Category: Product Reviews

Reviewing Everything Dinosaur’s Palaeontology Predictions for 2014

Looking Back at How Our 2014 Predictions Turned Out

After the mince pies, time for a slice of humble pie as we review how our palaeontology and dinosaur predictions made last year turned out.  At the start of each year, team members at Everything Dinosaur get together, usually whilst completing the company’s annual stocktake and put forward suggestions about the sort of news stories and articles that this weblog will feature over the following twelve months.  It is just a bit fun, but the debate can be quite lively at times.  So one year on, let’s take a look at what we predicted and how things turned out.

Here is the list of the ten predictions we made (published on 2nd January 2014):

2014 Predictions

  1. Storms around the UK’s Coasts will Lead to a Number of Vertebrate Fossil Discoveries
  2. Further Insights into the Genetic Make Up of Hominins and The Relationship between Other Hominins and H. sapiens
  3. Trailer for Jurassic Park IV to be Released
  4. Polar Exploration Leads to Fossil Find
  5. Three-Dimensional Printers Come of Age
  6. New Species of Mammal (probably a rodent discovered in South-east Asia)
  7. Arthropod Study Leads to Further Evidence for the Common Ancestor of Spiders and Scorpions
  8. Everything Dinosaur to Develop a New Dinosaur Workshop/Teaching Website
  9. Further Evidence for Feather-like, Filamentous Integuments to be Found in the Ornithischia
  10. Where will Everything Dinosaur Be in Terms of Social Media by the End of 2014?  Setting Targets

To see the article we wrote back in January 2014 about our predictions: 2014 Predictions

1). Storms around the UK’s Coasts will Lead to a Number of Vertebrate Fossil Discoveries

There were a number of important fossil discoveries concerning marine reptiles, particularly those related to the Ichthyosauria or their ancestors.  Significant fossil discoveries were made in China and Chile and indeed, the very wet and stormy weather of the winter may have contributed to vertebrate fossil discoveries made around Britain’s coasts.  Back in April we reported on the discovery of a juvenile Ichthyosaur at Lyme Regis (Dorset) and just recently we wrote an article all about the “Penarth Ichthyosaurus”, a fossil discovered by an amateur collector.

The Excavated Remains of the “Penarth Ichthyosaurus”

Penarth's very own prehistoric monster.

Penarth’s very own prehistoric monster.

Picture Credit: Jonathan Bow

This specimen from South Wales is almost complete, making it a remarkable find, although we have to admit it was spotted in September, long after the winter storms had supposedly done their work.

2).  Further Insights into the Genetic Make Up of Hominins and The Relationship between Other Hominins and H. sapiens

One of our most popular blog articles of last year (it made our top ten most popular web log articles list), discussed the research into the Neanderthal genome that demonstrated that some of diseases of modern humans could be traced back to our Neanderthal ancestry.  So much research is currently being undertaken in this area of science, that we confidently predict that more insights into our ancestry and other hominins such as the Denisovans will be published this year (one for our 2015 predictions list we think).

To read the article: Study Suggests that some Diseases in Modern Humans are Linked to Neanderthal DNA

3).  Trailer for Jurassic Park IV to be Released

Just like our second prediction, this one was a bit of a no brainer.  ”Jurassic World” is due to be premiered in June 2015 and it is going to be one of the biggest films of the year (there will be a lot of competition, Star Wars, Avengers, Terminator movie etc.)  The trailer was due to released in December 2014 but in the end it was brought forward and Everything Dinosaur put up an article about the trailer on November 25th.  Everything Dinosaur is expecting “Jurassic World” to have a big impact on this blog site as well as other aspects of our business.  For example, the main protagonist in the film Diabolus rex, the genetically modified hybrid dinosaur, made it into our top ten list of most popular prehistoric animals of 2014 which we published a few days ago.

To read the article featuring Diabolus rexEverything Dinosaur’s Top Ten of Prehistoric Animals 2013 (Part 1)

Jurassic World Official Trailer

Video Credit: Universal Studios

Expect a second “Jurassic World” trailer to be released as part of the Superbowl coverage.

4). Polar Exploration Leads to Fossil Find

There were a number of important fossil discoveries made in the extreme latitudes over the last twelve months.  In March 2014, Everything Dinosaur published a number of articles featuring dinosaur discoveries that had been made in the high Arctic.  A description of a new type of pygmy tyrannosaurid certainly generated a lot of debate.  This new member of the Tyrannosaur family, Nanuqsaurus hoglandi, was very probably feathered and the discovery supports the theory that at least in the far north during the Late Cretaceous a complex ecosystem flourished.

An Illustration of Nanuqsaurus hoglandi

Potentially a very, shaggy coated Tyrannosaur!

Potentially a very, shaggy coated Tyrannosaur!

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The publicity surrounding the description of “Polar Bear Lizard”, allowed us to reminisce over the naming of Cryolophosaurus twenty years ago and to write an article about the most northerly dinosaur fossil discovered to date.  That honour goes to a bone from a duck-billed dinosaur found on Axel Heiberg Island, part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

5).  Three-Dimensional Printers Come of Age

Prices of printers came down and more museums and universities started to use this technology.  When linked to powerful CT scans remarkable insights into fossils, often ones still trapped in a matrix of rock, can be made.  However, prices falling to such a level that many schools and academies could access this technology did not occur in 2014.  There was some work into the motor skills and brain function of the Dinosauria as we predicted, but not as much as we thought.  Back in October 2014, we wrote a short piece highlighting the research into Pachycephalosaur sensory function, three-dimensional images had provided an insight into the sense of smell of these dinosaurs.

To read about the Pachycephalosaur research: Nosing Around a Dinosaur’s Sense of Smell

6).  New Species of Mammal (probably a rodent discovered in South-east Asia)

Well, we did write about a new species of slender nosed crocodile from Africa, but there was no blog article about a new mammal species being announced.  Not one of our most accurate predictions.

7).  Arthropod Study Leads to Further Evidence for the Common Ancestor of Spiders and Scorpions

We fared a little better with this prediction.  Some amazing research conducted by those clever people at Manchester University/London Natural History Museum and the Museum für Naturkunde (Berlin), led to a computer model of a walking 400 million year old Arthropod being generated.

To read more about this study: Ancient Creepy-Crawlies Resurrected

In addition, thanks to the beautifully preserved Arthropod specimens that form part of the Chengjiang Biota (China), scientists were able to gain insights into the development of invertebrate nervous systems.  There was even a paper published all about the brain of a Cambrian super-predator.

Research into Understanding Anomalocarids (Lyrarapax)

The grasping claw on this specimen can clearly be seen.

The grasping claw on this specimen can clearly be seen.

Picture Credit: Peiyun Cong

Further information: Describing the Cardiovascular System of a Cambrian Arthropod

Further information: The Brain of the World’s First Super-Predator Studied

8).  Everything Dinosaur to Develop a New Dinosaur Workshop/Teaching Website

In late August, this prediction came true when team members launched a special website dedicated to helping teachers, museums and educationalists to teach about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric life.  The website went live on August 26th, just in time for the start of the autumn term and the major roll out of the new curriculum in England.

Dinosaur Workshops and Teaching about Dinosaurs in Schools

Everything Dinosaur aims to help teachers, museums and home educators.

Everything Dinosaur aims to help teachers, museums and home educators.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Since the site went live, several thousand school children have benefited from the free downloads and teaching resources that we supply.  Our outreach work with school visits continues at a pace and January 2014 is likely to be our busiest month to date in terms of school visits.

9).  Further Evidence for Feather-like, Filamentous Integuments to be Found in the Ornithischia

Our ninth prediction concerned feathered dinosaurs.  Over the last few years the debate as to whether members of the Dinosauria had feathers has moved on.  Most palaeontologists now believe that a number of different dinosaurs were feathered and that filamentous integumental coverings, the fore-runners of true feathers were an evolutionary trait of the dinosaurs.  However, the discussion is now more about which types of dinosaur were feathered.  In July, we wrote an article on the implications of the discovery of a one metre long basal Ornithischian dinosaur from Siberia.  It may have been small, but the paper published on Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus may just have been one of the most significant papers on vertebrate palaeontology published all year.

A Small but Very Important Dinosaur

Feathered dinosaur down amongst the horsetails.

Feathered dinosaur down amongst the horsetails.

Picture Credit: Andrey Atuchin

The article can be found here: Did All Dinosaurs Have Feathers?

10).  Where would Everything Dinosaur be with Social Media Targets?

Social media is certainly bigger than ever.  Sales of smart phones and other clever devices reached unprecedented levels in 2014 and they are set to continue their spectacular growth over the next few years. The number of smart phones and other devices in the world was estimated to have reached 1.9 billion by some analysts.  Traditional pc sales and desktop devices continues to decline and there is much more “surfing on the go” as we like to refer to it.  Everything Dinosaur set itself some ambitious targets in terms of Pinterest pins, Tweets and Facebook likes in 2014.  We will write a separate article on how we did when it came to reaching these targets.  Importantly, we remain committed to replying to every email, question, request for information that we receive and this will remain core to our business this year as well.

All in all, not a bad performance in terms of predictions, some turned out to be more accurate than others.  We will publish news about our predictions for 2015 shortly, let’s see how we do this year.

A Review of the Collecta Bistahieversor Model

The Collecta Bistahieversor Model Reviewed

New for 2014 from Collecta in their not-to-scale prehistoric animal model series is this replica of Bistahieversor (pronounced Bis-tar-hee-eh-ver-sore), a member of the Tyrannosaur family  from New Mexico and distantly related to the much more famous T. rex  this is Everything Dinosaur’s review of this dinosaur replica.

The Collecta Bistahieversor Dinosaur Model

New for Summer 2014

New for Summer 2014

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

During the Late Cretaceous much of North America was covered by a huge sea.  This was called the Western Interior Seaway and it stretched from what is now the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Gulf of Mexico in the south.  The landmasses that bordered this inland sea were dominated by dinosaurs and what scientists are now recognising is that despite the mix of dinosaurs in the north and the south being very similar – Ceratopsians, Lambeosaurines, ankylosaurids, tyrannosaurids and so forth, the genera and species making up those faunas differed markedly across North America.  What you have is distinct regional ecosystems.  What we term “provinciality” and you can explore lots of articles about this on the Everything Dinosaur web log.

To read an article about the regional diversity of horned dinosaurs in North America: A Surge in Mountain Building May Have Led to Dinosaur Diversification

Bistahieversor fossils come from the oldest part of the Kirtland Formation, exposed in New Mexico, strata dating to around 74.5 million years ago.  Isolated teeth very typical of a large Tyrannosaur had been found for many years and these were thought to represent types of Tyrannosaur known from fossilised bones found in Montana and Alberta (Canada) in the north.  A partial skull found in 1990 was associated with Tyrannosaur fossil material from Montana, (potentially Daspletosaurus), but gradually as more body fossils were discovered in this part of the San Juan Basin, it was realised that these fossils represented the remains of a distinct southern genus of tyrannosaurid.  Following a review in 2010, the genus Bistahieversor (B. sealeyi) was established.

The name means “Bistahi Destroyer”, the genus honours the local Navajo indian population, the word “Bisti” means “place of the adobe formations” in the local dialect.  The trivial name honours museum volunteer Paul Sealey, who found the fossils of an adult animal in 1997.

The Collecta model stands on a base, it is the second , large Tyrannosaur model in the not-to-scale series to be placed on a base, the first being the modified T. rex with prey replica.  It is a very striking pose, the skin texture has been finished to give the impression of a shaggy, feathery coat.  Here is a model of a feathered Tyrannosaur reflecting the very latest in Theropd interpretation and part of a trend for more feathered dinosaur models, which we know is going to continue into 2015 and beyond.

The body proportions are based on what is known from the fossil material, particularly the adult specimen discovered in 1997, by Paul Sealey.  The skull sports a distinctive cranial crest and this has been further augmented by the model makers with the addition of a tuft of shaggy, black and white proto-feathers.  The crest on the skull may have been synonymous with a mature adult animal as no evidence for a crest was found on the fossilised skull of a juvenile which was discovered two years earlier (1995).

Like all the Collecta replicas, this is a beautiful model with a well-crafted paint regime consisting of tawny, black and white stripes which contrast nicely with the cream coloured belly.  Even the base has lots of detail, the feet seem to sink into the base to give the impression of a heavy animal walking across soft sand.

A Model of a Tyrannosaur Named in 2010

One of our field rulers provides scale.

One of our field rulers provides scale.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

This model measures around 13cm in length.  Based on an adult animal being around 8.5 metres we estimate that this replica is in approximately 1:65 scale.  The powerful animal with its strong tail and robust skull probably weighed around 2.5 tonnes and it was very likely the apex predator in the coastal plain habitat found to the south of the Western Interior Seaway.

This is a beautifully crafted, hand-painted replica of  Bistahieversor, a dinosaur that was only named and scientifically described back in 2010.  It is an exciting addition to the Collecta range of prehistoric animal models and it is great to see more tyrannosaurids represented, especially feathered ones.

To view Everything Dinosaur’s range of Collecta prehistoric animal models: Collecta Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models

1:40 Scale Collecta Deluxe Therizinosaurus Video Review

A Video Review of the Collecta Deluxe 1:40 Therizinosaurus Dinosaur Model

Those clever manufacturers Collecta have made an excellent replica of the bizarre Theropod dinosaur known as Therizinosaurus.  We at Everything Dinosaur have made a short video review of this new for 2014 replica.  In this short video (six minutes and fifty seconds), we look at this model in more detail, discuss the fossil discoveries and compare this replica to the smaller, not to scale Therizinosaur model introduced by Collecta a couple of years ago now.

Everything Dinosaurs 1:40 Scale Collecta Therizinosaurus Video Review

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

In this video we introduce Sir Arthur Gauge.  Sir Arthur is the name of the human replica that is included with many of the 1:40 Deluxe Collecta models.  He provides a scale for the replica in question.   In this particular case, estimating the scale of the Collecta Deluxe Therizinosaurus model is quite difficult, the fragmentary fossil material makes it tricky to provide a size guide for a fully grown animal. Some palaeontologists believe that Therizinosaurus cheloniformis weighed more than five tonnes and was over ten metres long.  Based on our estimates, we calculate that this figure is around 1:35 to 1:40 scale.

Sir Arthur Gauge Provides a Guide to Scale Size

A clever way to provide a scale for dinosaur models.

A clever way to provide a scale for dinosaur models.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view Everything Dinosaur’s range of Collecta Deluxe scale models: Collecta Deluxe Scale Prehistoric Animal Models

 Those impressive claws, are very well depicted.  The largest manual unguals (claw cores) associated with T. cheloniformis measure over seventy centimetres in length.  In life, with the horny sheath covering the largest claws would have been around a metre long.

The Bizarre but Spectacular Therizinosaurus

A pair of Therizinosaurs.

A pair of Therizinosaurs.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Collecta Mosasaurus Model Video Review

The Collecta Mosasaurus Model Video Review

The first account of a Mosasaur fossil was written in 1764, so 2014 marks the 250th anniversary of the publication of this information.  The fossil was found in Holland, near the town of Maastricht and here Everything Dinosaur team members contribute to the Mosasaur database by publishing our video review of the excellent Mosasaurus model made by Collecta.

Everything Dinosaurs Video Review of the Collecta Mosasaurus

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Collecta made a not-to-scale replica of the Mosasaur known as Tylosaurus a few years ago now, this new, larger replica brings the Mosasauridae right up to date with pterygoid teeth depicted on the roof of the mouth and a spectacular tail fluke.  In this short video, (six minutes, forty-eight seconds), we point out these details and explain how this model reflects some of the latest scientific research on these amazing marine reptiles.

To view Everything Dinosaur’s range of Collecta figures: Collecta Prehistoric Animal Models

To read an article which reports on the study of a Mosasaur fossil specimen that provides evidence of a tail fluke: Mosasaurs – A Shark’s Tale

In the video, we also touch upon the chosen colour scheme of this model.  It does remind us of the markings on the extant Whale Shark (Rhincodon typus), the biggest fish alive today.  The largest members of the Mosasaurus genus would have grown to around the same length of a Whale Shark, perhaps fourteen metres or more, but the Whale Shark would have been many times heavier.  Whale Sharks may be gentle, slow-swimming plankton feeders but the Mosasaurs were fast-swimming, predators with the likes of Mosasaurus hoffmanni, whose fossils have been found in Holland, preying on other large marine vertebrates such as Plesiosaurs, large fish and turtles.

Super Colouration on this Mosasaurus Model

Fearsome marine predator from Collecta due in 2014.

Fearsome marine predator from Collecta.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

These reptiles were believed to have been predators of the surface waters.  Many palaeontologists think that these animals had relatively poor, stereoscopic vision so they would have most likely avoided the darker, deeper water, preferring to hunt in the relative shallows.  Whale Sharks tend to swim in the top 100 metres or so of the sea as they collect food with their huge, cavernous mouths, this might explain the colouration chosen for the Mosasaurus replica.

To read an article about the study of organic material found by Swedish scientists as they examined a Mosasaur specimen: Soft Tissue in a Mosasaur Fossil?

Recently, palaeontologists identified a species of Mosasaur that lived in freshwater, to read about this discovery: Freshwater Mosasaur from Hungary

A Video Review of the Collecta Arsinoitherium Model

Collecta 1:20 Scale Deluxe Arsinoitherium Reviewed

Another day and another video review to post up onto the Everything Dinosaur blog, this time a video review of the Collecta Deluxe 1:20 scale model of Arsinoitherium.  One of the most bizarre-looking mammals that ever existed, if team members at Everything Dinosaur were asked to sum up this huge, plant-eater in one sentence, something like “here was a distant relative of elephants, that looked a bit like a rhinoceros and probably lived a bit like a hippopotamus”, would probably be appropriate.

The Collecta Arsinoitherium Model Reviewed

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The video runs for seven minutes and in the video we review this model, assign a species name to it and discuss what the fossil record tells us about these ancient creatures that roamed what was to become Egypt around thirty million years ago.  We even suggest some uses for those enormous horns that grew out of the skull.  The Arsinoitheres died out during the Mid Oligocene epoch and there is not a single species of animal alive today that is directly descended from this group, which is a shame.

To view Everything Dinosaur’s range of Collecta Deluxe models, including Arsinoitherium: Collecta Deluxe Models

Collecta Carcharodontosaurus – A Video Review

Collecta Deluxe Carcharodontosaurus Dinosaur Model Reviewed (Video)

With a new batch of Collecta Deluxe Carcharodontosaurus dinosaur models newly installed into our warehouse, it was time to make a brief video review of this dinosaur model.  Introduced  by Collecta in 2014, in the company’s Deluxe range of scale models of prehistoric animals, this replica of potentially one of the largest meat-eating dinosaurs that ever lived, has proved to be a big hit.  In this short video (seven minutes and twenty-two seconds), team members at Everything Dinosaur discuss the model in detail and provide information on the fossil discoveries made in Africa.

Everything Dinosaur’s Video Review of the Collecta Carcharodontosaurus

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

In this video we hint at the role that the sea may have played in the evolution of carcharodontosaurids and their eventual extinction.  A blog article has been prepared which provides further information on this theory.

To read the blog article: The Evolution and Extinction of the African Carcharodontosauridae

To view Carcharodontosaurus and other Collecta scale models available at Everything Dinosaur: Collecta Deluxe Scale Prehistoric Animal Models

This dinosaur genus provides and exemplar for the way in which study of the Dinosauria has progressed in the last decade or so.  The genus was erected in 1931 and it had one species assigned to it.  However, fossil discoveries in the late 1990′s led to the description of a second species (Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis).  This new species was announced just seven years ago.  It is likely that more species of carcharodontosaurid dinosaur (and abelisaurid, for that matter), will be discovered in Africa.

Look out for more news on the “shark toothed lizards”.

In the meantime, check out Everything Dinosaur’s article on the announcement of the second species of Carcharodontosaurus species from 2007: New Giant African Meat-Eater

A Video Review of the Collecta Saurophaganax Dinosaur Model

Collecta Saurophaganax – A Video Review

Everything Dinosaur team members have been busy writing scripts for video reviews on the latest batch of Collecta prehistoric animal models to be received into our warehouse.  The first of these model reviews features Saurophaganax, arguably one of the biggest meat-eating dinosaurs known to science.  In this short (six minutes, thirteen seconds) video, we look at the Collecta Saurophaganax in more detail, explain why there is still confusion over this genus and reflect on how a 145 million year old dinosaur is still capable of harming people today.

Everything Dinosaur’s Review of the Collecta Saurophaganax Dinosaur Model

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view Everything Dinosaur’s range of Collecta prehistoric animals: Collecta Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models

Collecta have made a number of allosaurid models, they certainly have expanded their model range in recent years and this Collecta Saurophaganax dinosaur model is a super addition to the company’s not-to-scale model series.

Collecta Dead Stegosaurus Dinosaur Model Reviewed

Stegosaurus Corpse from Collecta in the Spotlight

The model making company called Collecta have recently added a replica of a dead Stegosaurus to their prehistoric animals model range.  This is the second dinosaur corpse introduced by Collecta, the Stegosaurus following the Triceratops carcase that was added in 2012.

The Collecta Stegosaurus Corpse Dinosaur Model

Attacked by an Allosaurus?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Stegosaurus is one of the easiest to recognise dinosaurs with its rows of plates running along its back and the spikes on its tail.  The Stegosauria is actually represented by a large number of different genera, these  herbivorous dinosaurs probably first appeared in Asia, and then migrated to North America, Africa and into Europe.  The type of Stegosaur that most people are familiar with has the plate layout and spikes seen in this Collecta replica, representing a Stegosaurus from the Late Jurassic of the western United States.

Most model collectors and young dinosaur fans have several Stegosaurus models in their collections, however, the introduction of a Stegosaur corpse will help model makers to create an authentic scene reflecting life in the Late Jurassic.  This Stegosaurus has been attacked and killed by a large meat-eating dinosaur, potentially something like an Allosaurus or possibly another member of the allosaurid family called a Saurophaganax.  Coincidently, both an Allosaurus and a Saurophaganax model are made by Collecta and available from Everything Dinosaur.

Collecta Stegosaurus Corpse and the Collecta Saurophaganax Dinosaur Model

Food for a dinosaur?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Stegosaurus corpse measures 18 centimetres in length and although it is not part of a scale model series,  it is designed to fit approximately to the scale of a number of Late Jurassic dinosaur models made by Collecta in the same figure range.  The model is very well sculpted with lots of detail, we particularly appreciate the fine wrinkles and folds depicted as part of the skin texture.

If we focus on the topside of the model, for the moment, we can see that the body cavity has been opened exposing the ribs and parts of the intestinal tract.   A nice touch from the artists at Collecta are the rivulets of partially congealed blood that can be seen on the lower portion of the belly.

Lots of Detail on the Stegosaurus Figure

Some gory details on this Collecta Stegosaurus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

There are deep wounds visible in the upper arm/shoulder area and also at the back of the thigh.  These wounds are probably post-mortem, that is they occurred as the carcase was fed upon and they were not the result of any injuries from combat.  The thigh bone along with the humerus and the scapula, the shoulder blades, supported large muscles and it is these fleshy areas along with organs such as the liver that were likely to have been consumed first by any predator.

To view the Collecta range of prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: Collecta Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models

If we consider the underside of the model, we can see evidence of a bite on one of those famous back plates and there is a small bite mark on the tail.  The most obvious flesh wound is a large wound  at the top of the neck.  The design team at Collecta probably wanted to indicate that this was the fatal injury that brought this large herbivore down.  Clearly from what we can see in this replica, the model makers have taken great care to depict the Stegosaurus corpse and to reflect the pathology seen in the model, to what may very probably have happened in a fight to the death between a Stegosaur and a large, meat-eating Theropod dinosaur.

A corpse such as this would have provided a large carnivore, an Allosaurus for example, with enough food to keep the animal going for several weeks.  Without a better understanding of dinosaur metabolism, how long a single Stegosaur corpse could have sustained a big meat-eater is open to speculation.  However, the carcase would have attracted a lot of scavengers and if this skeleton had been preserved as part of the fossil record, palaeontologists would probably have found gouge marks on the bones and evidence of feeding by smaller dinosaurs, perhaps even broken teeth in association with the Stegosaur remains.

The model is beautifully painted. The Stegosaur has a bluey/green body with a lighter underside and the plates and tail spikes are painted a combination of orange and brown.  It is a skilfully crafted dinosaur replica.

Papo Baby Triceratops – A Written Review

Papo Baby Triceratops Gets Reviewed

The last of the 2014 model introductions into the Papo range has arrived at Everything Dinosaur, it is the baby Triceratops replica and this is our review of this Papo dinosaur model.

Although Triceratops fossil material accounts for nearly forty percent of all the dinosaur fossils excavated from the famous Hell Creek Formation of the United States, fossils of baby dinosaurs are exceptionally rare.  Although there have been a few examples, including fragmentary elements of skull material from juvenile Triceratops often found in association with the bones of adult animals.  This association of bones from younger animals found with the fossilised remains of larger, older animals suggests that this horned dinosaur may have lived in small herds or even family groups.

Young, juvenile Triceratops would have relied upon the protection of adult animals.  A herd structure made up of dinosaurs of different ages would have made an effective defensive strategy against attacks from marauding Tyrannosaurs.

The Baby Triceratops Dinosaur Model from Papo

New for 2014 from Papo

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view Papo Dinosaur models at Everything Dinosaur: Papo Prehistoric Animal Models

The new baby Triceratops model manufactured by Papo measures around ten centimetres in length and the head with its small, brow horns and neck crest stands around five and a half centimetres high.  It is not possible to determine the age.  However, in 1997 the thirty centimetre long, nearly complete skull of a juvenile Triceratops was collected from the Montana portion of the Hell Creek Formation.  Its brow horns, horns that would grow to be more than a metre long in adults, were only a couple of inches in size and it was estimated that this specimen was around a year old or thereabouts.

The Papo baby Triceratops is obviously well fed as the model makers at Papo have given their replica a big stomach and there are lots of skin detail to admire both on the top and on the underside of this figure.  Along the back, the model has been given rows of larger scales, which are painted an off-white colour to help them stand out against the metallic grey colouration of the flanks, limbs and down the tail.  It has even been described as looking quite cute.

A Cute Baby Triceratops Dinosaur Model

Cute for a Triceratops?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The head shows lots of detail and reflects the fossil material found in Montana back in 1997.  The face has a greenish tint to it and the skull crest has been painted a sandy colour, with larger scales highlighted in black.  Interestingly, the neck shield has definite scalloped edges to it, these wavy edges were replaced in fully mature animals by the development of triangular scales along the edge of the adult frill.  The neck shield of this Papo model reflects quite accurately what is now known about the frills of juvenile Triceratops.

One small point to make about the feet, although the hind feet on this replica have the correct number of toes (four), the front feet are missing a digit.  Triceratops had five digits on its front feet, the Papo  baby Triceratops shows only four digits on its front feet.

This replica with its typical baby dinosaur features, the disproportionately large skull, the big eyes, small horns and short tail, works very well when it is placed alongside the adult Triceratops figure which was introduced by Papo into their prehistoric animal model range sometime ago.

Two Triceratops Models Available from Everything Dinosaur

The baby Triceratops figure next to the adult Papo Triceratops

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

All in all this is an excellent young Triceratops dinosaur model.  For example, if you look very closely at the open jaws ,details of the animal’s palate can be made out in the roof of the mouth along with a small, pink tongue filling the lower jaw.  This replica is a welcome addition to the Papo model range.

Collecta Dead Stegosaurus Model – A Video Review

A Video Review of the Collecta Dead Stegosaurus Corpse

The second, deceased dinosaur model to be included in the Collecta prehistoric animal replicas range is a model of a Stegosaurus corpse.  In this brief video (five minutes, thirty-two seconds), Everything Dinosaur looks at this dinosaur model in more detail and comments on the quality of this replica as well as explaining the pattern of the wounds such as the bite marks on the body.

Everything Dinosaur’s Video Review (Collecta Stegosaurus Corpse)

Video Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Most prehistoric animal model collectors have a number of Stegosaurs in their collection, thanks to Collecta, they can now obtain an authentic replica of a dead Stegosaurus, which is ideal for dioramas and for creating prehistoric scenes.  Bring on the Theropods.

To see the range of Collecta prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur: Collecta Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models

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