asked is how to customise food so that it fits in with the party theme?  It is not easy to find dinosaur shaped sandwiches and tit-bits in your local supermarket, but you needn’t spend a fortune to ensure that your party buffet cuts the Mesozoic mustard.

For example, dinosaur shaped cookie cutters are inexpensive to purchase and can be used to create biscuits shaped like prehistoric animals.  We supply a range on our website along with free to download recipes and instructions.  However, don’t be limited just to the sweet elements of your menu when it comes to using the cookie cutters.  We have used both our plastic and metal cutters to create dinosaur shaped sandwiches for hungry dinosaur fans.

To view the Everything Dinosaur range: Dinosaur Bedding & Bedroom Accessories

Using soft bread, we find that white or wholemeal sliced loaves work best; and a series of simple fillings such as spreads, (peanut butter, chicken paste, jam, honey), dinosaur shaped sandwiches and light bites can be created simply by using the cookie cutters to cut out the sandwich once the slices have been prepared.

A Tyrannosaurus rex Themed Cookie Cutter – Ideal for Dino Shaped Sandwiches

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The biscuit cutter is dishwasher prove and makes lovely shaped biscuits and sandwiches shaped like Tyrannosaurus rex.  They prove very popular at dinosaur themed birthday parties and the cutter is very easy to use and clean afterwards.

Taking a cocktail stick, and a coloured piece of paper prepare a label for the sandwich platter using simple dinosaur vocabulary (a quick look in your child’s dinosaur book should give you plenty of inspiration).  The cocktail stick can be used to stick securely the label to the plate, like a little flag.  Make sure you blunt the end of the cocktail stick still sticking up after you have secured the label to it, you don’t want anyone pricking their finger.

With Summer dinosaur parties, the barbecue can often come out into its own.  Naturally, with us Mums and Dads supervising the cooking.  Ordinary burgers can become dinosaur inspired “Brachiosaurus burgers” with Tyrannosaurus rex red relish (tomato ketchup to you and me).  Please don’t be tempted to call your burgers “Brontosaurus burgers”, unless you want to inccur the wrath of any of the more erudite of your young guests.  The name Brontosaurus is no longer accepted or used in scientific circles, although a genus of Late Jurassic Diplodocid dinosaur was recently named Eobrontosaurus.  Brontosaurus had to undergo a name change in the 1970s, the reason for this is laid out below:

The eminent American palaeontologist Othniel Charles Marsh described and named Apatosaurus in 1877 from fossils found near the town of Morrison in Colorado, USA. Two years later, bones of what was thought to be another dinosaur were found at a quarry at Como Bluff, Wyoming. This animal was described and named as Brontosaurus “Thunder Lizard” by Marsh. As more skeletons were found, scientists realised that these two dinosaurs were actually the same genus, and since Apatosaurus was described first, the name Brontosaurus had to be disregarded. In 1905 when the world’s first long-necked dinosaur skeleton went on display at the American Museum of Natural History it was wrongly labelled as Brontosaurus. Thanks to this and many Hollywood films, the name Brontosaurus seems to have stuck in people’s imaginations and for many years “thunder lizard” was one of the best-known dinosaurs.

So be warned, if your young dinosaur fans know their dino-data they will point out to you your mistake if you name anything Brontosaurus.

Herbivorous dinosaurs were some of the first large land animals to exploit the new food source of fruit in the mid to Late Cretaceous.  Don’t forget to add some fruit salad to your Mesozoic menu.  You can always label it up as “Fruit Salad Swamp” or “Fruit-o-saurus”.  By doing this you can ensure a healthy and nutritious balance to your “Styracosaurus Snacks”.

For recipes, more instructions and of course more information about dinosaur themed party food, simply log onto our website: Everything Dinosaur you will find a whole section of the site dedicated to this subject with free downloads, ingredient check lists and all sorts of helpful stuff.  There is even the recipe, instructions and templates to create your own dinosaur shaped birthday cake.  Best of all these information is available free as a download.

Every item put into our dinosaur shop is tested by ourselves and our pet parents and dinosaur fans.  We even tested out the biscuits and cake recipes.  Each member of staff was given job of trying to come up with recipes suitable for dinosaur themed events.  Then using our cookie cutters and such like we all had to make some.

My Tyrannosaurus rex Gingerbread

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

My gingerbread dinosaurs, just out of the oven and cooling down ready for icing.  Not a bad effort for someone like me, who generally struggles to remember the recipe for toast.

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