Category: Geology

Lyme Regis Fossil Festival in Full Swing

Lyme Regis Fossil Festival 2016

The 2016 Lyme Regis Fossil Festival is in full swing.  After a successful day yesterday with around two dozen primary schools attending, Friday is dedicated to supporting secondary schools, those pupils at Key Stages 3 and 4 of the English national curriculum.  Local fossil expert Brandon Lennon reports that there were some strong winds battering the Dorset coast earlier in the week, this affected the build up to the Festival but all the marquees were erected and everything made ready for what will be four days for frenetic fossil themed activities.

The View Towards the Famous Lyme Regis Cobb

Lyme Regis prepares for the 2016 Fossil Festival.

Lyme Regis prepares for the 2016 Fossil Festival.

Picture Credit: Brandon Lennon

Even in bad weather, Lyme Regis is picturesque.  This part of the “Jurassic Coast” tends to have its own micro-climate, a phenomenon that team members at Everything Dinosaur have experienced themselves.  It can be raining in Sidmouth (Devon) to the west, but the Lyme Regis and Charmouth areas stay dry.  The weather forecast for the weekend, the public open days of the 2016 festival, is much better.  Strong sea breezes are still in the forecast but it is going to be dry and as a result, even more visitors are expected.  It is going to be a busy couple of days for the organisers and the exhibitors.

The Marquees Along the Sea Front

All is ready for the Lyme Regis Fossil Festival 2016.

All is ready for the Lyme Regis Fossil Festival 2016.

Picture Credit: Brandon Lennon

To visit the Lyme Regis Fossil Festival website: Lyme Regis Fossil Festival 2016

The theme of this year’s festival is “promoting science to young people” and there will be lots to do and see at Lyme Regis over the next couple of days or so.  However, team members at Everything Dinosaur have received reports about further minor rock falls from the cliffs surrounding the town.  A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“The cliffs remain saturated and further rock falls over the next few days cannot be discounted.  We urge visitors to the Festival to take care whilst on the beach and to stay away from the bottom of the cliffs.”

One of the best ways to enjoy the geology of Lyme Regis and Charmouth is to take part in a guided fossil walk.  There are a number of these walks built into the programme of the Festival itself, but other walks are available throughout most of the year.

To learn more about organised fossil walks in the Lyme Regis area: Lyme Regis Fossil Walks

Amazing Fossils to Find and Lots to See (and Buy)

For those who would prefer not to explore the beaches themselves, there will be lots of fascinating fossils on display in the marquees.  Many of the specimens on display have been found in the Dorset area and can be purchased, there will certainly be many different Ammonites to choose from, if Chris Moore’s trade stand is anything to go by.

Chris Moore (Forge Fossils, Charmouth) Prepares his Trade Stand

A splendid display of Lyme Regis fossils.

A splendid display of Lyme Regis fossils.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

It looks like there will be one or two bargains to be had.  There will also be plenty of opportunities to discuss the ancient fauna of Lyme Regis with the multitude of local fossil experts who will be attending this year’s event, in addition, visitors have the chance to meet scientists from the Natural History Museum, British Antarctic Survey, Palaeontological Association, Plymouth University, Natural England, Jurassic Coast Trust, Dorset Geologists, Geological Society, Lyme Regis Museum, Charmouth Heritage Coast Centre, National Trust, Dorset Wildlife Trust and the National Oceanography Centre.

We wish the Festival every success and we look forward to hearing more about the 2016 Lyme Regis Fossil Festival over the weekend.

New Model to Help Find Fossils

Serendipity Taken Out of Fossil Finding

Very often a major fossil find is attributed to serendipity, someone being in the right place at the right time.  Even the most experienced palaeontologist needs a little bit of luck, take for example the discovery of the ancient hominin Homo floresiensis on the Indonesian island of Flores.  Had the research team excavated an area just one metre either side of that part of the cave they did excavate they would never have found the beautifully preserved skull and partial skeleton of an individual (the holotype LB-1).  Yes, “lady luck” does play a part in many new scientific discoveries.  However, an international team of scientists, including researchers from the University of Adelaide, have created a mathematical model to help fossil hunters find the remains of long-extinct animals.

Combining Scientific Disciplines to Predict Where Fossils Can Be Found

The international team, that included researchers from Kiel University (Germany), as well as Australia, looked at the estimated ages of the fossils from a number of extinct Australian megafauna and plotted known fossil find locations for these creatures against data for the prehistoric climate of Australia.  This provided a guide to the maximum likely ranges of the animals in the study.  This information was then mapped against the geology of Australia to provide an indication of what suitably aged, likely fossil bearing strata was exposed.  Weighting for the erosion potential of the rocks was built into the mathematical model and this data set could then be used to help determine the best areas in the country to look for the animal’s fossil remains.

A paper detailing the research has been published in the on line journal PLOS One, the research team confidently state that their model can provide fossil hunters with guidelines on how to find fossils elsewhere in the world too.

Determining the Best Places to Hunt for Fossils

Combining palaeoclimate data with erosion studies and known fossil finds to predict where fossils can be found.

Combining palaeo-climate data with erosion studies and known fossil finds to predict where fossils can be found.

Picture Credit: Sebastián Block, Frédérik Saltré,  Marta Rodríguez-Rey, Damien A. Fordham, Ingmar Unkel, Corey J. A. Bradshaw

The picture above provides an illustration of how the mathematical model was constructed and how to implement it.  For any given type of extinct animal (in this example, the giant marsupial Diprotodon), the red map at the bottom shows the likely places to hunt for fossils of that animal.  The darker the red shading the more likely that location is to be a “fossil finding hot spot”.   The red map has been created by looking at certain variables, namely:

  • Where the animal used to live – a map created by assessing ancient climate data and known fossil finds (the brown map).
  • Where the fossils could be preserved – using an assessment of the geology of the local area (blue map).
  • Where it is now possible to find the fossils of that particular animal, building in an assessment of erosion profiles of the likely fossil bearing strata (green map).

The scientists are confident that this systematic approach to fossil finding is more likely to be successful than random approaches to fossil hunts, even out-doing sophisticated approaches such as using satellite data to identify likely fossil bearing outcrops and exposures.

Five genera of Late Pleistocene megafauna were selected for this study.  All had an extensive and relatively widely distributed fossil record on the continent and since all had become extinct relatively recently there was plenty of evidence to support an assessment of the ancient climate.  The creatures studied were Thylacoleo (the marsupial lion), Protemnodon (a giant wallaby), the cow-sized, giant marsupial  Zygomaturus, the flightless bird Genyornis and Diprotodon, the largest marsupial known to science.

Diprotodon Played a Role in the Study

Diprotodonts - Giant Marsupials

Diprotodon – A Giant Marsupial.

Picture Credit: Australian Museum/James King

Although all these five genera are unique to Australia, the scientists had sufficient fossils to create an accurate map of the creatures prehistoric distribution.

Commenting on the reasoning behind their model, project leader, Professor Corey Bradshaw, (Sir Hubert Wilkins Chair of Climate Change at the University of Adelaide) stated:

“A chain of ideal conditions must occur for fossils to form, which means they are extremely rare, so finding as many as possible can tell us more of what the past was like, and why certain species went extinct.  Typically, however, we use haphazard ways to find fossils.  Mostly people just go to excavation sites and surrounding areas where fossils have been found before.  We hope our models will make it easier for palaeontologists and archaeologists to identify new fossil sites that could yield vast treasures of prehistoric information.”

Lead author of the scientific paper Sebastián Block explained that the team made use of modelling techniques already used widely in ecology.  They looked at the past distribution of these prehistoric genera, where fossils were likely to have formed and the probability of making field discoveries.  The model may not make the back-breaking work of excavating fossils any easier, but at least palaeontologists will be looking in the most likely places.

The Probability of Finding Fossils

Combining disciplines increases the probability of finding fossils.

Combining disciplines increases the probability of finding fossils.

Graph Credit: Sebastián Block, Frédérik Saltré,  Marta Rodríguez-Rey, Damien A. Fordham, Ingmar Unkel, Corey J. A. Bradshaw

The bar chart above shows how the model increases the likelihood of fossil discovery for the five genera studied.  The chances of finding a fossil of that particular genus compared to a random search is plotted on the vertical (Y axis).  The blue bars represent the probability of finding a fossil based on an assessment of ancient climate.  The green bars show the probability of a successful fossil hunt using just geological data and erosion assessments.  The red bars show the increased likelihood of success after the application of the variables used in this assessment (ancient climate, preservation potential and known discoveries).  The dashed line outlines the probability of finding a fossil using a random search in a known fossil bearing locality.

Likely Fossil Preservation Sites Accounted For

The team added into their data relevant predictors for the likelihood of fossil discoveries.  For example, many Late Pleistocene fossils are found in caves so the number of caves in the areas studied were also plotted.  In addition, as Australian megafauna (indeed most terrestrial animal fossils), are found in association with ancient lakes and rivers, areas where sedimentary material can be built up were given greater weighting as indeed were areas that tended to be more open and devoid of extensive plant cover as this would make fossil finding easier.

Using the model, likely fossil “hot spots” identified include the area south of Lake Eyre (South Australia), the land to the west of Lake Torrens (also South Australia) and the Shark Bay locality in Western Australia.

Kiel University’s Professor Ingmar Unkel added:

“Our methods predict potential fossil locations across an entire continent, which is useful to identify potential fossil areas far from already known sites.  It’s a good “exploration filter”; after which remote-sensing approaches and fine-scale expert knowledge could compliment the search.”

Luck will still play a role in fossil discoveries but at least this mathematical model helps to swing the odds in the scientists favour.

Small Abelisaurid from Argentina

Not all of Argentina’s Dinosaurs were Giants

Last month Everything Dinosaur published details of a new super-sized Titanosaur from Argentina.  An enormous animal that was to be featured in a special BBC television documentary “Attenborough and the Giant Dinosaur”.  However, not all of Argentina’s dinosaurs were huge, scientists writing in the journal “Science Direct” have reported the discovery of fossil meat-eating dinosaur bones that may represent one of the smallest abelisaurids known from South America.

To read about the new giant dinosaur: “Sir David Attenborough and the Giant Dinosaur”

Not All South American Abelisauridae were the Size of Carnotaurus

"Meat-eating Bull" from Papo.

“Meat-eating Bull” from Papo.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Researchers from a number of Argentinian institutions operating under the collective umbrella of CONICET – The National Scientific and Technical Research Council, the country’s main academic body responsible for the promotion of science and technology, have reported finding the partial and fragmentary remains of a new abelisaurid dinosaur from north-west Patagonia.

The Rich Fossil Assemblage of the Candeleros Formation

Field work exploring the sandstone strata of the Candeleros Formation (Neuquén Province), has uncovered a partial femur, ribs, toe bones, a fragmentary pelvis, two fused sacral centra (from the vertebrae fused to the hip region) and a small piece of skull bone, identified as a frontal.  Although a histological analysis reveals that the animal was fully mature when it died, perhaps around fourteen years old, it is estimated to have been a little over four metres long and to have weighed about 240 kilogrammes.  That’s about half the length of Carnotaurus and around one quarter of the body weight.   This dinosaur is one of the smallest abelisaurids known and a study of the bone fibres indicates that this dinosaur had a relatively lower growth rate when compared to other abelisaurids such as the much larger Aucasaurus garridoi, whose fossils also come from Argentina but from younger deposits.  Aucasaurus roamed Argentina around 85 million years ago, whereas this as yet, unnamed member of the Abelisauridae lived some eight million years earlier.

This new type of meat-eating dinosaur extends the Theropod fauna of the Candeleros Formation.  As well as a number of abelisaurids, the Candeleros Formation is associated with carcharodontosaurids, a dromaeosaurid and alvarezsaurids.

Quarry Site Might Reveal Evidence of Cretaceous Mass Extinction

Potential to Map End Cretaceous Extinction Event in New Jersey Quarry

The eastern part of the United States might be regarded as something of a “poor relation” to the western side of the country when it comes to dinosaur bones.  True, eastern USA dinosaur fossils are much rarer than from locations such as Wyoming, Utah, Arizona, Colorado and Montana in the west, but the State of New Jersey might just have one very special “Lagerstätte”, that tops those vertebrate fossil bearing rocks known elsewhere in America.  A disused quarry located close to the township of Mantua might provide palaeontologists with unique insights into the End Cretaceous mass extinction event that wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs.

New Jersey Quarry Might Provide Fresh Insight into Cretaceous Mass Extinction Event

Excavating invertebrate fossils in the quarry.

Excavating invertebrate fossils in the quarry.

Picture Credit: Rowan University

Around sixty-five million years ago, this site was at the bottom of a shallow sea, close to the landmass known as Appalachia.  In one layer of rock, about fourteen metres below the level of today’s land surface, scientists have found a treasure trove of marine fossils.  Professor Kenneth J. Lacovara, a professor of palaeontology and geology at the nearby Rowan University describes this particular bed as a “mass death assemblage”.  Could all these animals have perished as a result of a single catastrophic event, such as an extraterrestrial impact event?

If this is the case, then this quarry, which sits behind a shopping mall, could be the only site in the world where animal remains can be found that date from the End Cretaceous mass extinction event.  Fossils are found in a number of rock layers in the quarry, but a vast assemblage is confined and concentrated to one bed in the strata.  The rocks have been dated to around 65 million to 66 million years old, but further radiometric and biostratigraphic analysis is required before the link with the mass extinction event can be given more validity.  If a connection is established, then this location could provide an unparalleled window into a pivotal moment in the history of life on Earth.

Elevated amounts of the rare Earth element iridium found in close proximity to the richest fossil bearing layer, indicate that these animals lived at a time extremely close to what is believed to have been an asteroid impact, one that played a major role in the extinction of about 75% of all terrestrial species.

Last year, Rowan University entered into an agreement to purchase the sixty-five acre site.  The University intends to turn the quarry into a world-class educational resource.  A number of open days have already been organised and it has been estimated that some 8,000 local people have already taken part in fossil digs.

An Aerial View of the Mantua Quarry Site

A window into the End Cretaceous extinction event.

A window into the End Cretaceous extinction event.

Picture Credit: Rowan University

Fossils found include a vast array of marine invertebrates, animals like Brachiopods, Bivalves and Molluscs.  In addition, shark teeth are relatively common and fossils from ancient crocodiles and turtles have also been discovered.  Occasionally, the fossilised remains of a Mosasaur (marine reptile) are found.  Bones and other remains from once living organisms such as teeth and shells can pile up as underwater currents relocate them on the seabed, concentrating them into one area, perhaps where the current dies away.  However, at this location, one bed reveals skeletons of larger animals have remained relatively intact.  This suggests that these animals all died at approximately the same time and then settled gently on the sea bottom.  Initial dating assessments, puts this fossil layer tantalisingly close to the extraterrestrial impact event that took place in the Yucatan peninsula (Mexico).

Now that the future of this rather special site has been secured, scientists hope to undertake a much more extensive study of the palaeogeography of the area and to establish this location’s potentially unique relationship to the extinction event that wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs as well as the Pterosauria and most of the marine reptiles.

The Dinosauria Sprinted Out of the Blocks

New Study Suggests the Dinosaurs Evolved Quickly

An international team of researchers have accurately dated rock layers exposed in north-western Argentina deposited during the Triassic.  The subsequent geological timeline they have been able to construct suggests that the time elapsed between the emergence of early dinosaur relatives and the origin of the first dinosaurs is much shorter than previously believed.  In essence, the Dinosauria evolved much more quickly than previously thought.

North-western Argentina Around 235 Million Years Ago

Diverse fauna of north-western Argentina

Diverse fauna of north-western Argentina including ancestral dinosaurs.

Picture Credit: Victor-Leshyk

The Triassic A Time of Transition

The vertebrate fauna of the Triassic (approximately 251 million to 201 million years ago), changed dramatically.  Few of the fossil lineages found in Lower Triassic rock formations can be found in strata laid down later on.  The mass extinction event that marked the end of the Palaeozoic and the beginning of the Mesozoic led to a radical shift in the diversity, type and geographical distribution of back-boned land animals and arguably, the emergence of more modern-looking ecosystems.  To help unravel some of the mysteries surrounding this “faunal shift” and to more accurately date the appearance of the first dinosaurs, the scientists travelled to north-western Argentina (La Rioja Province) and set about dating different beds that make up the exposed sandstones and mudstones of the Chañares Formation.

The debate as to where and exactly when the first dinosaurs evolved is one of those topics that comes up frequently at symposiums and conventions.  The evidence suggests that the Dinosauria first appeared in the southern hemisphere and for a long time South America was thought to have been the place they originated from.  Research published in 2013 challenged this idea, proposing that Africa may have been home to the first dinosaurs, but exactly when did the dinosaurs as an Order of reptiles (Dinosauria) really take off?  At what point in geological time did the dinosaurs commence their journey to becoming the dominate terrestrial life forms of the Mesozoic?

To read an article regarding the possibility of dinosaurs having first evolved in Africa: Africa – The Cradle of the Dinosauria?

Problems Accurately Dating Deep Time

The sedimentary exposures of the Chañares Formation permit accurate stratigraphic dating because of a quirk of fate.  Back in the Triassic, this part of the world was a lush, tropical paradise, however, nearby volcanoes from time to time deposited vast amounts of ash in the area.  These ashes formed easily recognisable layers (called tuffs) and within these layers the scientists, which included researchers from the University of Buenos Aires, the University of Brasília (Brazil), along with American colleagues and collaborators from Argentina’s National Scientific and Technical Research Council, were able to identify microscopic crystals called zircons.  It is these zircon crystals that hold the key to accurate dating of geological deposits.

Zircon Crystals and Radiometric Dating of the Chañares Formation

The uniform decay of radioactive elements allows an accurate date of geological formations.

The uniform decay of radioactive elements allows an accurate date of geological formations.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The research team took samples from the various ash layers and noted their position within the sedimentary beds and the vertebrate fossils associated therein.  Zircon crystals were identified within the volcanic layers and these were radiometrically dated using the ratio of uranium decay to lead isotopes.  In this way, thanks to advances in mass spectrometry the team were able to determine an accurate age of the zircon and by inference the age of the fossil bearing sedimentary layers above and below the ash layers.  The technique has been used before, for example to date the lower portions of the Chinle Formation of the United States (U-PB ID-TIMS zircon geochronology dating method [uranium to lead]).

So what would have been bad luck for the fauna and flora around at the time, a devastating deposit of choking volcanic ash, has permitted palaeontologists to be able to date with considerable accuracy the deposition timeline of this part of the Chañares Formation.

Identifying the Ash Layers for Sampling (Chañares Formation)

Co-author Adriana Mancuso (right) points to a volcanic ash layer (tuff) in the Chañares Formation that was sampled for radioisotopic dating.

Co-author Adriana Mancuso (National Scientific and  Technical Research Council) points to a volcanic ash layer (tuff) in the Chañares Formation that was sampled for radiometric dating.

Picture Credit: Randall Irmis (University of Utah)

What Does the Accurate Triassic Timeline Reveal?

It had been thought that the strata was around 226 to 228 million years old (early Late Triassic, the Carnian faunal stage).  However, this study indicates that these rocks were laid down much earlier in the Triassic, perhaps 5 to 10 million years earlier, making the rocks, effectively Middle Triassic in age (234 to 236 million years old, the Ladinian faunal stage).  Fossils of dinosaur precursors, known as dinosauromorphs, Archosaurs that are very closely related to the Dinosauria and the ancestors of the dinosaurs are found in these rocks.  The first dinosaur fossils date from around 230 million years ago approximately, perhaps even earlier.  This means that the true dinosaurs evolved from the dinosauromorphs much quicker than previously thought.  There was a much more rapid transition from a world with dinosauromorphs to a terrestrial ecosystem with dinosaurs in it.  In short, dinosaurs very quickly became established.

The Fossil Assemblage of the Chañares Formation (Schematic Diagram

Vertebrate fossils found include a range of Tetrapods including Dinosauropmorphs and Dicynodonts.

Vertebrate fossils found include a range of Tetrapods including Dinosauromorphs and Dicynodonts.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur (inset photograph Randall Irmis)

Commenting on the significance of this new study, which has just been published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), Randall Irmis stated:

“To discover that these early dinosaur relatives were geologically much younger than previously thought was totally unexpected.”

What Does This Mean for Other Middle Triassic Formations Elsewhere?

This shift in the date for these deposits that make up a portion of the Chañares Formation has serious implications for other fossil-bearing strata that were also believed to represent the Middle Triassic.  Similar types of vertebrate fossil are found in the Santa Maria Formation (southern Brazil) and in the Karoo Basin (South Africa), but none of these formations have been radiometrically dated.  These too, could be 5 to 10 million years older than previously thought.

Summarising the research a spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur explained:

“The geological dates for certain fossil assemblages may have to be reconsidered in the light of these findings.  The evolution and subsequent radiation of the Dinosauria has become somewhat concertinaed.  This research suggests a much more rapid evolution from dinosauromorphs to true dinosaurs than previously thought.”

Why Did the Dinosaurs Evolve Rapidly?

The first dinosaurs believed to have evolved were the Saurischian Theropods.  These Archosaurs were bipeds and their skeletons show that they had an advantage over many of the other predators (bipedal and quadrupedal) around at the time.  Firstly, the pelvic area has a fully open acetabulum (the rounded hole in the pelvis where the head of the femur fits).  This allows the hind legs to locate much more directly under the body, providing a more efficient locomotion.  Secondly, the femur itself has a ball-shaped head turned slightly inward to slot into the acetabulum.  This arrangement, also supports the hind legs located directly under the hips.  These anatomical features, (plus one or two others), evolved to permit these Theropods to develop stronger legs making them faster and more powerful than other Archosaurs.  These strong legs seem to have enabled the dinosaurs to “sprint out of the evolutionary blocks”, leading to their domination of terrestrial ecosystems for the best part of 160 million years or so.

COP 21 – Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change in a Geological Context

Our planet’s climate has changed dramatically over deep time.  The immense geological record of our Earth and the fossils contained within certain strata point to several periods of dramatic mass extinction.  The Earth’s climate does change, it rarely remains stable for any length of geological time.  Whilst writing this piece and glancing out of the window it is difficult to believe that just a few thousand years ago our part of the world was covered in ice sheets.  Around 20,000 years ago, a mere blink in geological time, this portion of Cheshire was covered in ice approaching 1,000 metres thick, to the east, the prominent, coarse grained sandstones are testament to a vast expanse of desert that existed some 270 million years ago.

Cheshire (North-west England) during the Permian Period

Sand dunes once covered north-west England.

Sand dunes once covered north-west England.

Picture Credit: David Reimer

Global temperatures have also fluctuated widely.  The average global temperature in the first few years of the 21st Century is around 14-15 degrees Celsius, although there is plenty of geological evidence to suggest average global temperatures were much higher and lower in the past.  However, the rate of change is the concern.  Scientists and politicians are becoming increasingly aware that human activity has interrupted the natural, planetary circle and that human-induced global warming has serious implications for the stability of the Earth’s climate and the changes, if allowed to take place, could lead to the extinction of our species and a lot of other species too.  2015 is on course to become the warmest year in recorded history.  Thirteen of the fourteen warmest years were recorded in this Century.  Fortunately, measures are being put in place to try to minimise the effects of global warming.

COP 21

World leaders, politicians, scientists, environmentalists and lobbyists are gathering in Paris for the start of the global warming conference (COP 21).  COP 21 stands for the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.  A convention signed in 1994 commits the majority of the countries of the world to work together to lessen the impact of global warming.
That long winded title was created in Rio in 1992 where countries concerned about the impacts of climate change came together under the United Nations to do something about it.  The key aim is the “stabilisation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”.

The term anthropogenic refers to something that has been caused by or relates to our species (Homo sapiens).

Time May Be Running Out to Reduce the Impact of Climate Change

Climate change, time is running out.

Climate change, time is running out.

Picture Credit: Associated Press

The conference will run from November 30th to December 11th and its aim is to fundamentally re-order the economies of our planet to permit the reduction of greenhouse gasses such as carbon dioxide that contribute to the global warming of our world.

When the Earth warms about 2°C above pre-industrial revolution times, scientists say there will be dangerous and unpredictable impacts on our climate system.  Our planet is already half way to that danger point.
So the purpose of the Paris conference is to work out a way of limiting emissions of greenhouse gases, while allowing countries to continue to grow their economies, and providing assistance to the least developed and those most affected by rising temperatures.

We wish all those taking part in the conference ever success with this enormous undertaking.  Let us hope that common sense, mediation and a common sense of purpose win the day.  It is not too late, but the window of opportunity is closing.  Our species is not capable of managing the Earth’s climate, however, we are capable of putting in place changes that will minimise our effect on the planet and the natural order.  Ice sheets will one day return to north-western England, deserts will also be here once again, just like they were millions of years ago.  Our planet’s climate changes, what we must do is to have the courage to build a consensus to help minimise our impact and to reduce the speed of change.  Failure to do so is not an option and the geology of our planet will bear testimony to how successful we prove to be in this undertaking.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the help of the BBC in the compilation of this article.

Life on Earth May Have Begun Earlier Than Previously Thought

Study Finds Potential Evidence of Life 4.1 Billion Years Ago

Scientists from the Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California, (Los Angeles), in collaboration with colleagues from the School of Earth, Energy, and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, also in California, have published research that suggests that life on Earth may have existed as far back as 4.1 billion years ago.  A remarkable claim considering that our planet is believed to be around 4.54 billion years old.  This new research hints at life evolving some 300 million years earlier than previously thought, although the evidence of these claims is likely to be disputed.

The study has just been published in the on line edition of the academic journal “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences”.  The team identified graphite (a form of carbon), trapped inside a single ancient zircon crystal in a stud of these ancient time capsules from the some of the oldest rocks known on Earth, strata found in Western Australia.  The carbon form identified is one that is associated with the process of photosynthesis, therefore, this could be a by-product of a life process.

Co-author of the research, Professor Mark Harrison (University of California, Los Angeles) stated:

“Twenty years ago, this would have been heretical, finding evidence of life 3.8 billion years ago was shocking.  Life on Earth may have started almost instantaneously, with the right ingredients life seems to form very quickly.”

Professor Mark Harrison (University of California, Los Angeles)

Professor Mark Harrison.

Professor Mark Harrison.

Picture Credit: University of California, Los Angeles

One of the implications of this new study is that if life forms very quickly, then the possibility of it forming elsewhere in the universe, under the right conditions, is dramatically increased.   Life in the universe could be abundant.

The scientists came to their conclusion after analysing more than 10,000 zircons – heavy, durable crystals, which had formed from molten rock in Western Australia (the Jack Hills area).  An earlier study (2008), identified carbon captured in the zircon crystals as they formed.  These were dated to around 3.8 billion years ago, at the time this was thought to be the earliest time that life could have begun on our planet.  Around 100 million years early, the inner solar system had been subjected an intense bombardment from asteroids and other space debris left over from the formation of the planets.  This is called the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) and is believed to have lasted until around 3.9 billion years ago.  It was this bombardment that created most of the craters on the moon.  These craters are still visible today.  This study suggests that life existed on our planet before these moon craters were formed.

Co-author of the research paper, Patrick Boehnke, a graduate student in the Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (University of California, Los Angeles) exaplained:

“If all life on Earth died during this bombardment, which some scientists have argued, then life must have restarted quickly.” 

Looking for Evidence Preserved in Deep Time

The scientists, led by Elizabeth Bell, (postdoctoral student, at the University of California, Los Angeles), examined more than 10,000 zircons.  Of the zircons included in this study, 656 were identified as containing dark specks preserved inside their structure.  These minute particles were captured when the zircon was formed, trapping and recorded evidence of the extremely ancient Earth.  Ramon spectroscopy was used to analyse the molecular and chemical structure of these dark specks, the team were looking for pure carbon, one of the building blocks of life.

One of the zircons contained two areas of graphite, a form of pure carbon.  Graphite was found in two locations within the zircon crystal.

Dark Specks Inside A Zircon Crystal Identified as Carbon

The zircon is about the width of a human hair.

The zircon is about the width of a human hair.

Picture Credit: University of California, Los Angeles

Stating that the team were confident that the carbon is evidence of biological activity and that the graphite formed due to biological activity, Professor Harrison said:

“There is no better case of a primary inclusion in a mineral ever documented and nobody has offered a plausible alternative explanation for graphite of non-biological origin into a zircon.”

According to the researchers, the graphite is actually older than the ziron containing it.  The isotope ratio between the uranium and lead indicates that the zircon itself is 4.1 billion years old, but for the moment they do not know how much older the graphite might be.

The research suggests life in the universe could be abundant, Professor Harrison concluded.  On our planet, the third rock from the sun, simple life appears to have formed quickly, but it likely took many millions of years for very simple life to evolve the ability to photosynthesise.  Yet the carbon contained in the zircon has a very characteristic chemical signature.  The specific ration of carbon 12 to carbon 13 isotopes is evidence of photosynthesis having taken place on the early Earth.

In July, Everything Dinosaur published an article about research that suggested the Earth’s magnetic field formed earlier than previously thought: Our Magnetic Shield is Older than Previously Thought

In 2014, Everything Dinosaur reported on research that suggested that the Earth cooled more rapidly than earlier studies had suggested: The Earth Cooled Earlier Than Previously Thought

Celebrating Earth Science Week Top 100 Geology Locations

Top One Hundred Sites Related to Geology UK and Ireland

In celebration of Earth Science week, an annual commemoration of the contribution to geology made by the British Isles (UK and Ireland), the London-based British Geological Society have published the results of a survey to find the most popular geology related sites from the United Kingdom and Ireland.  The wide ranging and eclectic list demonstrates the incredible variety of the geology of these islands, which are regarded as the birthplace of the science of geology.  After all, the Geological Society, which was founded in 1807, is the oldest geological society in the world.

The chart-topping locations were compiled from over four hundred public nominations, divided into ten categories which include landscape, historical and scientific importance, human habitation, industrial and economic importance, educational, coastal, folding and faulting, outcrops, adventurous and fire and ice.

Voted Number One in the Poll

Voted number one in the British Geological Society Survey.

Voted number one in the British Geological Society Survey.

Picture Credit: British Geological Survey

The picture above shows the bizarre and spectacular rocky mountains, sculpted by deep time and ravages of the Ice Ages.  These are the Foreland Mountains of Assynt.

Around thirty of the top one hundred (including four in the top ten) come from Scotland.  Wales contributes ten, a surprise given the beauty of Wales form the rugged peaks of Snowdonia, the amazing coastline and the rich diversity of fossils found in the country.  Northern Ireland has five and like Wales, it has none in the top ten as voted for by members of the public.  Ireland fares slightly better with a total of nine.  The rest of the locations can be found in England (the other six in the top ten are to be found in England).

The range includes The Channel Tunnel (24), the building home to the Natural History Museum (39), the Geevor Tin Mine in Cornwall (23).  Also included are a number of locations that team members at Everything Dinosaur are very fond of, these locations have been the destination of choice for geology field trips for generations, places such as Wrens Nest (42), the Laxford Brae road section in northern Scotland (38) and South Stack Formation on the island of Anglesey (85).

Wrens Nest Features in the Top One Hundred

Amazing geological feature.

Amazing geological feature.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture above shows the fantastic ripple beds preserved in the limestone of the Wrens Nest nature reserve (Dudley, West Midlands).

The Top Ten Locations – “The People’s Favourites”

  1. The Foreland Mountains Assynt (Sutherland, Scotland) with its breath-taking isolated mountains (see picture in this article).
  2. Ironbridge Gorge (Shropshire) regarded as the birth place of the industrial revolution.
  3. Siccar Point (Scotland) the site of a world famous unconformity where the junction between the older, tilted layers of greyish sandstone and the younger Old Red Sandstone can be clearly made out.
  4. The Rotunda Museum (North Yorkshire) built to a design suggested by William Smith regarded by many as the “father of geology”.
  5. Staffa – the basaltic columns to be found on this island that forms part of the Inner Hebrides.
  6. Stonehenge, located in Wiltshire.
  7. Hunstanton Cliffs – highly fossiliferous cliffs on the Norfolk coast where the red limestone contrasts sharply with the overlying chalk.
  8. The Craster Coastline, with its unusual geology and notable outcrops.
  9. Millook Haven which runs from North Cornwall into Devon showing spectacular folds of inter-bedded sandstones and shales.
  10. Glencoe (Scotland), the remnants of a long extinct super volcano.

From a fossil collecting and fossil observation perspective, a number of other sites are also included notably the beaches of Lyme Regis (44), Kimmeridge Bay (20) and the dinosaur footprints preserved in the Bendrick rocks (south Wales – number 45).

Lyme Regis (Number Forty-Five)

Good idea to go fossil collecting on a falling tide and to keep away from the steep cliffs.

The beaches at Lyme Regis such as Monmouth Beach make the list.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Notes on Lyme Regis

A Private Fossil Walk Represents Good Value

With the completion of the eastern sea wall at Lyme Regis last year the access to the beach between the town and Charmouth has certainly got easier.  No more climbing over the slippery rocks and the groynes that laid between the end of the beach front and the Church Cliffs.  That might sound like good news and it certainly is, especially for families trying to access the beach.  There is a downside to the new sea defences though, greater access has meant that over the summer months there have been more people than ever scouring the beach between Charmouth and Lyme Regis looking for fossils.  Pickings can be somewhat slim as a result.

The Newly Completed Magnificent Sea Wall at Lyme Regis

Part of the coastal defences at Lyme Regis

Part of the coastal defences at Lyme Regis

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The sea wall is part of an extensive array of features to help secure the cliffs and the land immediately behind them in a bid to protect the area from further land slips.  Eventually, these defences will give way but the engineering works has probably given the many houses on the cliffs another fifty years of life or so.  Whether or not the sea wall and other defences such as the remodelled beach area close to the famous Cobb has had an impact on the way in which the waves scour the beaches remains uncertain, time will tell, although we have heard from one reliable source that there seems to be a greater amount of sediment deposited out into Lyme Bay.  To help stabilise the cliffs, the slopes have been planted with thousands of small bushes and other plants to help anchor the soil.

The Cliffs have been Planted to Help Prevent Further Land Slides

Stonebarrow and Golden Cap can be seen in the background.

Stonebarrow and Golden Cap can be seen in the background.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

What Do the Changes Mean for Fossil Hunters?

Lyme Regis has always been a popular destination for would-be fossil hunters. With easier access to the beaches to the east of the town, there is a feeling amongst locals that finding fossils along the shoreline is getting harder.  There are certainly lots of fossils to be found, but large pieces of ammonite and any Ichthyosaur vertebrae are increasingly rare.  For example, during a recent trip to Lyme Regis, we spent a morning on the beach walking slowly up to Charmouth and we were surprised by the lack of fossils.  Belemnite guards were still plentiful, especially as we approached the “Belemnite Beds” but we found no fossils of Promicroceras, which surprised us somewhat.  This small ammonite used to be a relatively common fossil find, there was also a lack of nodules on the beach, although from the scattered shards of split rock there was plenty of evidence of previous visitors having hammered away quite happily at any stone bigger than a house brick, whether or not it was likely to contain a specimen inside.

Not a Very Successful Fossil Hunt

Fossils are becoming more difficult to find at Lyme Regis.

Fossils are becoming more difficult to find at Lyme Regis.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Advice for Visitors to Lyme Regis

With the popularity of fossil collecting on the increase and with the easier access to the beach, visitors to Lyme Regis might be disappointed by their lack of fossil discoveries.  One way of helping to get the most out of a visit is to book yourself onto an organised public walk.  There are a number of professional fossil hunters and guides who offer public walks.  These are a very good idea, especially when one considers the risk of getting cut off by an incoming tide or the hazards of rocks falling from the cliffs.  On a public walk your knowledgeable guide should be able to provide you with a very informative tour of the geology and help you to find a few fossils along the way.

Private Fossil Walks are Best

However, if you really want to make the best use of your time, try booking a private walk.  On some public walks that we have observed there can be as many as fifty people in the party.  Simply, getting a question answered amongst a throng of eager fossil hunters that size can be quite an ordeal, even the most dedicated guide can struggle to accommodate everybody’s needs.  Public walks tend to take place on the weekend, a time when the beaches are likely to be congested.  Private walks can be booked at a time to suit you (tides permitting) and you can be assured that your party will be very well looked after by the guide.  You are also more likely to be directed to the best fossil hunting locations, local knowledge wins out every time.  For example, for that beautiful Promicroceras ammonite, your best chance might be to sieve for fossils.  On a private walk, the guide can provide suitable sieves and show you the best technique to help you make your very own fossil discovery.  Knowing exactly where to start sieving on the beach is half the battle.

Still Fossils to be Found but Local Knowledge is Key

Fossils can still be found on the shore.

Fossils can still be found on the shore.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Private walks book up very quickly in advance, if you are thinking of visiting the Dorset coast next year, now is an ideal time to get yourself and your family booked on one.  Fossil walks are arranged around safe tide times so be aware that some preferred days may not be suitable.  Most organisers of private fossil walks ask for children to be at least five years old.  Walks take around three to four hours, advice can be provided on where to park any vehicles and as for what you should bring here is a quick check list:

  • Suitable clothing, wellington boots or other stout footwear.  Warm clothing especially in the winter and early spring, having  a waterproof jacket on hand is very sensible, gloves in cold weather too.
  • Bring a snack and a drink although remember to take your rubbish home with you.
  • Bathroom breaks – there are no toilet facilities on the beaches, although most walks commence from the town centre and there are toilet facilities here at the start of the walk.
  • Tools to bring – most guides will be happy to break any nodules open for you, hammers are not usually supplied.  If you do bring your own hammer (please make sure it is a geological hammer), then remember the safety specs and tough gardening gloves.  For advice on the difference between geological hammers and tool box hammers: Geological Hammers What’s So Special About Them?

The fossil walk guide will be able to provide you with the very best chance of finding a top quality fossil and also be able to point out the best places to look.  You will learn a lot more about the history of the local area as well as having the opportunity to get one to one assistance and support.  Private fossil walks really do offer excellent value and they usually cost less than a family three-course meal in a pub.

For further information on private walks (public walks as well), Everything Dinosaur recommends: Lyme Regis Fossil Walks (Public and Private)

Private fossil hunting walks at Lyme Regis can prove to be a very worthwhile investment and provide visitors to the Jurassic Coast with an excellent opportunity to learn more about this fascinating area of Britain.

Out of Africa and Into Arabia

A New Look at the Spread of Modern Humans

A team of international scientists from a variety of disciplines have pooled their skills and shed light on the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the migration of our species out of Africa.  A migration that was to eventually lead to human beings (Homo sapiens) spreading to every continent on the planet.  A consequence of this exodus may have been the extinction of other types of hominins such as the Neanderthals and the Denisovans.

Although the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is very arid today and much of the country is classified as desert, back in the Pleistocene Epoch, it looked very different.  Palaeontologists have been working with archaeologists, cartographers and experts in geochronology helping to map the ancient landscape of the peninsula.  It turns out that much of Arabia was once a lush and fertile land teeming with game and with plenty of navigable rivers for our ancestors to exploit.

This the first time, such a group of technical experts have worked together to plot the palaeoenvironment of this part of the world.  It seems that the Arabian Peninsula was not just a stopping over point for human migration, but this now largely arid landscape once offered hunter/gatherers rich pickings indeed.

The head of the Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage, Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz explained that this new study suggests that the Arabian Peninsula had human settlements for long periods of time and that it was not just merely a transit point, as was previously thought by many anthropologists and other scientists.

He stated:

“The Arabian Peninsula has witnessed dramatic changes in climate.  In the middle Pleistocene this encouraged early man to make for the then-green peninsula as his destination.”

Green Arabia – Scientists Have Identified a Number of Ancient Lakes and River Systems

A green and pleasant land.

A green and pleasant land.

Picture Credit: Crassard et al. 2013

Two main human migration routes have been identified from Africa to Arabia.  The first was a northern route via the Nile Delta into Arabia from what was to become Egypt.  The second route is much further south and involved early humans crossing over from the horn of Africa.  The multi-disciplinary team have put together a picture of an Arabian environment that has changed much in the last few hundred thousand years.  Over 10,000 ancient lakes have been identified including a number in what is now the barren Nafud desert.  These findings are supported by fossil evidence as the palaeontologists have found the fossilised remains of hippos, elephants, shellfish and crocodiles.

Although the climate has changed over time, the researchers also identified several settled, stable periods during the Pleistocene when the climate was humid with reliable rainfall.

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