All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
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15 07, 2018

Carboniferous Fossils on a Welsh Hillside

By | July 15th, 2018|Geology, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Mynydd Marian Nature Reserve and Fossils

Overlooking the Welsh coast between Llandudno and Rhyl is the beautiful but quite compact nature reserve of Mynydd Marian.  It forms part of a range of low limestone hills that can be found along this part of the coast of North Wales.  The location, a SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest), is popular with walkers keen to spot the myriad of different insects and the orchids that thrive on the limestone soils.  The exposed cliffs that were once quarried for their limestone, attract local climbing groups.  However, there is plenty to see for fossil hunters too.  The strata were laid down over 320 million years ago (Carboniferous), it was formed from the compressed shells of countless marine invertebrates that thrived in a warm, shallow sea.  If the numerous stone walls are examined carefully, then lots of fossils of brachiopods and the button-like segments of marine crinoids can be spotted.

A Crinoid Segment Spotted in a Dry-stone Wall (Mynydd Marian)

Spotting a piece of a Carboniferous crinoid.

A crinoid stem exposed in a stone wall at Mynydd Marian nature reserve.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

There is little scree to be found and we would not advise climbing the steep faces of the quarry but if the rocks that comprise the stone walls are examined, then many fossils can be seen.

Spotting Fossils at Mynydd Marian Nature Reserve

Spotting fossils at Mynydd Marian

A crinoid segment (red arrow) and a mould revealing the impression of a brachiopod shell (green arrow) on the surrounding rock.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture (above), shows two fossils preserved in the rocks of a dry-stone wall.  The red arrow is pointing to a crinoid segment, whilst the green arrow indicates a mould left in the surrounding matrix by a brachiopod shell.  There is no need to disturb the rocks in the wall, careful observation is all that is required and you will soon start to discern the different types of fossil.

An Impression of the Shell of a Brachiopod preserved in the Limestone

A view of a lost world, an impression of the shell of a brachiopod preserved in the limestone rock.

A glimpse into a lost world, an impression of the shell of a brachiopod preserved in the limestone.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

14 07, 2018

Rare Gomphotherium Skull from France

By | July 14th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Local Farmer Gives Up His Gomphotherium Skull Secret

Sacré bleu!  A French farmer working on his land using a large excavator uncovered the fossilised remains of a prehistoric elephant.  However, rather than notify the authorities, it was decided to keep quiet about the fossil find, complete with tusks and large molars, some of which measured more than ten centimetres in length.  The discovery was made in the summer of 2014 by an inhabitant of the village of L’Isle-en-Dodon, about forty-five miles south-west of Toulouse in southern France.  However, the accidental unearthing of a large elephant skull, must have weighed heavy on the person’s conscience, as three years later, scientists from the Musee d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse (Natural History Museum of Toulouse), were informed and a field team was despatched to excavate the site and to remove the prehistoric elephant skull so that this important discovery could be properly prepared and studied.

The Gomphotherium Skull at the Natural History Museum of Toulouse

A fossil Gomphotherium skull from south-west France.

The Gomphotherium fossil skull from south-west France.

Picture Credit: Musee d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse

Gomphotherium – A Rare Fossil Skull

Gomphotheres (Gomphotheriidae), were a large and very diverse group of prehistoric elephants that had a wide temporal and geographical distribution.  Fossils of these elephants, only distantly related to today’s elephants, have been found in Asia, Africa, North and Central America as well as Europe and a number of species have been named and described.  The first scientific descriptions of these members of the Order Proboscidea was made by the French naturalist Georges Cuvier in the early part of the nineteenth century.  Ironically, much of Cuvier’s research was based on elephant fossils discovered in south-western France, the same part of France, where this fossil skull was uncovered.  Cuvier recognised that the fossils (mostly molars), represented elephants and he erected the species name Mastodon angustidens.  It was the German zoologist Karl Hermann Konrad Burmeister, who revised Cuvier’s work, distinguishing these elephants from the Mastodonts and erected their own taxonomic family – the Gomphotheres.

A Scale Drawing of a Typical Gomphothere (G. angustidens)

Gomphotherium scale drawing.

A scale drawing of a Gomphotherium.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Concerned About Amateur Fossil Hunters

The farmer, who remains anonymous, wished to avoid the attentions of amateur fossil hunters.  It was feared that if news of the fossil discovery had got out, the farm might have been inundated by fossil collectors keen to find more prehistoric animal remains.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“The unwanted attention that such an important fossil find could have generated would have proved very disruptive for the farm, so it is understandable that the farmer did not want to attract too much publicity.  However, it is pleasing to note that the appropriate authorities have been informed and that this important specimen can be studied properly.”

A Still from a Video Shows the Gomphotherium Skull being Examined

Discussing the French Gomphotherium fossil skull.

Examining the Gomphotherium fossil skull.

Picture Credit: France TV/Musee d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse

The model manufacturer CollectA has recently introduced a 1:20 scale Gomphotherium replica into their Deluxe Prehistoric Life model range.  A picture of this new CollectA Gomphotherium replica can be seen below.

The New for 2018 CollectA Gomphotherium Model

CollectA Gomphotherium.

The CollectA 1:20 scale Gomphotherium model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the CollectA Deluxe range of prehistoric animal models including the recently introduced Gomphotherium: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Animal Models

The fossil skull will take about six to nine months to prepare, the researchers at the Natural History Museum of Toulouse hope to learn more about southern European Gomphotheres from this specimen, it is likely that this significant fossil discovery will be put on public display at the museum, providing an opportunity for visitors to learn more about the areas prehistoric past.

A View of the Upper Tusks Protruding from the Gomphotherium Skull

One of two pairs of tusks associated with Gomphotherium skull material.

A close view of the upper tusks of the Gomphotherium skull fossil.

Picture Credit: France TV/Musee d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse

13 07, 2018

Young Palaeontologist Asks Questions About Dinosaurs

By | July 13th, 2018|Educational Activities, Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

Ethan Asks About Dinosaurs

Budding young palaeontologist Ethan and his friends at Longmoor Community Primary School in Liverpool (north-west England), have been learning all about dinosaurs and life in the past this term, aided and supported by their Reception class teachers.  Whilst on a visit to the school to work with class 1 and class 2 to deliver a dinosaur and fossil themed workshop, our dinosaur expert was presented with a list of questions that Ethan had prepared.

Ethan’s Questions About Dinosaurs

Asking questions about dinosaurs.

Ethan presented Everything Dinosaur with some questions.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Longmoor Community Primary School

Questions About Dinosaurs Prepared at Home

Ethan’s teacher informed us that many of the children had thought of questions about prehistoric animals as they progressed through their term topic.  These questions had been pinned up onto the classroom display board and the eager fossil hunters in the Reception classes had set about researching the answers as they enthusiastically learned about dinosaurs.  Ethan had prepared his questions at home, he had set his own homework.  The classroom was filled with lots of examples of the children’s work, including super writing, “cotton bud skeletons” and dinosaur fact sheets that the children had made.  The classes had even built their own dinosaur museum!

Drawings of Dinosaurs Produced by Reception Class

Dinosaur drawings from Reception.

Class 2 produced some wonderful dinosaur drawings.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Longmoor Community Primary School

Ethan’s Questions

Ethan wanted to know did Tyrannosaurus rex eat meat?

T. rex was definitely a meat-eater (carnivore).  Palaeontologists can get a good idea about what an extinct animal ate by studying their fossil teeth.  Tyrannosaurus rex is regarded as a hypercarnivore, this means that it got at least 70% of its food from eating other animals.  Cats are also regarded as hypercarnivores, which means, if you have a pet cat, it probably loves eating meat as much as T. rex did!

Ethan asked does a Spinosaurus eat fish?

The jaws of Spinosaurus were very long and they were filled with up to two hundred, sharp and very pointed teeth.  These teeth would have been ideal for catching and holding slippery fish.  Palaeontologists know that when Spinosaurus roamed North Africa about 100 million years ago, there were lots of large lakes and rivers that teemed with fish.  Fossils of this large, dinosaur are usually found near ancient sources of water.  In 1975, part of a fossilised jaw of a Spinosaurus was found and it had a bone from a huge sawfish called Onchopristis (Onk-coe-pris-tis) stuck in it.  Palaeontologists also believe that Spinosaurus spent a lot of its time in water, so it is very likely that Spinosaurus did eat fish.  An animal that eats fish is called a piscivore (pie-see-vore).

A Picture of a Spinosaurus Going for a Swim

Spinosaurus swimming.

Spinosaurus – very much at home in the water.  An Onchopristis (sawfish) is trying to avoid being eaten.

Picture Credit: Davide Bonnadonna, Nizar Ibrahim, Simone Maganuco

Pelicans, otters and penguins are also piscivores, can you name any other animals that also eat fish?

Ethan and his friends in the Reception classes at Longmoor Community Primary have had great fun learning all about dinosaurs this term.

12 07, 2018

In the Pink! Life’s First Colour

By | July 12th, 2018|Geology, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Scientists Identify the World’s Oldest Biological Colours

A team of international scientists including researchers from the University of Liège, Florida State University and the Australian National University, in collaboration with a colleague based in Japan have discovered the oldest colours preserved in the fossil record.  An analysis of the remains of microscopic, 1.1 billion-year-old cyanobacteria suggest that life back in the Proterozoic was “in the pink”.  Pink coloured pigments have been extracted from ancient marine shales that form part of the Taoudeni Basin of Mauritania (north-western Africa).

When Held Up in the Light the Pink Colouration can be Seen

A vial of pink pigments porphyrins - representing the oldest intact pigments in the world.

The oldest colours found to date.

Picture Credit: Australian National University

One of the authors of the scientific paper, published in the “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA”, Dr Nur Gueneli (Australian National University), explained that the pigments taken from the marine black shales were more than six hundred million years older than previous pigment discoveries.

Dr Gueneli commented:

“The bright pink pigments are the molecular fossils of chlorophyll that were produced by ancient photosynthetic organisms inhabiting an ancient ocean that has long since vanished.”

Samples of the shales laid down during the Stenian, the last geological period of the Mesoproterozoic Era, were ground into fine powder before the ancient molecules of long extinct cyanobacteria could be extracted and analysed.  The fossils reveal a range of colours from a blood red to a deep purple in their concentrated form, but when diluted, it is the colour pink that dominates.

Dr Gueneli, who undertook this research whilst studying for a PhD added:

“The precise analysis of the ancient pigments confirmed that tiny cyanobacteria dominated the base of the food chain in the oceans a billion years ago, which helps to explain why animals did not exist at the time.”

Lack of Things for Higher Organisms to Eat

Complicated animal life was not able to evolve, according to one hypothesis, as it was restrained by the lack of food in the ocean.  In essence, life on Earth could not pick up the evolutionary pace as food webs were constrained by the amount of primary producers in the ecosystem.  Through the team’s discovery of molecular fossils of the photopigment chlorophyll in 1.1-billion-year-old marine sedimentary rocks, they were able to quantify the abundance of different organisms that uses the sun’s energy to produce food (phototrophs).  Nitrogen isotopic values of the fossil pigments revealed that the Pan-African Ocean was dominated by cyanobacteria, while larger planktonic algae were very scarce.  These findings support the hypothesis that small cells at the base of the food chain limited the flow of energy to higher trophic levels, potentially retarding the emergence of large and complex life.

Associate Professor Jochen Brooks, of the Research School of Earth Sciences (Australian National University), one of the authors of the scientific paper, stated that the emergence of more complex life forms was likely to have been restricted by the limited supply of larger food particles, such as algae.

Associate Professor Brooks explained:

“Algae, although still microscopic, are a thousand times larger in volume than cyanobacteria, and are a much richer food source.  The cyanobacterial oceans started to vanish about 650 million years ago, when algae began to rapidly spread to provide the burst of energy needed for the evolution of complex ecosystems, where large animals, including humans, could thrive on Earth.”

11 07, 2018

The Selenopeltis Slab (Trilobites Galore)

By | July 11th, 2018|Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

The Selenopeltis Slab (Trilobites Galore)

In a far corner on the ground floor of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, there can be found an amazing trilobite fossil exhibit.  This piece of sandstone preserves the remains of three different genera of trilobites, a death assemblage that attests to the diversity and success of these marine arthropods.  The fossil, which was acquired by the museum in 2005, is known as “the Selenopeltis Slab”.

Fantastic Fossils – The Selenopeltis Slab

Trilobite fossils - the Selenopeltis slab.

Trilobites galore – the Selenopeltis slab.  Can you identify three different types of trilobite?

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

From the Ordovician Period

A slab of sandstone from the Mecissi-Alnif area of Morocco preserves the fossilised remains of three genera of trilobite.  The sandstone was deposited some 450 million years ago (Ordovician), a time when invertebrates dominated oceanic biotas.  The trilobite Selenopeltis is the most common fossil arthropod on the slab, it is characterised by the presence of long spines on both flanks of the body.  The second genus Calymenella, is a large, elongate trilobite with an evenly rounded outline. The third type of trilobite represented in this mass death assemblage is Dalmanitina, a smaller animal with a long spine extending backwards from the posterior end of the pygidium (tail piece).

The sandstone slab also contains the fossilised remains of numerous brittle stars, a type of echinoderm related to starfish, (look for the small, disc-like bodies with five, slender, tapering arms).

10 07, 2018

Bullyland Ammonite at the Museum

By | July 10th, 2018|Educational Activities, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Bullyland Ammonite on Display

We spotted an old friend whilst on a visit to the Oxford University Museum of Natural History (Oxford, England).  In a display case showing fossils of ammonites we noted that a Bullyland ammonite replica had been placed inside the display case to give visitors an idea of what an ammonite actually looked like.  Ammonite fossil shells may be relatively common, but it is surprising how few people understand that living inside the shell was an animal with tentacles, a creature related to today’s squid, cuttlefish and octopus.

 Spotted in a Museum Display Case – the Bullyland Ammonite Replica

We spotted a Bullyland ammonite model being used to help illustrate a display of ammonite fossils.

A Bullyland ammonite model is used to help illustrate a display of ammonite fossils.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A Robust Ammonite Replica

The ammonite model from Bullyland is a robust replica of this iconic mollusc primarily known from the fossil record of the Mesozoic.  It is a super addition to any fossil fan’s collection.  Ideal for creative play, school or home study and for use in museums as the display case at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History testifies.  It is wonderful to see a Bullyland figure used in such a way, helping to educate and inform.

To view the Bullyland ammonite model and the rest of the figures in the Bullyland range available from Everything Dinosaur: Bullyland Models and Figures

The Bullyland Ammonite Figure as it Appears on the Everything Dinosaur Website

Bullyland ammonite model.

The Bullyland ammonite replica.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Helping Out at Many Museums we Suspect

Lots of museums have fossils of ammonites within their invertebrate fossil collections, we suspect that many curators and exhibition managers have taken advantage of this excellent replica and used it to help illustrate what these enigmatic cephalopods looked like.  After all, when our team members visit schools to conduct dinosaur and fossil themed workshops, we use this same Bullyland ammonite to explain to children which bit of an animal is likely to become a fossil and which bits are not likely to fossilise.

At a little under eighteen centimetres in length and with a shell diameter of around nine centimetres, this model was certainly at home amongst the Jurassic ammonite fossils on display.  Seeing the Bullyland ammonite replica being used in a museum got us thinking, are there any other examples of prehistoric animal models and figures being incorporated into a scientific exhibition or display?

It was a pleasure to peruse part of the extensive fossil collection at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History and to discover an old friend.

9 07, 2018

Triassic Dinosaurs Just Got a Lot Bigger!

By | July 9th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Ingentia prima – Giant Late Triassic Sauropodomorph from Argentina

Argentina might have been home to huge, plant-eating dinosaurs associated with Cretaceous-aged strata, after all, one of the biggest terrestrial vertebrates known to science is the Titanosaur called Argentinosaurus (A. huinculensis), just one of a number of super-sized leviathans from this part of the world.  However, a team of scientists, writing in the academic journal “Nature Ecology & Evolution” have announced the discovery of yet another giant, South American dinosaur, but this time one that roamed northern Argentina around 210 million years ago, in the Late Triassic.

The dinosaur, classified as a member of the Sauropodomorpha, has been named Ingentia prima and it was certainly very big for a Late Triassic animal, with an estimated body weight of around ten tonnes and a length of approximately ten metres.  To provide a comparison, the Sauropodomorph Plateosaurus (P. engelhardti), from the Late Triassic of western Europe, that would have been a contemporary of Ingentia prima, is estimated to have reached a length of about eight metres with a body mass of around four tonnes.  The later Sauropodomorph Lufengosaurus (L. huenei), from the Early Jurassic of China, might have been around six metres long and is estimated to have weighed more than 1.5 tonnes, Ingentia is much, much bigger.

Sauropodomorpha Size Comparison

Sauropodamorpha size comparison.

Sauropodomorpha size comparison Plateosaurus, Lufengosaurus and Ingentia prima compared.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur with I. prima illustration by Jorge A. González

First Giant

The discovery of Ingentia prima does rather upset the dinosaurian apple cart.  It had been thought that gigantism in the Sauropodomorphs evolved in the Early Jurassic, however, here was a ten-tonne giant, comparable in size to those Early Jurassic Sauropods that roamed some thirty-five million years later.  The evolution of giant, plant-eating, long-necked dinosaurs came about as a result of the development of numerous anatomical characteristics but I. prima displays many features of the body plan of basal, small Sauropodomorphs and lacks most of the anatomical traits previously regarded as adaptations to gigantism.

The Fossilised Material in the Field (Partial Exposure)

Ingentia prima fossils.

The fossil material representing a single, large individual dinosaur is partially exposed.

Picture Credit: Cecilia Apaldetti

Lead author of the scientific paper, Dr Cecilia Apaldetti (Universidad Nacional de San Juan, San Juan, Argentina), commented:

“It [Ingentia] was enormous.  It was at least twice as large as the other herbivores of the time and until now it was believed the first giants to inhabit the Earth originated in the Jurassic, about 180  million years ago.”

The dinosaur’s scientific name pays tribute to its size, the name translates from the Latin to “first giant”.  It had been thought, that if the first dinosaurs appeared around 230 million years ago, it took fifty million years for the first giants to evolve, the discovery of a partial skeleton in San Juan Province (north-western Argentina), has changed all that.

Quebrada del Barro Formation

The fossil material consisting of shoulder blades, cervical vertebrae (neck bones) and elements from the forelimbs, heralds from the Quebrada del Barro Formation.  The Ingentia fossil material was found adjacent to the fossilised remains of three individuals belonging to the already known and closely related species Lessemsaurus sauropoides, which had been named and scientifically described back in 1999.

The researchers, in addition to describing I. prima formally for the first time, were able to examine the three new specimens of Lessemsaurus sauropoides.  Ingentia has been placed in a newly erected family of long-necked dinosaurs, the Lessemsauridae, a branch of the Sauropoda that evolved gigantic forms like the later Eusauropods (true Sauropods).  The Eusauropoda includes those famous Jurassic giants such as Diplodocus, Brontosaurus and Brachiosaurus, as well as the later Titanosaurs such as the mighty Argentinosaurus, which roamed Argentina some 115 million years after Ingentia became extinct.

Circular Saws were used to Help Extract the Large Fossil Bones

Extracting the fossils of Ingentia prima.

Circular saws were used to remove the larger blocks of fossils after they had been jacketed.

Picture Credit: Cecilia Apaldetti

Why so Big?

Early Sauropodomorphs were small, agile bipeds, but the ancestors of Ingentia adopted a different evolutionary strategy.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Developing a larger gut would allow more effective processing of tough vegetation, enabling these types of dinosaurs to extract more nutrients from the plants that they consumed.  Furthermore, by becoming big, these dinosaurs would have had less to fear from the predators that shared their environment, including Theropod dinosaurs.  If you are very large, a meat-eating dinosaur might avoid you and look for an easier meal elsewhere.  Becoming a giant is an evolutionary strategy found in a number of herbivorous animals”.

The Remarkable Skeleton of Ingentia prima

The lessemsaurids (Ingentia, Lessemsaurus and a third Early Jurassic dinosaur from South Africa named Antetonitrus), may have lacked the extremely long necks found in later Eusauropods, but their bones reveal some remarkable adaptations nonetheless.  Pneumatic structures have been identified in the vertebrae (air sacs), this indicates that these dinosaurs had a sophisticated and extremely efficient bird-like respiratory system.  These air sacs will have also helped to prevent these animals from overheating, a problem with large creatures, (surface area to volume ratio – hence one of the reasons why African elephants have large ears).  This kind of respiratory system implies the presence of cavities in their bones – a pneumatised skeleton that would have helped to lighten the animal and make locomotion more efficient.

Although Ingentia shows these adaptations to gigantism, it lacks many of the features associated with the later Sauropods.  For example, its legs were more bent and not the huge, weight-bearing columns associated with the Diplodocidae and the Macronaria.

The Remarkable Bones and Respiratory System of Ingentia prima

The sophisticated respiratory system of Ingentia prima.

The air sacs of Ingentia (green) the lungs shown in brown.

Picture Credit: Jorge A. González

A Dinosaur Ahead of Its Time

The quality of bone preservation permitted the research team to examine the histology of the dinosaur’s bones.  The scientists compared the bone growth in the new fossils with those of an earlier, bipedal Sauropodomorph as well as a later Eusauropod.  The histology of the earlier Sauropodomorph revealed a cyclical growth pattern, the animal growing in spurts, whereas, the Eusauropod bones, when examined in cross-section, revealed another pattern of growth.  This dinosaur grew acyclically, growing throughout its long life.  Members of the newly erected Lessemsauridae family grew differently.  Their bones show evidence of growth spurts, a trait found in their ancestors but when they grew, they really put on a spurt.  The researchers identified a growth rate of around two to three times faster than the already impressive rate of the later Eusauropods.

Ingentia demonstrates that the first wave of colossal giant dinosaurs evolved some thirty-five million years earlier than previously thought.  In addition, with an accelerated growth rate, unique limb adaptations and a bird-like respiratory system, the Lessemsauridae got big but they did it in a different way when compared to the later long-necked dinosaurs.

When it comes to the “LESSemsauridae” – Less may actually mean more…

The scientific paper: “An Early Trend Towards Gigantism in Triassic Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs” by Cecilia Apaldetti, Ricardo N. Martínez, Ignacio A. Cerda, Diego Pol & Oscar Alcober published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution.

8 07, 2018

JurassicCollectables Reviews the Rebor “War Pigs”

By | July 8th, 2018|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Product Reviews|0 Comments

A Video Review of the Rebor “War Pigs- Ankylosaurus Figures

The latest JurassicCollectables video to be posted up on their YouTube channel features not one, but three Rebor replicas to be exact.  All three of the recently introduced Ankylosaurus 1:35 scale figures have been reviewed in a single video, permitting collectors and dinosaur model fans to get a really good close up look at these armoured dinosaurs and compare the three different colour schemes.  Palaeontologists are not sure in which habitat Ankylosaurus (A. magniventris) lived, so Rebor  have cleverly introduced three different versions – “plain”, “mountain”and  “woodland”.

JurassicCollectables Reviews All Three War Pigs – “Plain”, “Mountain” and “Woodland”

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Video Credit: JurassicCollectables

A Flexible Bony Club Tail

In this detailed and most informative review, (the video lasts a little under nineteen minutes), viewers are given the opportunity to have a really good look at all three of these skilfully crafted replicas of one of the most famous plant-eating dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous.  In the video, viewers are shown just how flexible that bony club tail is.  The figure comes as a two-piece set, the tail can be inserted into a slot and this saves on packaging and helps to protect the tail and the rest of the figure during transit.  Once inserted, the tail can be moved into a variety of poses, collectors can depict their Ankylosaurus model swinging its club tail.

JurassicCollectables Demonstrating the Flexible Bony Club Tail

The flexible tail of the Rebor War Pig - Ankylosaurus

Demonstrating the flexible tail of the Rebor War Pig Ankylosaurus (Mountain colour variant).

Picture Credit: JurassicCollectables

The head of each model can also be twisted and put into a variety of poses.  This is not demonstrated in the video, but JurassicCollectables cover this point in their most helpful comments section.

To view the Rebor War Pig Ankylosaurus replicas and the entire Rebor prehistoric animal model range: Rebor Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Replicas

“Magnificent Fused Lizard”

Although named and scientifically described around 110 years ago and now representing an entire family of armoured dinosaurs (the Ankylosauridae), palaeontologists are increasingly becoming aware of just how atypical this armoured giant actually was.  Rebor’s interpretation follows the principles laid out in several recently published scientific papers and the narrator from JurassicCollectables carefully guides the viewer over some of the finer points of each colour variant.  The close up of the interior of the mouth with its glossy look and the demonstration of the articulated jaw are worthy of special mention, as is the comparison with the Papo Ankylosaurus figure that occurs towards the end of this video review.

The medium of video permits the differences between the three colour schemes to be clearly seen.  The narrator’s personal favourite is “plain”, seen on the left of the picture below.

All Three Rebor War Pigs Shown Together

All Rebor Ankylosaurus models together.

All Rebor War Pig models “Plain”, “Mountain” and “Woodland” shown together.  Which one is your favourite?

Picture Credit: JurassicCollectables

All three figures together make a very impressive display, the idea of providing three distinctive colour schemes for this 1:35 scale replica based on different habitats is an inspirational one from Rebor.

All Three Rebor War Pigs can be Purchased as a Set from Everything Dinosaur (whilst stocks last)

All three Rebor War Pigs are available together as a special set.

All three War Pigs (Ankylosaurus models) are available as a set from Everything Dinosaur (whilst stocks last).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Comparing the Rebor War Pigs with Other Rebor Replicas

Off-colour Alan makes his customary appearance, there is a nice shot of Alan patting the head of one of the Rebor replicas.  JurassicCollectables have built up an extensive database of Rebor model reviews and it is pleasing to note that a size comparison is made using the Rebor Y-rex figure (Yutyrannus huali).

The Rebor Y-rex Figure Compared to the Rebor Ankylosaurus War Pig (Plain Colour Variant)

Rebor War Pig Ankylosaurus (plain) compared to the Rebor Y-rex figure.

The Rebor Y-rex figure (Yutyrannus) compared to the Rebor War Pig Ankylosaurs “plain” colour scheme.

Picture Credit: JurassicCollectables

It is these little touches and these details that really help to make the JurassicCollectable’s YouTube channel stand out from all the other review channels.

Everything Dinosaur recommends the YouTube channel of JurassicCollectables.  Visit the YouTube channel of Jurassic Collectables here: JurassicCollectables on YouTube , don’t forget to subscribe to the JurassicCollectables channel, after all, some 71,000 dinosaur and prehistoric animal model fans already have!

7 07, 2018

Dunkleosteus – A Very Popular Placoderm

By | July 7th, 2018|Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Dunkleosteus – A Very Popular Placoderm

One of the iconic animals of the Devonian is the large, Placoderm predator Dunkleosteus (D. terrelli).  This huge, prehistoric fish with self-sharpening shears for jaws and an armoured head is just one of more than 200 genera of Placoderms described to date, but as it measured around six metres in length, it competed with early sharks for the role of apex marine predator.  The new for 2018 CollectA 1:20 scale replica of this carnivore is one of just a handful of models that have been produced, as such, it is very rare to have any Devonian vertebrates included in the model portfolio from a mainstream manufacturer.

The CollectA 1:20 Scale Replica of Dunkleosteus

The CollectA Dunkleosteus

The CollectA 1:20 scale Dunkleosteus replica which was introduced in 2018.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the CollectA 1:20 scale Dunkleosteus model and the other figures in the CollectA Deluxe range: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life

Dermal Armour Up to Five Centimetres Thick

The formidable, armoured head might have made up more than a third of the animal’s entire body length and there is no doubting that this fish had a ferocious bite, but scratches, puncture wounds and gouges preserved on the dermal plates (which in the very biggest specimens were up to five centimetres thick), attest to the fact that these carnivores were attacked themselves.  Whether this pathology, preserved on the fossils represents a record of attempted predation, or whether these wounds were caused by intraspecific combat remains open to debate.

Intriguingly, if other Dunkleosteus fish did not cause these wounds, then what sort of marine predator did?  Is there some unknown Devonian assailant still awaiting discovery in Late Devonian strata somewhere?

A Reconstructed Skull of Dunkleosteus on Display at the Senckenberg Nature Museum

A Dunkleosteus exhibit.

A Dunkleosteus cast on display at the Senckenberg Nature Museum (Frankfurt, Germany).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Placoderms (Class Placodermi), arose in the Early Silurian and they persisted for tens of millions of years, evolving into a myriad of forms. However, as far as the fossil record goes, there is no record of Placoderms surviving into the Carboniferous.  The last of these armoured fish became extinct at the end of the Devonian (Famennian faunal stage of the Late Devonian).

The CollectA Dunkleosteus Replica

CollectA Dunkleosteus.

CollectA 1:20 scale Deluxe Dunkleosteus model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

6 07, 2018

Win, Win, Win with Everything Dinosaur

By | July 6th, 2018|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Win “You’re Roarsome” – Dinotastic Puns and Quotes

WIN! WIN! WIN! with Everything Dinosaur! 

Everything Dinosaur has teamed up with those clever, creative people at Summersdale Publishers and we have two copies of their latest offering “You’re Roarsome” to give away.  “You’re Roarsome” is an uplifting little book, full of dinosaur themed puns and quotes to rock your world.

Win a Copy of “You’re Roarsome” – (Front Cover Picture)

The front cover of the awesome "You're Roarsome".

“You’re Roarsome” front cover.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Summersdale Publishers

This pocket-sized, prehistoric publication is jam-packed with quotes, sayings and puns to tickle your “funny bone”, enthuse and inspire.  With a pink Tyrannosaurus rex in sunglasses on the front cover and quotes from such luminaries as William Shakespeare, Nelson Mandela and Bruce Lee inside, nothing like this has been published for over 65 million years!

Win a Copy of “You’re Roarsome” in Everything Dinosaur’s Competition

All you have to do is “Like” Everything Dinosaur’s FACEBOOK page, then comment on the “You’re Roarsome” front cover picture, just tell us your favourite dinosaur and we will enter you into our free prize draw.

Everything Dinosaur on FACEBOOK: “LIKE” our Facebook page and enter the competition!

We will draw the lucky winners at random and the “You’re Roarsome” competition closes on midnight Monday 30th July.  Good luck, we hope you win this “Pterrific” little book.

To view Everything Dinosaur’s range of dinosaurs and prehistoric animal models and toys: Everything Dinosaur

Little Snippets of Wisdom, Puns and Quotes

Fossil-fuelled puns and quotes.

Fossil-fuelled puns and quotations.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Summersdale Publishers

Terms and Conditions of the “You’re Roarsome” Competition

Automated entries are not permitted and will be excluded from the draw

Only one entry per person

The prize is non-transferable and no cash alternative will be offered

The Everything Dinosaur  “You’re Roarsome” competition runs until midnight Monday 30th 2018.

Winner will be notified by private message on Facebook.

Prize includes postage and packing

For full terms and conditions contact: Contact Everything Dinosaur

Win, Win, Win with Everything Dinosaur

Win, win, win with Everything Dinosaur.

Win a copy of the “You’re Roarsome” book with Everything Dinosaur.  Like our Facebook page and comment on the front cover picture by telling us your favourite dinosaur to enter this free prize draw.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Summersdale Publishers

“You’re Roarsome” is published in hardback and priced £6.99 (ISBN: 978 1 78685 812 2).

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