All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
/Main Page
25 05, 2017

Ceratopsid Tooth Paper Published (Part 2)

By | May 25th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Owl Creek Ceratopsid Tooth and Palaeoenvironment Implications

Yesterday, team members at Everything Dinosaur published an article on the discovery of a single fossil tooth from a Late Cretaceous horned dinosaur that had been found in Union County (Mississippi).  This discovery, the first evidence of a dinosaur from the Owl Creek Formation, has implications for the way in which palaeontologists perceive the ecosystems that existed on the ancient landmasses of Laramidia and Appalachia.

Museum Specimen 7969- The Ceratopsid Tooth

Fossil tooth of a dinosaur from Mississippi.

Horned dinosaur tooth discovered in Mississippi.

Picture Credit:  Mississippi Museum of Natural Science (MDWFP)

To read yesterday’s article: Ceratopsid Tooth Paper Published (Part 1)

Why So Few Horned Dinosaur Fossils Found in Marine Sediments?

Palaeontologists know that during the latter stages of the Cretaceous, there were many different types of horned dinosaur (Ceratopsian).  Lots of fossil evidence has been discovered in western North America and a myriad of different forms have been described, particularly over the last ten years or so.  The likes of Triceratops may have first been described back in the late 1880’s but so many different horned dinosaur genera have been established in recently times, that numerous vertebrate palaeontologists refer to the last decade as the “Golden Age of Horned Dinosaur Discoveries”.

New Ceratopsian Faces Since 2007

So many different horned dinosaurs.

Illustrations of different horned dinosaurs that have been named since 2006.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur with artwork from Julius Csotonyi, Danielle Dufault and the Canadian Museum of Natural History/Andrey Atuchin

Despite all these horned dinosaur fossil discoveries, the Owl Creek Formation tooth, is one of only a handful of North American Ceratopsian fossils which have been found associated with marine strata.  The question is why?

Duck-billed Dinosaur Fossils in Marine Sediments

Compared to other types of Late Cretaceous dinosaur – ceratopsids, Theropods, ankylosaurids, et al, Hadrosaur fossils are the most common dinosaur fossils to be found in marine rocks laid down towards the end of the Cretaceous.  Duck-billed dinosaur fossils in marine sediments, are hardly what you would call abundant, but in relation to other large, obviously terrestrial dinosaurs, Hadrosaur fossils are more numerous in those rocks associated with having been laid down under the sea.

Although the fossil record shows a degree of bias, dinosaurs such as some of the smaller Theropods and the Pachycephalosaurs may be under-represented for example, this still does not explain why, compared to the Hadrosaurs, the almost equally specious and abundant horned dinosaurs don’t show up in marine deposits.  Ceratopsians may have preferred slightly different habitats than the Hadrosaurs.  Research undertaken in 2010 (Eberth), suggested that most of the horned dinosaur fossil remains were associated with lake, alluvial or coastal plain habitats, at least amongst the Ceratopsidae family.

Ceratopsians Such as Triceratops May Have Preferred Different Habitats Compared to Hadrosaurs

Triceratops dinosaur illustration.

Triceratops may have preferred to live away from rivers.

Picture Credit: Julius Csotonyi

The alluvial, low-lying wetland areas are strongly associated with river channels and these specific areas can be divided into two distinct parts.

  1. The riparian influenced part – the river and the river/channel margins.
  2. The floodplain – areas not adjacent to the river or the channel margins but flooded by the river when the river burst its banks.

Put into simple terms, dinosaurs such as Triceratops have left fossils associated with floodplain (muddy) deposits, whereas, duck-billed dinosaurs such as Edmontosaurus fossils are more associated with fluviatile (sandy) deposits.

If transport along river channels are the most common cause of “bloat and float” carcases, then, the lack of horned dinosaur fossils in marine sediments could be explained by ceratopsids, preferring to live on those parts of the floodplain, not very near to the river.  They may have had a preference for habitats outside of the riparian zones.

A Hadrosaur Corpse Floating Out to Sea (Bloat and Float Scenario)

Dinosaur corpse washed out to sea.

An artist’s illustration of the duck-billed dinosaur carcase washed out to sea.

Picture Credit: Masato Hattori

24 05, 2017

Ceratopsid Tooth Paper Published (Part 1)

By | May 24th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Paper on the First Reported Horned Dinosaur Tooth from Eastern North America Published

In July 2016, Everything Dinosaur team members reported the discovery of a single tooth from a horned dinosaur in North America.  Given the dental batteries that these herbivorous dinosaurs possessed, that teeth, being extremely hard, stand up well to the fossilisation process and given the number of new North American ceratopsid species named in the last decade, this fossil find might not sound that surprising.  It’s not really about what was found, but where it was found, as the fossil tooth is the first horned dinosaur tooth to come to the attention of the scientific community from the eastern part of the United States.  To a palaeontologist this is a big deal, a very big deal indeed!

Views and Accompanying Computer Generated Images of the Single Tooth

Ceratopsid tooth from eastern North America.

Various views of the horned dinosaur tooth (Own Creek Formation, northern Mississippi).

Picture Credit: PeerJ

To read Everything Dinosaur’s earlier article about the ceratopsid tooth fossil find: Horned Dinosaur Tooth Discovered in Northern Mississippi

North America in the Late Cretaceous – A Tale of Two Landmasses

A variety of different types of horned dinosaur evolved in the western part of North America during the Late Cretaceous (Campanian faunal stage through to the Maastrichtian faunal stage).  However, during this period in Earth’s history, the landmass we now know as North America looked very different.  The continent was split into two parts, by a large, shallow sea (Western Interior Seaway).  At its fullest extent, this shallow sea stretched from the Gulf of Mexico, through the United States and Canada to the Arctic circle.  Size estimates vary, but it has been suggested (U.S. Geological Survey), that at its maximum, the sea was between 1,900 and 3,000 miles long between 600 to 1,000 miles in diameter.  Bordering the sea in the west was the long, narrow strip of land – Laramidia, whilst to the east, the landmass called Appalachia could be found.  Sea levels rose and fell over this period, eventually the Western Interior Seaway contracted, retreating south as plate movements pushed up the landmasses.  At the time of the dinosaur extinction, this once great area of tropical sea was reduced to a strip of water around the Gulf of Mexico, covering parts of the south-western USA.

The Western Interior Seaway (Campanian Faunal Stage)

The Western Interior Seaway.

A map showing the Western Interior Seaway of North America circa 75 mya.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Horned Dinosaurs Migrated from Laramidia to Appalachia

The dinosaur tooth, a single fossil specimen from the right side of the lower jaw (right dentary), was discovered by George Phillips, (curator of Palaeontology at the Mississippi Museum of Natural Science), as he explored a stream bed in Union County (Mississippi), that is known to yield marine fossils that date from the very end of the age of dinosaurs (Maastrichtian faunal stage).  The tooth was found in association with a Mosasaur tooth, ammonite remains, brachiopods and other fossils.  Based on the stratigraphic evidence and the fossil assemblage associated with the tooth, the authors of the scientific paper, published in PeerJ, conclude that this tooth provides evidence that at some time during the very Late Cretaceous horned dinosaurs were able to migrate from Laramidia to Appalachia over a land bridge.

George commented:

“A land bridge before the end of the Cretaceous could have allowed horned dinosaurs to migrate or disperse through Texas or Arkansas, right before they were all killed in the calamity [a reference to the End Cretaceous impact event].”

Chasmosaurines Went East

Migrating Chasmosaurine dinosaurs into eastern North America.

A potential horned dinosaur migration route into eastern North America.

Picture Credit: PeerJ with additional annotation by Everything Dinosaur

The picture shows two views of North America in the Late Cretaceous (A) around 73.5 million years ago (mya) and (B) around 68 million years ago (mya).  The authors suggest that horned dinosaurs were able to migrate eastwards from Laramidia into the Mississippi Embayment (Miss Emb), area of Appalachia.  Only Chasmosaurine horned dinosaurs are shown migrating into Appalachia (B).  The identity of the horned dinosaur to which the tooth belonged, is unknown, but if the land bridge existed towards the very end of the Cretaceous, then by this date Centrosaurine dinosaurs may well have become extinct in North America.  No fossils of ceratopsids assigned to the Centrosaurinae clade have been found in rocks dating from the Late Maastrichtian.

A Typical Ceratopsian Tooth

Tooth of a Triceratops.

A typical tooth of a Ceratopsian with its two distinct dental roots (Triceratops).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture above shows a typical Ceratopsian tooth, from the Chasmosaurine Triceratops.  The fossil tooth from the Owl Creek Formation is the first evidence of dinosaurs to have been found in this formation, (the tooth is the first large, terrestrial animal fossil to have been found in the very well-known and thoroughly explored Owl Creek Formation).  It shows the typical ceratopsid tooth features, including the double root, and a prominent, blade-like carina (serrated edge).  The specimen (MMNS VP-7969), shows little sign of wear so it is unlikely that this fossil had been transported a great distance from where it was found.  It is tantalising to think, that perhaps, a little further upstream more horned dinosaur fossils are awaiting discovery, yet to be exposed by erosion.

Not Reworked and No Floating Carcase from Laramidia

The researchers reject the idea that the tooth has ended up in the stream bed having been eroded out of other rocks and re-deposited in the Owl Creek Formation.  The tooth is too pristine and therefore reworking from notably older Cretaceous-aged rocks is rejected.  In addition, the authors of the paper, Dr Andrew Farke (Raymond M. Alf Museum of Palaeontology, Claremont, California) and George Phillips, discount the idea that the tooth came from a carcase of a horned dinosaur that floated across from Laramidia.  The tooth, they postulate, provides evidence of a land bridge and that at least one kind of dinosaur migrated eastwards to populate the other half of the North American landmass.

A Model of the Late Cretaceous Horned Dinosaur Triceratops (T. horridus)

Pegasus Triceratops dinosaur model.

Great quality model kit to build and paint from Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The scientific paper: “The First Reported Ceratopsid Dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA) by Andrew A. Farke and George E. Phillips published in the journal “PeerJ”.

This fossil discovery provides an intriguing insight into Late Cretaceous palaeoenvironments and the types of dinosaurs that inhabited them, more about this in a follow-up article.

23 05, 2017

Dinosaurs of China Coming to Nottingham

By | May 23rd, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Educational Activities, Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

Major Feathered Dinosaur Exhibition Coming to Nottingham

The idea that dinosaurs are not extinct might ruffle a few feathers.  However, the Dinosauria essentially consists of two parts, avian dinosaurs (birds) and non-avian dinosaurs, iconic prehistoric animals such as Tyrannosaurus rex, Stegosaurus and Triceratops. It is the bird lineage, that is very much still with us today.  No need to get into a flap if this statement confuses, a major dinosaur exhibition starting this summer will provide all the answers.

Dinosaurs of China Exhibition Coming to Nottinghamshire

Sinornithosaurus

One of the stars of the “Dinosaurs of China” exhibition – Sinornithosaurus.

Picture Credit: Zhao Chuang

A Once-in-a-Lifetime Event

Opening its doors on the 1st of July, the “Dinosaurs of China – Ground Shakers to Feathered Flyers” exhibition will tell the story of how one group of dinosaurs evolved into birds and you can expect to meet an incredible cast of characters on the way.  Located at two venues, (Wollaton Hall and the Nottingham Lakeside Arts Centre), this family-friendly dinosaur exhibition provides a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to view amazing fossils and skeletons that have never been outside of Asia before.

For further information and ticket details: Dinosaurs of China Website

Ground Shakers

Highlights of the exhibition will include an enormous, rearing long-necked dinosaur Mamenchisaurus that looks down at you from a head height of thirteen metres, that’s twice as high as a giraffe!  If the mighty double-decker-bus-sized Mamenchisaurus doesn’t get your young dinosaur fans roaring with excitement then look out for Sinraptor, a vicious carnivorous dinosaur that once roamed China some 160 million years ago. With a skull almost a metre in length and a set of powerful jaws lined with serrated teeth, Sinraptor was a formidable predator, one that could probably run faster than you!  Had you been around in the Late Jurassic and been unfortunate to meet this hypercarnivore, Sinraptor would very probably have viewed you as potential prey and tried to eat you.

The Fearsome Sinraptor (S. dongi)

Dinosaur - Sinraptor dongi.

Large Late Jurassic predator Sinraptor dongi.

If you like meat-eating dinosaurs, take time out to visit the bizarre double-crested Dilophosaurus on display at the Nottingham Lakeside Arts Centre and whilst there, sign up for one of the exciting dinosaur themed activities, all aimed at educating and inspiring the next generation of young palaeontologists.  A comprehensive programme of prehistoric animal arts, crafts, fossil exploration, workshops and story-telling has been designed to run in conjunction with the exhibition.  Booking early is recommended to avoid disappointment.

Running from 1st July through the summer holidays and ending on the 29th October, the “Dinosaurs of China” exhibition provides a rare opportunity to get up close to some of the most astonishing and scientifically important fossil discoveries ever made.

Feathered Flyers

Telling the story of how dinosaurs evolved into birds, the carefully crafted exhibition will entertain, inform and enthral, with visitors getting the chance to meet a dinosaur ensemble including several bizarre members of the Dinosauria.  Take the buck-toothed Epidexipteryx (pronounced epi-decks-ip-ter-icks) for example, a dinosaur that may have lived like a squirrel and winkled grubs out of tree holes like an aye-aye.

Dinosaurs Don’t Get Much Stranger than Epidexipteryx

The dinosaur called Epidexipteryx hui.

Epidexipteryx hui

Picture Credit: Zhao Chuang, Xing Lida/Nature

For further information about this exciting dinosaur exhibition coming to the UK this summer: Visit the Dinosaurs of China Exhibition Website

21 05, 2017

Megazostrodontidae and Molars

By | May 21st, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Wareolestes rex – Uniting English Teeth with a Scottish Jawbone

This month has seen the publication of a scientific paper on one of the lesser known animals of the Middle Jurassic, a very distant ancestor of us and one that roamed the land that we now know as the United Kingdom.  The fossil collection attributed to the morganucodontan Wareolestes (W. rex), an animal named from four isolated teeth found in Oxfordshire (England), has increased with the description of a partial jawbone (left dentary), complete with several teeth. Writing in the publication of the Palaeontological Association, the researchers from Oxford University and the National Museums of Scotland, conclude that this animal had milk teeth, as adult teeth were identified that had not yet erupted through the jawline.  This means that this little mammaliaform (close to a true mammal but not quite), was a juvenile and the jaw fossil indicates that Wareolestes replaced its teeth once, just like humans, dogs, cats, horses and many other types of extant mammal.

An Illustration of the Head of Wareolestes rex

The Middle Jurassic mammaliaform (W. rex).

An illustration of Wareolestes rex.

Picture Credit: Elsa Panciroli

In addition, the pattern of tooth replacement reflects an important stage in mammalian evolution and is linked to the production of milk to feed offspring.  This discovery marks the first time that mammaliaform tooth replacement has been identified from Scottish fossil material.

Jawbone from the Isle of Skye

The two-centimetre-long jawbone was found on the Isle of Skye (Kilmaluag Formation), in rocks that were laid down some 165 million years ago, when this part of the world consisted of tropical islands surrounded by a warm shallow sea (Bathonian faunal stage).  The Middle Jurassic was an important time for mammalian evolution, unfortunately, there are very few fossil bearing exposures around the world that record evidence of life on our planet during this important period.  The Isle of Skye is one of these locations, along with a handful of other places including the western United States.

To read more about Scotland’s Mid Jurassic heritage: What Does Scotland Have in Common with Wyoming?

Linking English Teeth to a Scottish Jaw

The teeth and the newly described jawbone, although tiny by the standards of most dinosaurs, the dentary of Wareolestes is about as big an average sized tooth in the lower jaw of Megalosaurus (M. bucklandii), tells palaeontologists that Wareolestes was quite big for a mammaliaform.  Wareolestes grew to be around the size of a pet guinea pig, not massive, but most of the Middle Jurassic mammaliaforms were not much bigger than shrews.

Wareolestes rex was named and described from those few isolated teeth found in Oxfordshire.  Controversy surrounded the first tooth to be found, the holotype.  Scientists were not sure whether the tooth represented a tooth from the upper (maxilla) or lower jaw (dentary), they were not sure from which side of the mouth the tooth came from.  An analysis of the holotype tooth with the newly described Scottish jawbone clarifies the situation.  The original tooth from the Kirklington mammal beds in Oxfordshire came from the left side of the lower jaw (dentary).

The Fossil Jaw and a Line Drawing

Jawbone and line drawing of Wareolestes jawbone fossil.

The fossil jawbone from the Isle of Skye (Wareolestes).

This little fur-covered animal, may have been nocturnal, a strategy that would have helped the guinea pig-sized Wareolestes avoid predators – crocodylomorphs and Theropod dinosaurs for example.  Like other morganucodontans, it was probably insectivorous.  Careful CT scans and the creation of three-dimensional fossil images, allowed the English and Scottish-based researchers to identify the unerupted replacement teeth in the jaw.  Had this Wareolestes perished just a few weeks later, then it is very likely that the adult teeth would have been in place and scientists would not have had confirmation of the diphyodont (two sets of teeth), nature of this little beastie.

The Specialised Teeth of Mammals

Mammals have specialised teeth, canines, incisors, molars and such like.  Reptiles in contrast, have dentition that tends to be more homogeneous (all similar shapes).  Wareolestes had teeth very similar to those of a modern mammal.  This animal had “milk” teeth which were replaced by “adult” teeth as the animal grew.  It can be inferred from this that adult females looked after and nurtured their young.  Milk may have been secreted from modified pores for their offspring to lap up.  There may have been small grooves or channels in this patch of skin with the milk pore, to help the liquid pool and collect so that the baby Wareolestes could feed.

This is an exciting discovery and we are looking forward to hearing more about fossil finds from the field work on the Isle of Skye.  Researchers from Oxford University (England) and the National Museums of Scotland (Scotland), have found a jawbone fossil (Scotland) that solves a mystery surrounding some isolated teeth found decades earlier in England.  The story has a sense of closure about it, just like the fitting cusps and crowns associated with those specialised teeth of mammals.  However, we suspect that the dedicated team behind this particular piece of research will publish more papers about Middle Jurassic fossil finds, we can’t wait to get our teeth into them.

20 05, 2017

The Latest Everything Dinosaur Customer Newsletter

By | May 20th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Newsletters, Main Page, Press Releases|0 Comments

Rebor, Battat Terra and Bullyland – Everything Dinosaur Newsletter

Subscribers to Everything Dinosaur’s news feed received this week an email newsletter giving them notification of the arrival of the limited edition Rebor hatchling Stegosaurus “Clover” and the repainted “Fallen Queen” Triceratops horridus dinosaur model.  Subscribers have the opportunity to discover the latest releases, to get updates on what’s coming into stock and to be kept abreast of product developments.

This can be really important, especially with the likes of the Rebor “Clover” replica, as only 1,000 of these exquisite models have been made.

The Latest Everything Dinosaur E-News

Everything Dinosaur newsletter.

The Everything Dinosaur E-News (mid May 2017).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

There are opportunities to opt into the Everything Dinosaur newsletter subscribers list when placing an order, but guests and other visitors to the Everything Dinosaur website can subscribe by simply scrolling down the home page and filling in the form on the bottom right of the screen.

Scroll Down the Everything Dinosaur Homepage to Find the E-News Subscription Form

Subscribe to the Everything Dinosaur newsletter.

Scroll down the Everything Dinosaur home page to find the subscription area.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Visit Everything Dinosaur’s website here: Everything Dinosaur

Breaking News on Battat (Battat Terra)

The latest newsletter also provides information on the Battat Terra range of dinosaurs.  This model range, originally designed for the Boston Museum of Science in America, currently consists of twelve replicas.  However, in the newsletter, Everything Dinosaur informs readers that this number is likely to be reduced as models are retired.  One of the key objectives of these newsletters is to ensure that collectors are kept up to date with such developments.

Battat Terra Dinosaurs – Soon to be Less Than Twelve

Battat Terra dinosaur models.

The Battat Terra dinosaur model range (for the moment).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur stated:

“Periodically, we send out a formal newsletter to our database of subscribers.  We take great care to manage this list and we do our best to inform our customers about product developments, new blog articles highlighting dinosaur fossil discoveries, the latest introductions, model retirements and such like.  We send out these newsletters so that we can keep this ever-growing list up to date with developments.”

The Newsletter Provides Helpful Information About Prehistoric Animal Model Ranges

Helping customers to stay informed.

Everything Dinosaur newsletter (mid May 2017).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

 For further information about Everything Dinosaur’s newsletter and to enquire about subscribing, simply: Email Everything Dinosaur

Newsletters provide an excellent opportunity for Everything Dinosaur to maintain relationships with its customers as well as providing a convenient platform for subscribers to access informative content.  They are also very easy for dinosaur fans to share with their own contacts and followers.  Naturally, they will not replace the personal correspondence that team members provide, dealing promptly and swiftly with customer emails and enquiries.

Feedback from Customers

It is important to give customers the opportunity to correspond with Everything Dinosaur.  Two-way communication is simplified as, with all Everything Dinosaur’s newsletters, there is an email link to allow recipients to contact the company directly.  Staff are happy to help with individual queries and they do their best to offer advice.

The spokesperson added:

“We get all sorts of questions, typically we get asked about shipping and postage options, requests for model measurements, requests to reserve replicas and of course, lots of questions about forthcoming releases.  We even get sent questions about prehistoric animals, the latest enquiry received just a couple of hours ago concerned a question about the smallest dinosaur known to science.”

The next E-News to be sent by Everything Dinosaur is due to be dispatched in about seven days or so, it will introduce a new model range to company’s ever-growing prehistoric animal model portfolio.

19 05, 2017

Say it with Flowers from the Danian to be Exact

By | May 19th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Flowering After a Disaster – Oldest Buckthorn Fossilised Flowers

Next week sees the start of the prestigious Chelsea Flower Show.  The great and the good will be attending this Royal Horticultural Society event, regarded by many gardeners and growers as the highlight of the year.  Today, Everything Dinosaur turns its attention to a paper published earlier this month in the journal PLOS ONE.  A team of researchers have found fossils of flowering plants that were once growing in Argentina, not long after, (in geological terms anyway), the global catastrophe that wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs.  The fossils represent plants of the Rhamnaceae family, commonly referred to as Buckthorns.  These plants have a global distribution today and a number of species can be found in parks and gardens in the UK.

Two Fossilised Flowers Identified as Members of the Rhamnaceae Family (Buckthorn)

Two Buckthorn flower fossils.

Two fossilised Buckthorn flowers next to each other were discovered in shales of the Salamanca Formation in Chubut Province, Patagonia, (Argentina).

Picture Credit: Nathan Jud/Cornell University (USA)

Flowering After the Fern Spike

A lot has been written about the mass extinction event that marked the demise of the non-avian Dinosauria, some 66 million years ago.  However, as well as the dinosaurs, pterosaurs and many kinds of marine reptile, other groups of animals (and plants), were devastated in the impact event and its aftermath.  Plant families were decimated too and researchers have been examining strata that were laid down in the years following the end Cretaceous extinction event in a bid to assess how ecosystems recovered.

Micro-fossil studies indicate that it was the ferns that were the first major group of plants to recover after the end Cretaceous mass extinction.  In the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian faunal stage), fern spores make up around 10 to 25% of the plant micro-fossil assemblage.  In Danian Epoch deposits, laid down at the very beginning of the Palaeocene, scientists find that in some parts of the world, fossilised fern spores make up nearly 99% of the plant micro-fossil assemblage.  This is referred to as the “Fern Spike”, ferns recovering quicker than angiosperms and other types of plants.  This recovery is echoed today, as ferns are often the first to colonise land devastated by a volcanic eruption.

The “Fern Spike” – Plotted Against Geological Time

Plotting the Danian fern spike.

A graph showing the recovery of ferns after the Cretaceous mass extinction.

Graph Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The research team including lead author Nathan Jud (Cornell University), report on the discovery of the first fossilised flowers post the Cretaceous extinction to be found in South America.  The fossils date to the early Palaeocene (Danian faunal stage), less than one million years after the extraterrestrial impact event.  The flowers and other plant fossils were found in shales which form part of the Salamanca Formation (Chubut Province, Patagonia).

Commenting on the significance of their discovery, Nathan Jud stated:

“The fossilised flowers provide a new window into the earliest Palaeocene communities in South America and they are giving us the opportunity to compare the response to the extinction event on different continents.”

The Origins of the Rhamnaceae Family

Plants of the Rhamnaceae family might have a global distribution today, but from where did this highly successful group of shrubs, trees and bushes originate?  Scientists have argued about whether early Buckthorns originated in the ancient super-continent Gondwana, which later split and includes most of the landmasses in the Southern Hemisphere today.  Or did the Rhamnaceae evolve further north on another super-continent from the Mesozoic – Laurasia?

Dr Jud commented:

“This and a handful of other recently discovered fossils from the Southern Hemisphere, supports a Gondwanan origin for the Rhamnaceae, in spite of the relative scarcity of fossils in the Southern Hemisphere relative to the Northern Hemisphere.”

Fossilised Leaves from the Salamanca Formation (Buckthorn Family)

Views of Buckthorn leaves (Danian faunal stage).

Buckthorn fossils (leaves).

Picture Credit: Nathan Jud/Cornell University and PLOS ONE

The scientists, which include Ari Iglesias (Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Argentina), and Peter Wilf (Pennsylvania State University), suggest that fossils found in southern Mexico and Columbia provide evidence that the first members of the Rhamnaceae family evolved in the Late Cretaceous, shortly before the extinction event.  Although, many types of plant died out at the end of the Mesozoic, the ancestors of extant Buckthorns were able to make it through the global catastrophe.

A plausible scenario is that the Rhamnaceae first evolved in the equatorial region of Gondwana, but survived the extinction event by clinging on in the southern most portion of South America, many thousands of kilometres from the Yucatan peninsula impact site.  These plants were then able to re-colonise other parts of the world in the aftermath of the extinction event, perhaps taking advantage of the niches in ecosystems vacated by recently extinct plant species.

The Salamanca Formation is among the most precisely-dated sites of the Palaeocene. The age of the fossils was corroborated by radiometric dating (using radioactive isotopes), the global palaeomagnetic sequence (signatures of reversals of Earth’s magnetic field found in the samples), along with the mapping of zonal fossils (relative dating).

In conclusion, Dr Jud stated:

“These are the only flowers of Danian age for which we have good age control.  Researchers have discovered other fossilised flowers in India and China from around the Danian, but their dates are not as precise.”

18 05, 2017

Time to Question Where Life on Earth Started

By | May 18th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Geology, Main Page|0 Comments

Earliest Evidence for Microbial Life on Land

Fossils which reputedly show evidence of microbial life in hot springs have been found in Australian rocks that date from 3.48 billion years ago.  The hot spring deposits found in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, have pushed back by some 580 million years, the earliest known existence of micro-organisms living in terrestrial freshwater habitats, albeit, in a very inhospitable place.  This discovery has reignited the debate as to where the first life on planet Earth might have originated.

Tiny Bubbles Preserved in the Rocks Could Demonstrate Early Microbial Life in Hot Springs

Evidence of early microbial life (Pilbara Craton).

Spherical bubbles preserved in 3.48 billion-year-old rocks in the Dresser Formation in the Pilbara Craton (Western Australia) provide evidence for early life having lived in ancient hot springs on land.  These bubbles could have been trapped in a sticky microbial film.

Picture Credit: University of New South Wales

The remote and very beautiful Pilbara region of Western Australia has exposures of extremely ancient sandstones, some of the oldest sedimentary rocks known.  These strata were formed in the Paleoarchean Era and it has been at the centre of research for evidence of micro-fossils and signs of very early life on Earth for a number of decades.  The Australian authorities are hoping to get UNESCO World Heritage status recognition for those parts of the Pilbara Craton that have provided evidence for very primitive, organic lifeforms.

To read an article from 2011 about micro-fossils preserved in Pilbara sandstones that indicate microbial life from 3.4 billion years ago: Are These the Oldest Fossils on Earth?

A Freshwater or a Marine Origin for Life on Earth?

The debate as to when life on Earth began has caused great controversy amongst scientists.  Resolving when the very first organisms evolved has proved extremely difficult, for example, back in the autumn of 2016, Everything Dinosaur published an article about an intriguing study of ancient Greenland rocks that might show evidence of microbial life, specifically stromatolites that existed in a shallow marine environment some 3.7 billion years ago.

For the article on the research on the Greenland rocks: 3.7 Billion-Year-Old Microbes?

What is equally as controversial, is where on Earth did life begin?

Writing in the academic journal “Nature Communications”, lead author, PhD student Tara Djokic (University of New South Wales) and her fellow researchers conclude that parts of the Pilbara Craton strata were formed from hot spring deposits and these rocks provide evidence that life may not have originated in a marine environment.

The Remote and Desolate Sandstone Ridges Represent Strata Formed Some 3.48 Billion Years Ago

A view of the remote Dresser Formation, Pilbara Craton (Western Australia).

Ridges in the ancient Dresser Formation in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia that preserve ancient stromatolites and hot spring deposits.

Picture Credit: Kathleen Campbell

Extremophiles Living in Hot Springs

Scientists are aware that microbial life such as bacteria and those other prokaryotes – archaea are capable of surviving in very hostile environments.  The specialised archaea are often referred to as extremophiles as these organisms can tolerate and thrive in environments that would prove fatal to most other forms of life.  These extreme conditions include heat and high concentrations of noxious materials, the sort of conditions you can find in a geyser or hot spring.

Tara and her co-workers, which included Professors Martin Van Kranendonk, Malcolm Walter and Colin Ward (University of New South Wales) and Professor Kathleen Campbell (Auckland University), took samples from the ancient Dresser Formation in the Pilbara Craton and employed a variety of techniques to analyse their contents.  Microscopic sections of rock were prepared and a study of these samples led the team to conclude that they had found potential biological signatures and physical evidence of organic life preserved within the ancient strata.

Tara Djokic explained:

“Our exciting findings don’t just extend back the record of life living in hot springs by some three billion years, they indicate that life was inhabiting the land much earlier than previously thought, up to about 580 million years earlier.  This may have implications for an origin of life in freshwater hot springs on land, rather than the more widely discussed idea that life developed in the ocean and adapted to land later.”

Researchers Examining the Rocks

Looking for signs of ancient life in the Pilbara Craton.

Tara Djokic and co-author Professor Martin Van Kranendonk in the Pilbara in Western Australia looking for evidence of hot springs preserved in the strata.

Picture Credit: Kathleen Campbell

Charles Darwin’s “Warm Little Pond”

Where life originated has taxed academics, religious leaders and philosophers for centuries.  There are several theories, for example, the first organisms could have come to Earth via a comet, meteorite or asteroid impact, or life could have evolved here on Earth, perhaps in the deep sea around hydrothermal vents.  Other scientists have argued that life as we know it began on land, in the extreme environments of hot springs and geysers – the “warm little pond” as Charles Darwin is believed to have indicated.

The Discovery of Geyserite

Evidence of geyseyrite in the Dresser Formation.

A microscopic image of geyserite textures from the ancient Dresser Formation in the Pilbara Craton in Western Australia.  This shows that surface hot spring deposits once existed there 3.48 billion years ago.

Picture Credit: The University of New South Wales

Evidence of Geyserite

Microscopic polished slices revealed the presence of the mineral geyserite in the Dresser Formation deposits.  Geyserite (a form of silica), is associated with mineral deposits formed from hot springs or geysers, if extremophiles can survive in these harsh habitats today, then it is possible that they could have survived in very similar conditions on the primordial Earth.

Doctorate student Tara Djokic commented:

“The discovery of potential biological signatures in these ancient hot springs in Western Australia provides a geological perspective that may lend weight to a land-based origin of life.”

Researchers Examining the Waters Surrounding Hydrothermal Vents in New Zealand

Looking for signs of life in a hot spring.

Researchers examining the hot waters surrounding the hydrothermal vents at Rotokawa (New Zealand).

Picture Credit: Kathleen Campbell

Within the Pilbara hot spring deposits, the researchers also discovered stromatolites, layered rock structures created by communities of ancient microbes.  In addition, there were other signs of early life in the deposits, including fossilised micro-stromatolites, microbial palisade textures and well preserved bubbles that are inferred to have been trapped in sticky microbial slime to preserve the bubble shape.

Out of this World Implications – The Search for Life on Mars

The researchers comment that their work has major implications with the regards to the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly the search for life on Mars.  The rocks that make up the Pilbara Craton are about the same age as much of the crust on the red planet.  Ancient hot spring deposits on Mars could be a good place to search for evidence of long-extinct life.

NASA is currently planning a news Mars Rover mission (due to launch in 2020), one of the potential landing sites for the Mars land vehicle is the Columbia Hills.  Previous Mars expeditions have identified silicates that could have been formed in the presence of hot water from a thermal vent.  If evidence of ancient life on Earth, preserved in strata formed in a hot spring environment can be found, then such life processes may well have come about on Mars too and some evidence might be preserved in the ancient Martian rocks.

17 05, 2017

“Winged Serpent” Found in Ancient Sinkhole

By | May 17th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Zilantophis schuberti –  A New Species of Snake from the Gray Fossil Site

A newly described species of prehistoric snake is helping herpetologists to better understand the evolution of modern snakes.  The new species, named Zilantophis schuberti is described in a scientific paper published this week in the “Journal of Herpetology”, it lived approximately five million years ago, a time when our planet’s global average temperature was rising.  Scientists hope that this new discovery will provide helpful information so that they can better understand the ways in which today’s fauna will adapt with the onset of global warming.

An Illustration of the Newly Described Snake – Zilantophis schuberti

Zilantophisi Illustration.

A speculative drawing of the tiny snake – Zilantophis.

Picture Credit: Steven Jasinski (University of Pennsylvania)

Co-author of the paper, Steven Jasinski (PhD student at the University of Pennsylvania), explained that the fossils come from the famous Gray Fossil Site, close to East Tennessee State University, Jasinski and fellow author David Moscato (State Museum of Pennsylvania), report the discovery of highly modified, snake vertebrae, with wing-like struts, most probably to anchor strong back muscles.  The morphology (shape) of these bones do not match any living species of snake, it has been speculated that these snakes developed specialised vertebrae to help them push through compacted leaf litter as they hunted for insects and other small prey.  The specialised vertebrae may also have been an adaptation for digging or possibly swimming.  The idea that Zilantophis was aquatic is difficult to rule out.

Photograph and Line Drawing of a Highly-Modified Vertebra

Zilantophis schuberti vertebra (A) and line drawing (B).

The arrow notes the location of wing-like projections that gave the species its name (Zilantophis schuberti).

Picture Credit: Steven Jasinski (University of Pennsylvania)

PhD student Steven commented:

“Snakes don’t have arms or legs,but they have high numbers of vertebrae.  These are often the bones that palaeontologists use to identify fossil snakes.”

*Snakes and lizards belong to the Order Squamata, snakes evolved from limbed reptiles and recently Everything Dinosaur reported on the chance discovery of a 115-million-year-old fossil that provides evidence of the transition from reptiles with limbs to the serpentine form.

To read the article: First Fossil Snake with Four Limbs Described

Named After a Mythical Creature

The genus name is derived from Zilant, a winged serpent from Tatar mythology.  The trivial name honours Blaine Schubert, the executive director of East Tennessee State’s Don Sundquist Centre of Excellence in Palaeontology, who acted as mentor and adviser to the authors whilst they studied there.  The ancient snake’s name translates as “Schubert’s winged snake”.

At only a few centimetres in length, Zilantophis was no monster, the tiny vertebrae had to be meticulously separated from the dark clay sediment of the Gray Fossil Site.  The researchers conclude that this Late Miocene/Early Pliocene snake is most closely related to rat snakes (Pantherophis) and kingsnakes (Lampropeltis), both of which are relatively common in North America today.  In total, the field team found evidence of seven different snake genera at the dig site, the descendants of which can still be found in east Tennessee today.

Field Team Members Working at the Sinkhole Dig Site

Field team staff exploring the Gray Fossil Site.

Field team members excavating the sinkhole (Gray Fossil Site).

Picture Credit: Steven Jasinski (University of Pennsylvania)

Snake genera identified include:

  • Garter snakes (Thamnophis)
  • Rat snakes (Pantherophis)
  • Pine snakes (Pituophis)
  • Whip snakes (Masticophis)
  • Water snakes (Nerodia)

Zilantophis schuberti and all the snakes listed above, are members of the Colubridae snake family, the largest and most specious group of extant snakes.  The authors comment that the Late Miocene was seeing a transition in snake fauna.  Boas had dominated the serpentine fauna of North America, but gradually the boas went into decline and they were replaced by the colubrids, which are typically much smaller and more mobile than boas.  This faunal change coincided with extensive climate change, with forests being replaced by open prairies as a result of a drying climate.

Steven Jasinski explained:

“Zilantophis was part of this period of change.  It shows that colubrids were diversifying at this time, including forms that did not make it to the present day.”

The Importance of the Gray Fossil Site

The Gray Fossil Site, located close to the town of Gray in Washington County (Tennessee), represents deposits from a sinkhole that accumulated in the Late Miocene to the very Early Pliocene Epochs.  As the clay deposits straddle the Miocene/Pliocene boundary, the strata and the fossils contained therein have provided researchers with an opportunity to study changing biodiversity at a time when the Earth’s climate was undergoing rapid change.  Discovered seventeen years ago, during the construction of a road, the site represents the accumulated debris from the bottom of a large pond, that occasionally dried out.  A wide variety of vertebrate fossils have been excavated from the site, including several large mammals, transitional forms of the American alligator, turtles, snakes and amphibians.

Excavating the Skull of a Tapir from the Dig Site

The skull of a Tapir (Gray Fossil Site).

A tapir skull from the Gray Fossil Site (eastern Tennessee).

Picture Credit: University of Pennsylvania

The Gray Fossil Site, has yet to be fully explored but it has already provided a hugely important window into the changing environment of North America between 7 million years ago and 4.5 million years ago (approximately).  This new research represents the first formal survey of snake fossils at the location, the discovery of Zilantophis, which dates from the Hemphillian stage of the North American Land Mammal Ages (NALMA), is helping scientists to understand evolutionary change at a crucial time in the history of the fauna of North America, a time when modern animals and plants were becoming established.

16 05, 2017

Rebor “Clover” Hatchling Stegosaurus Coming to Everything Dinosaur

By | May 16th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Rebor “Clover” – Limited Edition Hatchling Stegosaurus is Coming to Everything Dinosaur

The superb, limited edition Rebor “Clover”, a replica of a hatching Stegosaurus, is coming to Everything Dinosaur very soon.  Team members at the UK-based company are expecting delivery of these hand-painted scale models to the Everything Dinosaur warehouse within 48-hours.

Update: The Rebor “Clover” limited edition is now available from Everything Dinosaur (until stocks run out).

To view the range of Rebor prehistoric animals available from Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Replicas

The Rebor Hatchling Stegosaurus Replica “Clover”

Rebor "Clover" hatching Stegosaurus.

Rebor hatchling Stegosaurus “Clover”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Limited Edition Rebor Replica

Only 1,000 of these hatching dinosaur models have been made.  “Clover” joins other Rebor hatching dinosaur models such as “Rudy” the hatching Tyrannosaurus rex and “Jolly”, the Triceratops hatchling which was the first in this special series to be introduced.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Both Jolly and Rudy proved to be extremely popular with dinosaur fans and we already have had lots of enquiries and requests to reserve one of these limited edition replicas.”

To reserve a limited edition Rebor “Clover” (hatching Stegosaurus): Email Everything Dinosaur to Reserve “Clover”

Update: The Rebor “Clover” limited edition is now available from Everything Dinosaur (until stocks run out).

Complete with Pieces of Eggshell and a Four-Leaf Clover

As well as the display stand and the model itself, the Rebor hatchling Stegosaurus comes supplied with a set of poseable ferns which form a fantastic backdrop to the replica.  Two extra pieces of eggshell are provided so that diorama makers and collectors can present their own model in a unique way.  The baby Stegosaurus even has a lucky four-leaf clover to keep it company, a quirky piece of design from Rebor which makes this beautifully crafted replica even more appealing.

The Rebor “Clover” Comes with a Four-Leaf Clover

Rebor "Clover" hatching Stegosaurus.

Rebor hatchling Stegosaurus “Clover”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

 Clovers are nested within the genus Trifolium, which in turn is assigned to the plant family Fabaceae (the legumes).  It is likely that the Fabaceae originated during the Mesozoic, however, the earliest fossils that can be definitively assigned to the Fabaceae appeared in the late Palaeocene Epoch (fifty-six million years ago approximately).  This flower family may have first evolved during the time of the dinosaurs, but it is highly unlikely that any member of the Stegosauridae ever fed on clover, or even another member of the legumes family for that matter.  The heyday of the Stegosaurs was the Late Jurassic and this family of plant-eating dinosaurs were probably long extinct before the Fabaceae evolved.  Still, we can give Rebor a lot of credit for their innovative approach to prehistoric animal modelling.

To view the range of Rebor prehistoric animals available from Everything Dinosaur: Rebor Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Replicas

A Rebor Hatching Stegosaurus Dinosaur Model

Rebor "Clover" hatching Stegosaurus.

Rebor hatchling Stegosaurus “Clover”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Hatching Stegosaurus Dinosaur Model from Rebor

Stegosaurus is one of the most popular of all the dinosaurs.  It regularly features in the top ten of dinosaurs in Everything Dinosaur’s annual prehistoric animal survey.  Rebor have already produced a Stegosaurus figure, a baby Stegosaurus which is named “Melon”, this is a 1:35 scale, hand-painted replica.  There are rumours that Rebor intend to introduce a replica of an adult Stegosaurus, but we at Everything Dinosaur, couldn’t possibly comment…

The 1:35 Scale Baby Stegosaurus Replica from Rebor (Melon)

"Melon" the Rebor Stegosaurus replica.

Rebor baby Stegosaurus “Melon”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Update: The Rebor “Clover” limited edition is now available from Everything Dinosaur (until stocks run out).

15 05, 2017

Pennaceous Feathers in New Troodontid from China

By | May 15th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Jianianhualong tengi – Feathered Troodontid Shows Mosaic Evolution

A turkey-sized, feathered dinosaur that once roamed the forests of north-eastern China some 125 million years ago, is helping palaeontologists to piece together the evolution of characteristics that led to the true birds.  In addition, the new dinosaur named Jianianhualong tengi (pronounced: jay-any-an-who-long ten-gee) provides direct evidence for the presence of pennaceous feathers in an unquestionable troodontid Theropod.  J. tengi is also the earliest known troodontid discovered to date.

Feathered Like a Modern Bird but Flightless Jianianhualong tengi

Jianianhualong tengi illustrated.

A life reconstruction of the early troodontid Jianianhualong tengi.

Picture Credit: Julius T. Csotonyi

Asymmetrical Pennaceous Feathers

The Mesozoic-aged strata of Liaoning Province (China) has yielded a myriad of spectacular Theropod dinosaur fossils, providing palaeontologists with a unique insight into the forest dwelling fauna and flora.  Liaoning is famous for its spectacular fossils of maniraptoran dinosaurs, the clade of Theropod dinosaurs that includes the birds (Aves) and their nearest dinosaur relatives.

However, fossils of the very closest types of dinosaur to the Aves, those in the clade Eumaniraptora (also known as the Paraves) – dromaeosaurids and troodontids, have had scientists in a bit of a flap.  The discovery of Jianianhualong tengi from the Yixian Formation of Baicai Gou in Yixian County, Liaoning, will help palaeontologists to better understand the development of anatomical features as well as feathers, that led to the evolution of birds.

Definitely a member of the Troodontidae

Previously, the troodontid species described from China had caused extensive debate amongst scientists.  Their exact position in the dinosaur family tree was controversial.  Jianianhualong tengi is unquestionably a troodontid and by definition, very closely related to birds.  It had large, prominent arm and leg feathers as well as a frond-like integumentary covering on the tail.  This distribution pattern of feathers and their asymmetrical shape is similar to that seen in other basal members of the Paraves, such as the dromaeosaurid Microraptor, but this is the first time that such definitive bird-like features have been identified in what is undoubtedly, a member of the Troodontidae.

Photograph and Line Drawing of Holotype Specimen (J. tengi)

Line drawing (right) and photograph (left) of J. tengi fossil specimen.

Photograph (left) and line drawing (right) of J. tengi holotype.

Picture Credit: Nature Communications

Demonstrating Mosaic Evolution

Jianianhualong tengi demonstrates mosaic evolution, the process where parts of an animal’s skeleton changes without simultaneously affecting other portions.  For example, Jianianhualong has anatomical features that are transitional between long-armed basal troodontids and derived short-armed ones, shedding new light on troodontid character evolution.  The feathers are similar to those seen in Archaeopteryx and Anchiornis and this confirms that asymmetrical, pennaceous feathers were probably ancestral to the Paraves.

Evidence of Asymmetrical Plumage in Jianianhualong tengi

 Jianianhualong tengi plumage.

Plumage of J. tengi.

Picture Credit: Nature Communications

The picture above shows (a) feathers over dorsals, (b) feathers attached to anterior caudals, the base of the tail (c) an asymmetrical tail feather, (d) a line drawing of an asymmetrical tail feather, (e) tail frond and (f) negative LSF (laser-stimulated fluorescence) image of tail frond.  All scale bars equal two centimetres.

The researchers, which include Professor Phil Currie (University of Alberta), report their findings in the academic journal “Nature Communications”

The new scientific paper on Jianianhualong helps palaeontologists to comprehend how these types of dinosaurs and their close avian relatives evolved, but there is another question to answer. Why would dinosaurs like Jianianhualong evolve asymmetrical flight feathers if they were not used for flight?

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur speculated:

“Perhaps asymmetrical feathers helped this 1.2-metre-long dinosaur to run quicker through the forest.  There is no evidence to suggest that Jianianhualong or that it was arboreal.”

Professor Currie commented:

“As the closest relatives to birds, troodontids are certainly one of the most interesting groups of dinosaurs, and any time you find a feathered dinosaur and discover a new species is pretty cool. With mosaic features, we’re looking for the answer as to why there’s a combination of primitive and advanced features.”

Its discovery is highly significant in reconstructing both the skeletal and integumentary evolution of troodontids, and the more inclusive paravians, whereas, with other reported troodontids from the Jehol Biota such as Sinovenator (S. changii), Mei long and Sinusonasus magnodens their assignment to the Troodontidae remains uncertain.

What’s in a Name?

The genus name honours Jianianhua, he Chinese company that helped fund this research and the word “long” is the Chinese Pinyin for “dragon”.  The trivial name honours Ms Fangfang Teng, who secured the specimen for study.

Load More Posts