All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
/Main Page
18 04, 2018

A New Early Cretaceous Amphibian from Japan

By | April 18th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Under the Noses of Dinosaurs, a New Species of Early Cretaceous Amphibian is Described

A small, fragmentary fossil found in an outcrop of the Kuwajima Formation, in western Central Japan has been identified as a new species of albanerpetontid amphibian.  This tiny animal, measuring just six centimetres in length inhabited a wide floodplain, that was crossed by meandering rivers in a humid environment some 130 million years ago.  The fossils represent the oldest example of this type of Tetrapod found in Asia, they predate the only other specimens known from Asia (Uzbekistan), by tens of millions of years.

A Life Reconstruction of the Little Albanerpetontid Amphibian (S. isajii)

Shirerpeton life reconstruction.

An illustration of Shirerpeton – an Early Cretaceous amphibian.

Picture Credit: Takumi Yamamoto

The Ancient Albanerpetontidae Family

Superficially resembling modern-day Salamanders, these ancient amphibians are only distantly related to their modern counterparts.  They evolved in the Middle Jurassic and persisted until very recently, finally becoming extinct during the Pleistocene Epoch.  Several genera are known and they are characterised by their unique skulls and the presence of bony scales on their skin.  The tiny specimen consists of a partial skull, vertebrae and elements from a hind limb, a total of forty-three bones.  The only Asian examples of this clade of amphibian have been found in Uzbekistan.  These fossils date from the very end of the Cretaceous, so the Japanese specimen is some sixty million years older.

High resolution X-ray computed microtomography was used to identify the shape of the bones which remain partially buried in the part-prepared fossil.

The Rock Containing the Partially Exposed Fossil Bones Along with a Computer Image Tracing the Outline of the Individual Bones

Fossils and computer enhanced image showing holotype of Shirerpeton.

A new Early Cretaceous amphibian from Japan (Shirerpeton).

Picture Credit: The Education Board of the city of Hakusan, (Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan)

Tiny Fossil

The picture (above) shows the holotype fossil of the new albanerpetontid amphibian, which has been named Shirerpeton isajii.  Image (A) shows the fossils in the 2.5 by 1.5 cm square slab of rock, whilst image (B), is a digital photograph with various bones from the skull highlighted.  Abbreviations: Br, braincase elements; Fr, frontal; L.La, left lacrimal; L.Mx, left maxilla; L.N, left nasal; L.Pa, left parietal; LPf, left prefrontal; L.Sm, left septomaxilla; L.Sq, left squamosal; R.La, right lacrimal; R.Pa, right parietal; R.Pf, right prefrontal; R.Sq, right squamosal; ?, unidentified element. Scale bars in both images = 5 mm.

Writing in the open-access academic journal PLOS One, the researchers, Susan Evans, a professor of vertebrate morphology and palaeontology (University College London) and Ryoko Matsumoto, a curator with the Kanagawa Prefectural Museum of Natural History were able to identify the specimen as a member of the Albanerpetontidae from the shape of the lower jaw.  The distinctive frontal bone of the skull, along with several other identified autapomorphies (unique traits), enabled the scientists to erect a new species.

Shirerpeton isajii

The scientists named the species in honour of Shinji Isaji, the head of the Tetori Group fossil investigation commission, a body under the Hakusan city government in charge of studying the Kuwajima fossil location where the fossil was found.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“There are about twenty of these amphibians known in the fossil record, currently assigned to five genera.  They were globally widespread during the Mesozoic, but this is the first time an albanerpetontid has been recorded from East Asia.  Their fragmentary record makes understanding their evolution and their phylogeny very difficult, scientists are not even sure how closely related these ancient lissamphibians are to extant amphibians.  Small animals like Shirerpeton are just as important as larger animals like dinosaurs when it comes to considering ancient environments and habitats.  In fact, this amphibian is probably more important than larger vertebrates in helping scientists to understand the localised climate in the Barremian of Japan.”

17 04, 2018

Out with a Bang, In with a Bang – The Story of the Dinosauria

By | April 17th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Mass Extinction Event Paved the Way for the Dinosaurs

It is now widely accepted that dramatic, global climate change played a significant role in the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs some 66 million years ago.  The demise of the Dinosauria is well documented, but just how did this particular branch of the Archosauria rise to prominence and just as importantly, when did they start to dominate life on land?  There remains much to be learned about the origins of the dinosaurs, in addition, after the first dinosaurs evolved, for some 20 million years or so they made up only a tiny portion of terrestrial fauna, other reptiles dominated, then all of a sudden, at least when you consider the scale of geological time, the fossil record shows a change in the dinosaur’s fortunes.  From being bit-part players in the Middle Triassic, by the Late Triassic they had taken centre stage.

Research published in the journal “Nature Communications”, postulates that the first, rapid diversification of the dinosaurs occurred following a dramatic global ecosystem crisis.  This crisis was caused by rapid climate change, the ensuring mass extinction event cleared away a lot of competitors, especially herbivores.  A mass extinction event resulted in the demise of the dinosaurs, but it seems likely (according to this new research), that a mass extinction event led to their ascendancy in the first place.

Terrestrial Life Around 234-232 Million Years Ago

Late Triassic terrestrial fauna.

Life in the Late Triassic, an explosion in dinosaur diversity.

Picture Credit: Davide Bonadonna

The picture (above), shows a scene in the early Late Triassic of southern Pangaea around 232 million years ago.  On the far left a pair of Rhynchosaurs (diapsid, herbivorous reptiles characterised by stocky bodies, a squat gait and powerful beaks for cropping plants), lounge on a fallen tree.  In the centre background a large, carnivorous Rauisuchian is patrolling.  Rauisuchians  were Archosaurs, but on the other branch of the Archosauria – the Crurotarsi which comprise crocodile-like animals, as opposed to the second main branch of the Archosaurs the Avemetatarsalia, which houses the birds and the dinosaurs.  The Rauisuchian walks with an erect posture, (legs directly under the body).  In the foreground, two species of light-weight, bipedal early dinosaurs are depicted.

The Carnian Pluvial Episode (Carnian Pluvial Event)

The study conducted by Massimo Bernardi of the MUSE (Museo delle Scienze of Trento) and Piero Gianolla of the University of Ferrara (Italy) in collaboration with Professor Michael Benton of Bristol University, provides evidence to suggest that the diversification of the Dinosauria followed the Carnian Pluvial Episode, a time when the Earth went from an extremely arid climate to a humid and substantially wetter climate, before reverting back to arid once again.  This dramatic period in Earth’s history occurred between 234 and 232 million years ago (during the Carnian faunal stage of the Late Triassic).  The cause of this violent swing in our planet’s weather patterns is elusive, but most palaeontologists consider the huge volcanic eruptions in western Canada and the outpouring of vast quantities of igneous material, which are represented today by the great Wrangellia basalts as the engine for climate change.  What is termed Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism, resulted in huge amounts of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere.  This led to rapid, ocean acidification, increased rainfall and dramatic global warming turning a dry world dominated by large deserts in central Pangaea, into much more humid and wetter environments.

For Much of the Triassic the Land was Dominated by Deserts

Triassic landscape.

New study suggests the impact of the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE) gave dinosaurs the opportunity to diversify.

Dating Ichnoassemblages from the Dolomites

The researchers examined the ancient Triassic fauna of South America and compared these palaeoenvironments with data from the Italian Dolomites.  Although dinosaur and other reptile fossils from Triassic sediments are relatively widespread, for example Triassic vertebrate fossils are known from North America, South Africa, China, Europe and England, accurately dating these deposits has proved to be extremely difficult.  Hence the significance of the Italian Dolomites.  The stratigraphy of the Southern Alps and of the Dolomites in particular covers virtually the whole of the Middle and Late Triassic.  The sequence of strata, can be dated using a variety of methods, which when cross-referenced provides one of the most detailed geological timescales of the early Mesozoic anywhere on Earth.

Dating the Dolomites – A Bio-Chrono-Stratigraphic Framework

Dating the Dolomites.

Dating the Dolomites, a number of dating methods are available to scientists, permitting them to accurately date the rocks and the fossils they contain.

Picture Credit: Nature Communications/Bernardi, Gianolla, et al

Preserved in the rocks of the Dolomites are a series of tracks and trackways.  These footprints provide palaeontologists with an idea of the animals around at the time the sequence of strata was being laid down.  This research team noticed that prior to the Carnian Pluvial Episode, when this part of the world was arid, the tracks were dominated by Crurotarsi Archosaurs, in the early Carnian 100% of the tracks represent these crocodile-like reptiles.  However, during the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE), 50% of the tracks represent dinosaurs, whilst just 20% indicate the presence of Crurotarsi Archosaurs, the rest are associated with Dinosauromorphs, close relatives of the true dinosaurs.  As the world entered the Norian faunal stage of the Late Triassic, some 227 million years ago, nearly all the tracks preserved in this region (90% plus) were made by dinosaurs.

The complicated chart above, plots the occurrence of several precisely dated ichnoassemblages in the Late Triassic of the Southern Alps allowing the research team to date, relatively precisely, the timing of the diversification of the dinosaurs in this part of Pangaea.  On the left of the chart is the timeline in millions of years, the Period/Epoch and the faunal stage and sub-stage are noted.  Helping to relatively date the sequence of rocks are the zonal fossils, in this case ammonites, the rocks of this region can be mapped sequentially using key fossil ammonite species which provide a biostratigraphical reference.

The sequence of geological formations are shown and the various ichnotaxa associated with them are displayed.  The scientists identify the probable track maker and describe them as dinosaurs (sky blue), Dinosauromorphs (light green) or Crurotarsans (orange).  The length of the coloured column shows the time interval over which the tracks have been found.

Note the absence of dinosaur tracks in the Middle Triassic (bottom part of the chart), however, blue columns (dinosaur tracks) dominate the top part of the chart, the Late Triassic.  Pie charts show percentage breakdown of the different tracks, pre, during and post the CPE.  The final column on the far right provides details of the palaeoenvironment and the flipping from arid to humid and then back again.

Geological Formations Abbreviations: ADZ: Zoppè Sandstone; AQT: Acquatona Formation; BHL: Livinallongo/Buchenstein Formation; BIV: Bivera Formation; CTR: Contrin Formation; DCS: Cassian Dolomite; DON: Dont Formation; DPR: Dolomia Principale; FCL: Coll’Alto dark Limestones; GLS: Gracilis Formation; HKS: Heiligkreuz Formation; IMF: Fernazza Formation and volcanites; MBT: Ambata Formation; MNA: Moena Formation; MRB/RIC: Richthofen Conglomerate and Morbiac dark Limestone; NTR: Monte Rite Formation; PPS: Piz da Peres Conglomerate; REC: Recoaro Limestone; SCI: Sciliar Formation; SCS: San Cassiano Formation; SLI: Lower Serla Dolomite; SLS Upper Serla Formation; TVZ: Travenanzes Formation; VTG: Voltago Conglomerate; WEN: Wengen Formation.

The small boxes underneath the chart provide a key to the general characteristics of the rocks associated with each geological formation: (a) cherty limestone; (b) sandstone; (c) sandy limestone; (d) volcanics; (e) oolitic-bioclastic limestone; (f) black platy limestone or dolostone, black shale; (g) dolostone; (h) marlstone, claystone and shale; (i) marly limestone; (j) conglomerate.

In summary the lithology (characteristics of the rocks), the length of the sequence of deposition, helping to provide absolute dating information along with the abundance of zonal fossils to permit relative dating, allow scientists to accurately map the geological time represented by the strata.  This precise dating has enabled the researchers to tease out the significance of the CPE in reference to the evolution of the dinosaurs.

The Diversification of the Dinosaurs Coincides with the Carnian Pluvial Episode

The diversification of the dinosaurs.

The diversification of the dinosaurs coincides with the Carnian Pluvial Episode (CPE).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Over a period of around 8 million years the palaeofauna of the southern Alps as shown by trace fossils changed dramatically.  Dinosaur trace fossils become much more abundant.  The researchers conclude that the dinosaurs diversified explosively in the mid Carnian, at a time of major climate and floral change and the extinction of key herbivores, which the dinosaurs opportunistically replaced.  The trace fossils found in the Dolomites region therefore play a crucial role in understanding the evolution of the Dinosauria.

Commenting on the significance of the study, one of the authors, Dr Piero Gianolla (University of Ferrara) stated:

“We had detected evidence for the climate change in the Dolomites.  There were four pulses of warming and climate perturbation, all within a million years or so.  This must have led to repeated extinctions.”

The discovery of the existence of a link between the first diversification of the dinosaurs and the CPE is unexpected and revolutionary.  This dramatic event not only paved the way for the dinosaurs to dominate terrestrial ecosystems, but also permitted the diversification of many other types of Tetrapod, including lizards, crocodiles, turtles and mammals, key terrestrial animals in today’s ecosystems.  The scientists conclude that they have developed a new framework for the evolution of the most famous reptiles.

The scientific paper: “Dinosaur diversification linked with the Carnian Pluvial Episode” by Massimo Bernardi, Piero Gianolla, Fabio Massimo Petti, Paolo Mietto and Michael J. Benton published in the journal “Nature Communications”.

16 04, 2018

Dinosaurs in the Summer Term

By | April 16th, 2018|Educational Activities, Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

Dinosaurs and Fossils in the Summer Term

For many schools in the United Kingdom, this week sees the start of the summer term.  Everything Dinosaur team members have a very busy itinerary with lots of school visits and other activities planned.  With their teaching qualifications and knowledge about dinosaurs, fossils and life in the past, our team members offer a wide variety of teaching activities and fossil workshops.  The summer term is going to be very busy, with lots of school visits booked into our teaching schedule.

Dinosaurs in School

Dinosaur themed class quesions.

Questions about dinosaurs prepared by a class in readiness for a visit from Everything Dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Mansel Primary School

Answering Questions About Life in the Past

Our dedicated, hard-working and knowledgeable team members provide dinosaur themed teaching activities from Early Years Foundation (EYFS) and Reception through to Key Stage Four and beyond.  Whether it is a term topic, part of a science week or a special event, fossils and dinosaurs in school can help enthuse and motivate the next generation of scientists.  We do our best to answer all the queries and questions from the pupils, sometimes we even have to get involved with a little bit of impromptu fossil identification as the children bring in fossils and other objects that they have found for us to identify.

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“This term [summer 2018], is likely to be our busiest we have so many school visits planned.  We are looking forward to meeting all the eager and enthusiastic children as well as the dedicated teachers, learning support providers and teaching assistants who create such amazing lessons and schemes of work for the children.”

A Very Full Display Board in the Middle of a Dinosaur Term Topic

Dinosaur museum in school.

A dinosaur museum in a classroom.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/Brookfield Primary School

Dinosaurs as a Term Topic

Dinosaurs and life in the past makes a great term topic.  Topic areas such as “Footsteps in the Past” and “Jurassic Forest” have been created to help schools engage in cross-curricular activities and to deliver imaginative and creative schemes of work for their pupils.  Many children have quite a lot of pre-knowledge when it comes to the Dinosauria.  Starting a term topic can help learners to gain more confidence and simple experiments and activities can enhance the work done by the school to help develop scientific working.

For further information on Everything Dinosaur’s activities in schools and to request a quotation (we are already taking bookings for 2019), simply drop us an email: Contact Everything Dinosaur Request a Quotation

15 04, 2018

The Lufengosaurus That Got Away

By | April 15th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Pathology Identified in Lufengosaurus Specimen

An analysis of a 200 million-year-old bite-mark has provided scientists with a detailed picture of a dinosaur’s life.  The bite-mark, preserved on the fossilised rib of a Lufengosaurus (L. huenei) may also provide a clue to how this member of the Sauropodomorpha met its end.  The specimen preserves evidence of an attack on a plant-eating dinosaur, probably from a Theropod and although the attack initially was not fatal, the resulting infection that occurred in the bone may have contributed to the unfortunate dinosaur’s death.

A Life Reconstruction of the Lufengosaurus Showing the Bitemark

Lufengosaurus with bite-mark (life reconstruction).

A life reconstruction of L. huenei in its natural environment and demonstrating the bite wound affecting the shoulder of the herbivorous dinosaur.

Picture Credit: Zongda Zhang

Employing an advanced X-ray technique, an international team of scientists from the UK, China, the United States and South Africa, have published evidence for an unsuccessful attack on a Jurassic dinosaur, a member of the Suborder Sauropodomorpha from China known as Lufengosaurus (L. huenei).  Everything Dinosaur was contacted by one of the authors of the scientific paper, published in the academic journal “Nature Scientific Reports”, a PNSO Lufengosaurus replica was purchased so that the model could be used to help explain the pathology and inferred animal behaviour from the scientific research.

The study provides a detailed report of the first recognised case of an abscess in a long-necked dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic of China, (Yunnan Province), which was caused by infection brought on from the bite of a large predatory dinosaur.  The infection may have weakened the animal, ultimately resulting in its death.

Scientist Lida Xing Holding the Damaged Rib Bone

Rib bone of Lufengosaurus showing pathology.

The pathological fossilised rib of Lufengosaurus huenei.

Picture Credit: Lida Xing

Micro-computed X-ray Tomography

The pathology, was discovered in the skeleton of a L. huenei, which is part of the vertebrate fossil collection at the Yuxi Museum (Yunnan Province).  The fossil rib bone was subjected to micro-computed x-ray tomography (micro-CT).   This permits high-resolution slices and three-dimensional images to be built up of internal structures of bone without damaging the fossil material.  It is a non-destructive research technique.  As well as providing detailed evidence of interactions between big, herbivorous dinosaurs and carnivorous Theropods, the successful identification of this abscess using this technique could point to a new understanding of where certain species lived, and the impact of the diseases that they suffered from.

Commenting on the significance of the research, one of the authors of the scientific paper, Dr Patrick Randolph-Quinney (University of Central Lancashire in the UK and the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa), stated:

“We were able to use micro-CT to look deep inside the structure of the rib and visualise the precise changes that bacterial infection had caused, as well as to see the region of bone that had been bitten out of the rib.  What micro-CT is allowing us to do is understand processes such as trauma and infection in the fossil record at the cellular level, as well as looking at the whole bone.  This gives us advantages over traditional histology – which slices up bone for magnification under a microscope – in that it doesn’t require us to damage precious fossils and it also allows us to build 3-D reconstructions of the whole region of disease.  In this case, this has allowed us to model and study the whole wound track, not just a single portion of it.”

Images of the Rib Pathology

Lufengosaurus rib pathology caused by a bite.

A 3-D and 3-D slice reconstruction of the Lufengosaurus rib pathology.

Picture Credit: Patrick Randolph-Quinney (University of Central Lancashire)

The picture (above), shows a 3-D and 3-D slice reconstruction of the Lufengosaurus rib pathology.  Micro-computed tomography allowed the scientists to produce surface renderings of the fossil in 3-D (top row) and 2-D X-ray slices through the rib (bottom row).  These images show areas of cellular reorganisation, bone destruction and bone formation indicative of ostemyelitis (bone infection).

Lufengosaurus (L. huenei)

Lufengosaurus grew to about six metres in length.  It is estimated to have weighed around two tonnes.  More than two dozen specimens of this Prosauropod have been discovered to date, adults as well as fossil material from juveniles.  All the fossils ascribed to this genus have been discovered in the Lufeng Formation of south-western China (Yunnan Province).  Yang Zhongjian, known in western literature as Chung Chien Young, formally named and described Lufengosaurus in 1941.  Lufengosaurus was the first dinosaur from China to have been discovered, studied and displayed by Chinese scientists.

The PNSO Lufengosaurus Dinosaur Model Supplied to the Researchers by Everything Dinosaur

PNSO Lufengosaurus replica.

The PNSO Lufengosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Lead author of the study, Dr Lida Xing (China University of Geosciences) added:

“This case is really exciting as it gives us evidence of interactions between large plant-eating dinosaur species and one of the large aggressive predators preying on them at that time.  Using the latest X-ray imaging we were able to track the changes in the bone caused by an infected bite on the Lufengosaurus, probably from a big carnivorous dinosaur.  We don’t just have evidence of disease but of behaviour between animals – between predator and prey at this deep period in prehistory.”

This study was carried out by researchers at the University of Central Lancashire (UCLan), China University of Geosciences, the University of the Witwatersrand in South Africa, the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in the USA, the State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, and the Yuxi Museum, Yunnan, China.

The team were able to identify an infection in the bone called osteomyelitis which produces a pus-filled abscess inside the bone.  This is only the second time that a case of osteomyelitis has been recorded in the Sauropodomorpha, the other instance came from a giant Titanosaur from Argentina, the Lufengosaurus example pre-dates the Argentinian example by tens of millions of years.  It is the earliest recorded case of a bony abscess caused by osteomyelitis disease in the fossil  record.

Views of the Damaged Lufengosaurus Rib Bone

A damaged rib of a Lufengosaurus.

The pathological fossil rib (two views).

Picture Credit: Lida Xing

Hao Ran from the Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, commented:

“This is a great example of how the clinical sciences and the science of palaeontology are working together with fossils from the Chinese fossil record.  Together with international collaborators we are able to advance our understanding of diseases in both the past and the present.  We don’t know which predator caused the bite, but we do have a smoking gun of the attack with the bite wound it left.”

The scientific paper: “Possible Bite-induced Abscess and Osteomyelitis in Lufengosaurus (Dinosauria: Sauropodomorph) from the Lower Jurassic of the Yimen Basin, China” by Lida Xing, Bruce M. Rothschild, Patrick S. Randolph-Quinney, Yi Wang, Alexander H. Parkinson and Hao Ran published in Nature Scientific Reports.

14 04, 2018

Colourful Mini Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals

By | April 14th, 2018|Dinosaur Fans, Educational Activities, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products, Teaching|0 Comments

Mini Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animals

Everything Dinosaur has updated the box of mini dinosaur and prehistoric animal models to include a replica of the flying reptile Pteranodon.  This popular set of prehistoric animal figures is sold either as a box of 96 models, or the little dinosaur and prehistoric animal models can be purchased individually.  The pterosaur Pteranodon joins the likes of Stegosaurus, Apatosaurus and a horned dinosaur in the prehistoric animal box, a collection of prehistoric animals from the Age of Dinosaurs.

Colourful Mini Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models

Prehistoric animal and dinosaur figures.

Dinosaur and prehistoric animal models.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Great for Party Gift Bags

With at least ten different models per box, these little prehistoric animal figures are ideal for party gift bags and for use in dinosaur themed party games.  They make really useful cake decorations, for all those busy grown-ups baking dinosaur themed birthday and celebration cakes for their budding young palaeontologists.  Plastic and robust, the mini dinosaur and prehistoric animal models make very colourful cake toppers.

A Box of Assorted Prehistoric Animals and Dinosaurs

Box of dinosaur and prehistoric animal models.

Dinosaur and prehistoric animal models – ideal for parties or for use in schools to help young children gain more confidence with numbers and to aid the development of motor skills.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Helping Children with their Counting and Sorting

Our mini dinosaur and prehistoric animal models have proved very effective teaching aids in school.  The mini dinosaur models are used to help children get to grips with numbers and these bright and colourful figures help inspire and motivate many young children as they make super counters and props for use in counting exercises.  The variety of the figures in a box of 96 provides plenty of opportunities for sorting these little models into different groups.  For example, we have used them to help sort out all the red coloured models into one group, all the yellow coloured models into another.  In addition, we have seen children differentiate and sort the models according to how many legs the animal walks on (two legs or four).

As an extension for more capable learners linked to the Key Stage 1 curriculum is to challenge pupils to sort the figures into meat-eaters and plant-eaters, linking the counting game to an element of the national curriculum that explores simple food chains and food webs.

Tactile Models – Great for Kinaesthetic Learning

Dinosaur and prehistoric animal models.

Mini dinosaur and prehistoric animal models available from Everything Dinosaur.

A Wide Variety of Prehistoric Animals

Lots of different types of dinosaur models are included, plant-eaters, meat-eaters, Jurassic dinosaurs, Cretaceous dinosaurs, pterosaurs and such like.  Great for counting and sorting games. a box of 96 mini dinosaurs and prehistoric animal figures.  Each model measures around 4 to 5 centimetres in length, just the right size for young children in Reception or Year 1 to handle.

To view the mini dinosaur and prehistoric animal models and to see the extensive range of inexpensive dinosaur and prehistoric animal themed gifts and educational materials supplied by Everything Dinosaur, simply click this link: Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Gifts and Teaching Resources

12 04, 2018

Why So Many Large Predators in Cretaceous Africa?

By | April 12th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Calcium Isotope Study Sheds Light on Lost World Dominated by Giant Predators

In the autumn of 2011, the BBC aired a new CGI-based dinosaur television series called “Planet Dinosaur”.  The first episode of this documentary series was entitled “Lost World” and focused on the remarkable fossil discoveries from Africa which shed light on ecosystems that seemed to be dominated by hypercarnivores (animals that have a diet that consists of more than 70 percent meat).  Viewers were introduced to giant meat-eating dinosaurs such as Carcharodontosaurus (C. saharicus) and the abelisaurid Rugops (R. primus) as well as super-sized, ancient crocodiles such as Sarcosuchus (S. imperator).  One of the questions posed in the television episode, was how could all these large predators co-exist?  Thanks to some fascinating research involving the study of vertebrate teeth from two famous African fossil deposits, scientists have been able to come with an answer.

Spinosaurus – Featured in Episode 1 “Lost World”

The front cover of the book "Planet Dinosaur"

The documentary series highlighted the latest research on the Theropod Spinosaurus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur/BBC

A study of calcium isotopes in fossil teeth suggests that some large, carnivorous Theropods (carcharodontosaurids and abelisaurids) preferred to hunt terrestrial prey such as herbivorous dinosaurs, whilst others such as spinosaurids were mainly fish-eaters (piscivores).  The giant crocodile Sarcosuchus had a diet somewhere in between, consuming both terrestrial and aquatic prey.

Studying Fossil Remains from Niger and Morocco

Writing in the journal “The Proceedings of the Royal Society B (Biology)”, the researchers studied calcium in fossil remains from the famous Kem Kem deposits of Morocco and the Gadoufaoua deposits of Niger.  The research was conducted by the Laboratoire de géologie de Lyon : Terre, planètes et environnement (CNRS/ENS de Lyon/Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University), in partnership with the Centre for Research on Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments (CNRS/French National Museum of Natural History/Sorbonne University).

The team set out to try and understand why there were comparatively few herbivores recorded compared to the number of large carnivores represented in the fossil material.  The French scientists examined the vertebrate fossils from the Gadoufaoua region of central Niger (part of the Elrhaz Formation, which dates from the Late Aptian to Early Albian stages of the Early Cretaceous).  These fossils represent a flood plain ecosystem that existed some 115-112 million years ago.  Vertebrate fossils from the geologically younger Kem Kem Beds of south-eastern Morocco were also studied.

The Kem Kem deposits, sometimes referred to as the Continental Red Beds, because of the abundance of red sandstone sediments, are difficult to interpret due to the amount of mixing of fossil material and re-deposition.  Dinosaur fossils from this locality are approximately 100 million years old (Cenomanian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous).  The two sites are characterised by the overabundance of predators compared to herbivorous dinosaurs and to determine why, the researchers measured the proportions of different calcium isotopes in the fossilised remains (fish scales and tooth enamel).

Examples of Vertebrate Teeth from the Gadoufaoua Deposits (Niger)

Calcium isotope study reveals diets of mid Cretaceous African vertebrates.

Teeth from vertebrates represented by mid Cretaceous fossil material (Kem Kem and Gadoufaoua deposits).  Scale bar = 2 cm.

Picture Credit: Auguste Hassler / LGL-TPE / CNRS-ENS de Lyon-Université Lyon

The picture above shows examples of various vertebrate teeth associated with the Gadoufaoua deposit.  From left to right Sarcosuchus imperator (giant crocodile), a tooth from an indeterminate spinosaurid, a tooth from a non-spinosaurid Theropod (abelisaurid or carcharodontosaurid), a pterosaur tooth, a tooth from a hadrosaurid dinosaur (herbivore), the rounded and flattened tooth associated with a pycnodont (fish) and the tooth of a small crocodylomorph.

Tell-Tale Calcium

Among vertebrates, calcium is almost exclusively derived from food.  By comparing the isotopic composition of potential prey (fish and herbivores), with that of the teeth of carnivores, it is possible to map the probable diet of those meat-eaters.  The researchers found that the data from the two locations showed similar results.  Some large, meat-eating dinosaurs such as the carcharodontosaurids and the abelisaurids preferred to hunt terrestrial prey, whilst spinosaurids displayed a very distinctive isotopic signature indicating a marked preference for aquatic prey (fish).  Sarcosuchus, on the other hand, may have been more of a generalist.  Calcium isotope data showed that these large crocodiles fed on terrestrial as well as aquatic animals.

The Skull  and Jaws of Sarcosuchus

Skull of Sarcosuchus.

The huge skull of Sarcosuchus – a giant crocodile that preyed on terrestrial as well as aquatic prey.

Picture Credit: Patrina Malone

Resource Niche Partitioning

This study suggests that predators avoided direct competition by sharing food resources.  The distinctive taxonomic clustering in calcium isotope values recorded by the French researchers strongly supports the idea of niche partitioning, that is, different types of carnivore used the resources in the environment differently which enabled them all to co-exist.  The calcium isotope measurements allow palaeontologists to examine feeding evidence across a food chain within an ecosystem.  This research, if applied elsewhere, such as within other fossil Lagerstätte, may permit clarification of food chain roles and niche partitioning within numerous ancient palaeoenvironments.

The scientific paper: “Calcium Isotopes offer Clues on Resource Partitioning among Cretaceous Predatory Dinosaurs” by A. Hassler, J. E. Martin, R. Amiot, T. Tacail, F. Arnaud Godet, R. Allain, V. Balter published in The Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

11 04, 2018

Merci Pour Le Triceratops!

By | April 11th, 2018|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Thanks for the Triceratops Photographs

At Everything Dinosaur, we really enjoy viewing the model collections of dinosaur fans.  It is great to see what collectors and figure enthusiasts have made of their purchases and we get lots of pictures sent into us highlighting dinosaur displays, prehistoric animal dioramas and completed model kits.  Recently, we received some photographs from a talented model maker who had just finished a Pegasus Hobbies Triceratops model kit and what a fantastic replica he has created.

The Completed Pegasus Triceratops Model

Pegasus Hobbies Triceratops model kit.

A completed 1:24 scale Pegasus Hobbies Triceratops dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: M.F.

A Beautiful Horned Dinosaur Model

The Pegasus Hobbies Triceratops is one of trio of dinosaur model kits currently available from this manufacturer.  The kit consists of a solid PVC Triceratops dinosaur in several constituent parts, a detailed display base and a name plate.  Model fans and collectors have a wonderful 1:24 scale Triceratops figure to assemble and paint.  As the glue and paints are not included in the kits, the model maker has complete freedom to decide what colour scheme they would like.  The very talented collector who sent in these pictures to Everything Dinosaur, has chosen to emphasise the subtle scales on the flank and to highlight the epocipitals on that awesome-looking head shield.

Thank You for Sending in the Triceratops Photographs

A completed 1:24 scale Pegasus Triceratops model.

Finished Triceratops dinosaur model kit.

Picture Credit: M. F.

Painting the Toes of Triceratops

The finished model shows lots and lots of detail.  The skull and the open mouth have been painted with considerable skill and care.  Note how even the individual digits and toes have been painted, there is certainly a lot to admire in this completed replica.  The weathered look to those huge brow horns and the delicate brushwork that has enabled them to fit seamlessly into their bony sockets is particularly impressive.  This is a wonderful example of the dinosaur model maker’s art.

The Pegasus Hobbies Triceratops Box Art

The Pegasus Hobbies Triceratops dinosaur model.

Pegasus Hobbies Triceratops 1:24 scale dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The box art for this kit (shown above), depicts this horned dinosaur in a forest environment, but this model maker has chosen to paint the display base a sandy colour.  Perhaps the Triceratops lived in an arid environment, or maybe the display base depicts the shore of a lake or a river bank.  Could the Triceratops be at the seaside?  Ironically, numerous Triceratops fossil specimens have been found in association with ancient coastal habitats.

A Close-up View of the Skull (Triceratops Model Kit)

Finished Triceratops model kit.

A completed 1:24 scale Pegasus Triceratops model.

Picture Credit: M. F.

The Pegasus Hobbies kits have built up a strong reputation for their quality and craftsmanship, these kits really do give model makers the opportunity to develop their own unique interpretation of a famous animal from the fossil record.

To view the range of Pegasus Hobbies kits available from Everything Dinosaur: Pegasus Hobbies Dinosaur Model Kits

Our thanks once again to the talented person who sent in the photographs, or as we might say in their language “Merci beaucoup pour les photographies fantastiques du Triceratops.”

10 04, 2018

Single Bone Points Finger at Early Homo sapiens Migration

By | April 10th, 2018|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Homo sapiens Spread Further Than Previously Thought – More Evidence

A single finger bone, measuring just 3.3 centimetres in length, indicates that modern humans were living in Saudi Arabia around 88,000 years ago.  The ancient digit, is the oldest human (H. sapiens), fossil to have been found to date outside of the cradle of humanity (Africa).  Its discovery suggests that early, modern humans travelled further than initially thought during the first reported human migration into Eurasia.  This fossil discovery adds to the evidence from Israel, China and Australia that Homo sapiens was widely dispersed outside of Africa as early as 180,000 years ago.

Views of the Ancient Human Finger Bone

Ancient human finger bone from Saudi Arabia.

Various views of the fossil intermediate phalanx from Saudi Arabia.

Picture Credit: Ian Cartwright

Excavating an Ancient Freshwater Lake Bed

Writing in the academic journal “Nature Ecology and Evolution”, the international team of researchers including scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage and Oxford University, report on the excavations of an ancient freshwater lake bed preserved in the Nefud Desert.  Prior to this and other recent discoveries, most palaeoanthropologists believed that early migrations out of Africa into Eurasia by H. sapiens had largely been unsuccessful, with early humans only reaching the relatively nearby Mediterranean forests of the Levant.

Fieldwork at the Al Wusta Site (Saudi Arabia)

Excavating the ancient lake bed in the Nefud Desert.

The Al Wusta excavation site, in the Nefud Desert (Saudi Arabia).

Picture Credit: Michael Petraglia/Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History

Single Human Bone

The single human bone was subjected to CT scans to build up a three-dimensional image of the fossil.  It resembled a modern human finger bone, Neanderthal finger bones being shorter and squatter.  The fossil is described as an “intermediate phalanx”, it is the second furthest finger bone from the wrist.  In addition to the human fossil, the field team found evidence of the lush palaeoenvironment of the area including bones from a hippopotamus and the fossil shells of freshwater snails.  The scientists uncovered a large number of stone tools too.

88,000 Years Old

A dating technique called uranium series dating was used to estimate the age of the fossil.  A laser was employed to bore microscopic holes into the fossil bone and record the ratio between minute traces of radioactive elements.  Having compared the fossil to the digits of ancient hominins and primates, the scientists reported that this was conclusively a finger bone and it belonged to a member of our own species – Homo sapiens.

Lead author of the paper, Dr Huw Groucutt (Oxford University and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History), stated:

“This discovery for the first time conclusively shows that early members of our species colonised an expansive region of southwest Asia and were not just restricted to the Levant.  The ability of these early people to widely colonise this region casts doubt on long held views that early dispersals out of Africa were localised and unsuccessful.”

Other dates obtained from associated fossil material and analysis of the ancient lake sediments corroborate the team’s findings.  The dates are focused on or around 90,000 years ago.  During this time the Al Wusta location looked very different than it does today.  The area was lush and green and the large lake was surrounded by a grassland ecosystem.

Co-author of the scientific paper, Professor Michael Petraglia (Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History), added:

“The Arabian Peninsula has long been considered to be far from the main stage of human evolution.  This discovery firmly puts Arabia on the map as a key region for understanding our origins and expansion to the rest of the world.   As fieldwork carries on, we continue to make remarkable discoveries in Saudi Arabia.”

The Ancient Lake Bed (White) Surrounded by the Sand of the Nefud Desert

The prehistoric lake bed in the Nefud Desert.

Once this region was verdant with many lakes thanks to the monsoon rains.

Picture Credit: Michael Petraglia/Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History

The scientific paper: “Homo sapiens in Arabia by 85,000 Years Ago” by Huw S. Groucutt, Rainer Grün, Michael D. Petraglia et al, published in the journal “Nature Ecology and Evolution”.

9 04, 2018

Late Triassic Giant Ichthyosaurs

By | April 9th, 2018|Adobe CS5, Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Scientists Identify Giant Triassic Ichthyosaur Jaw Bone and Help Solve 19th Century Fossil Mystery

Scientists have identified a jaw bone of a giant marine reptile, that could represent one of the largest animals that ever lived.  The newly described fossil bones, representing a portion of an enormous lower jaw, may also have shed light on a mystery that dates back to the middle of the 19th Century.  The fossilised jaw, which consists of several, broken, individual pieces, is thought to be an incomplete surangular (bone from the rear of the lower jaw), from a shastasaurid Ichthyosaur, a clade of enigmatic, giant marine reptiles that were geographically widespread during the Late Triassic.  The fossil material was found on the beach at the small village of Lilstock in (west Somerset), the specimen is approximately 205 million years old.

A Lateral View of the Fossil Material – A Giant Ichthyosaur from Somerset!

Incomplete surangular from a giant Triassic Ichthyosaur.

The incomplete surangular jaw bone from Lilstock (Somerset).

Picture Credit: Manchester University

Found on a Somerset Beach

Fossil collector and co-author of the study, published in the scientific journal PLOS One, Paul de la Salle, found a portion of the specimen in May 2016.  He later returned to the beach and found more pieces, that together form a partial surangular more than a metre in length (see photograph above).

An Approximate Representation of the Location of Surangular on the Skull of Shonisaurus

The surangular bone of Shonisaurus is highlighted.

A close-up of the skull of Shonisaurus, the surangular bone is outlined in red.

Picture Credit: Scott Hartman with additional annotation by Everything Dinosaur

Commenting on his fossil find Paul stated:

“Initially, the bone just looked like a piece of rock but, after recognising a groove and bone structure, I thought it might be part of a jaw from an Ichthyosaur and immediately contacted Ichthyosaur experts Dean Lomax (Manchester University) and Professor Judy Massare (SUNY College at Brockport, New York, USA), who expressed interest in studying the specimen.  I also contacted Dr Ramues Gallois, a geologist who visited the site and determined the age of the specimen stratigraphically.”

Comparisons with Shonisaurus sikanniensis

Dean Lomax and Judy Massare made the surangular identification and visited the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller, southern Alberta (Canada), to view skull material from the largest Ichthyosaur yet described, the monstrous shastasaurid Shonisaurus sikanniensis.  S. sikanniensis fossils come from Upper Triassic rocks found in British Columbia and the Royal Tyrrell material indicates a marine reptile around 21 metres in length.  The researchers found similarities between the new Somerset specimen and Shonisaurus sikanniensis, which suggests that the Lilstock fossils represent a giant shastasaurid too.

A Life Restoration and Skeletal Drawing of the Giant Ichthyosaur Shonisaurus

Shonisaurus life and skeletal reconstruction.

Shonisaurus life restoration and skeletal reconstruction (N. Tamura and S. Hartman).

Picture Credit: Nobumichi Tamura and Scott Hartman

As Big as a Blue Whale?

Commenting on the approximate size of the Somerset specimen, Dean Lomax said:

“As the specimen is represented only by a large piece of jaw, it is difficult to provide a size estimate, but by using a simple scaling factor and comparing the same bone in S. sikanniensis, the Lilstock specimen is about 25% larger.  Other comparisons suggest that the Lilstock Ichthyosaur was at least 20 to 25 metres.  Of course, such estimates are not entirely realistic because of the differences between species.  Nonetheless, simple scaling is commonly used to estimate size, especially when comparative material is scarce.”

When compared to giant marine vertebrates today, the upper end of the size estimate for the Lilstock specimen would indicate a creature longer than the largest toothed whale, the Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), indeed, at around 25 metres long, it would rival in size the largest cetaceans of all, adult Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus).

A Pair of Giant Shastasaurid Ichthyosaurs Cruise the Late Triassic Ocean with a Pod of Smaller Ichthyosaurs for Company

Shonisaurus illustrated.

A pair of Shonisaurus – giant marine reptiles of the Late Triassic.

Picture Credit: Nobumichi Tamura

Solving a Mystery That Dates Back to 1850

In 1850, a large bone was described from the Upper Triassic sediments of Aust Cliff in Gloucestershire (UK).  Four other fragmentary bone elements were subsequently found and described.  Sadly, two of these fossils are missing and presumed destroyed.  These bone shafts have been assigned to limb bones of herbivorous dinosaurs.  Two of the fossils were thought to resemble the limbs of Stegosaurs, but if that was the case, it would push back the evolutionary origins of Stegosaurs into the Norian faunal stage of the Late Triassic.  Other scientists have speculated that the fossil material might not be dinosaurian at all, but fossils of a related Archosaur from the pseudosuchian lineage.  However, with the discovery of the Lilstock specimen, another possibility has come to light.  These fossils could represent jaw fragments of giant, previously unrecognised Ichthyosaurs, after all, the Aust Cliff location has already yielded a number of marine reptile fossils including Ichthyosaurs.

Dean Lomax added:

“One of the Aust bones might also be an Ichthyosaur surangular.  If it is, by comparison with the Lilstock specimen, it might represent a much larger animal.  To verify these findings, we need a complete giant Triassic Ichthyosaur from the UK – a lot easier said than done!”

The scientific paper: “A Giant Late Triassic Ichthyosaur from the UK and a Reinterpretation of the Aust Cliff “Dinosaurian” Bones by Lomax, D. R., De la Salle, P., Massare, J. A. and Gallois, R. (2018) published in PLOS One.

8 04, 2018

Taking Photographs of the Rebor Ceratosaurus (Savage)

By | April 8th, 2018|Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Rebor Ceratosaurus 1:35 Scale Replica Poses for the Camera

A figure collector contacted Everything Dinosaur and asked us to select a Rebor Ceratosaurus dinosaur model for him.  However, before placing his order, he requested that we send some photographs of the model.  We are always happy to oblige fellow collectors and dinosaur model enthusiasts, so we quickly despatched some images via email so that the buyer could peruse his potential purchase.

The Rebor 1:35 Scale Model of Ceratosaurus (C. dentisulcatus)

Rebor Ceratosaurus dinosaur model (Savage).

The Rebor 1:35 scale Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus replica.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Rebor Ceratosaurus Figure (Savage)

Measuring around 27 centimetres in length and standing an impressive 10. 5 centimetres high when posed on its detailed base, the Rebor Ceratosaurus is a most attractive figure.  It comes with its own polystone base, with a puddle effect and small tree stump.  The base itself, measures around 14 centimetres long.  The dinosaur is depicted in a very dynamic pose, almost as if it is sprinting.  Although, a sizeable predator, the robust Ceratosaurus dentisulcatus shared its environment with some even larger Theropods, such as Saurophaganax and Allosaurus.  The detail on the model is fantastic, from the characteristic nose horn and the prominent bony growths over the eyes, down to the scales running along the back to the end of that powerful tail.   The Rebor 1:35 scale Ceratosaurus has proved to be extremely popular with avid collectors of prehistoric animal models and figures.

A Close-up View of the Head and Jaws of the Rebor Ceratosaurus Dinosaur Model

Rebor Ceratosaurus dinosaur model (Savage).

A close-up view of the head and the jaws of the Rebor Ceratosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

In the close-up view of the head and jaws, the beautiful detail of the hornlets over the eyes can be seen along with that prominent nasal horn.  The Rebor sculpt shows the large jaws and blade-like teeth associated with the Ceratosaurus genus.

Several Species of Ceratosaurus Have Been Described

Although associated mostly with Upper Jurassic deposits, fragmentary fossils from Argentina that are associated with the Aptian faunal stage, indicate that these predators survived into the Early Cretaceous.  Several species of  Ceratosaurus have been described from Morrison Formation fossils, although fossil finds suggest that this dinosaur was geographically widespread.  Ceratosaurus material has been found in Portugal (Lourinhã Formation) and there is some evidence to suggest that these types of dinosaur lived in Africa (fossils from the Tendaguru Formation in Tanzania).

It really is a most remarkable figure.  Having viewed the photographs that we had emailed, the dinosaur model collector asked us to reserve this particular model for him.  It was subsequently purchased and we suspect that in a few days it will be taking pride of place in his model collection.

To view the Rebor Ceratosaurus (Savage) and the rest of the figures in the Rebor series: Rebor Prehistoric Animal Models and Figures

Load More Posts