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Dinosaur and prehistoric animal themed articles, features and stories.

17 11, 2017

New CollectA Models 2018 (Part 3)

By | November 17th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

New CollectA Models 2018 (Part 3)

Time for a first peek, at the third batch of new for 2018 prehistoric animal models from CollectA.  Today’s releases feature a dinosaur, an animal often mistaken for a dinosaur but more closely related to the third new model announced this morning.  We have a Ceratosaurus, a Dimetrodon and a beautiful model of a prehistoric Proboscidean Gomphotherium!

The New for 2018 CollectA Deluxe 1:40 Scale Ceratosaurus Dinosaur Model

CollectA Ceratosaurus dinosaur model.

CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Ceratosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

CollectA 1:40 Ceratosaurus Dinosaur Model

This beautifully proportioned dinosaur comes complete with an articulated jaw, all the better to show off that over-sized dentition that makes this relatively rare Late Jurassic Theropod so formidable.  The spotted and mottled black markings remind us of the spots found on extant leopards, an apt choice of artwork as this dinosaur was contemporaneous with the “lion of the Jurassic” Allosaurus.

The eye is drawn to the vivid colours around the skull and the row of scutes (scales) that run down the back of this predator.

Model designer Anthony Beeson explains:

“I have been wanting to make a model of this dinosaur for some time.  As the nasal horn is likely to have been an object of display rather than a weapon, I have given it a bright keratin sheath and a face paint that makes the most of it.  The animal’s back has a row of osteoderms along it and the tail is deep rather like that of a crocodile, as it may have been partly aquatic in its hunting.”

With the recent research undertaken into the Spinosauridae, the idea that Ceratosaurus may have been partially aquatic has once again gained prominence.  It is good to see this prehistoric animal provided with a base, this helps keep the feet in proportion and permits a more dynamic pose for the replica.

To view a CollectA Allosaurus model and other CollectA replicas: CollectA Prehistoric Life Models

Not a Dinosaur but a Dimetrodon

Joining the Ceratosaurus, is another predator, one that roamed the Earth over 100 million years before Ceratosaurus, a mighty sail-backed monster of the Permian – Dimetrodon.  Although, Dimetrodon is often mistaken for a dinosaur, it is more closely related to mammals like us, than it is to the Dinosauria.

The CollectA 1:20 Scale Dimetrodon Model

CollectA Dimetrodon model.

CollectA Dimetrodon in 1:20 scale.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

CollectA are not the first to make a replica of this iconic Pelycosaur.  However, the CollectA model shows a remarkable attention to detail and provides a different perspective on this, one of the most famous animals from the Palaeozoic.  Firstly, it has been given a striking camouflage, a wonderful mix of khaki, tan and green that would have helped this carnivore to blend into its environment.  The posture of the model depicts a highly mobile animal with strong legs and a tail lifted clear of the ground, in stark contrast to the portrayal of Dimetrodon in paintings from the early part of the 20th Century, in which Dimetrodon was depicted as a sluggish, slow-moving creature with a sprawling gait.  The model has an articulated jaw and the skin is rough and warty, it is a glandular skin, a stark contrast to other recently released Dimetrodon replicas that retain a scaly skin texture.  Whereas the underbelly is covered in much finer scales, as seen in other, related Permian synapsid fossils.

The model also shows signs of wear and tear, typically a large predator would pick up numerous injuries over the course of its lifetime.

Anthony Beeson explained:

“As you will see, our Dimetrodon is unlike any that have been issued before as toys.  His sail does not reach to the end of neural spines and echoes the theory that the skin did not necessarily fully cover it.  It has also sustained an injury, which would be a reality as examples of bent and fractured spines have been found.”

It makes sense to depict Dimetrodon with a degree of pathology present.  Numerous specimens preserve deformed areas on the neural spines that appear to be healed-over fractures and the webbing across that famous sail may not have been as extensive as previously thought.  It is going to be fun depicting this replica next to the recently announced CollectA Estemmenosuchus figure.

To read about the new for 2018 CollectA Estemmenosuchus and other CollectA model releases: New CollectA Models for 2018 (Part 2)

For the article outlining the first batch of new for 2018 CollectA models: New CollectA Models for 2018 (Part 1)

CollectA 1:20 Scale Gomphotherium

The third offering from CollectA is this magnificent Gomphotherium replica.  A model of “welded beast” joins the CollectA range and it makes a fine companion piece to the Woolly Mammoth figures and the Deinotherium model that already grace the CollectA range.

New for 2018 The CollectA 1:20 Scale Gomphotherium Model

CollectA Gomphotherium.

The CollectA 1:20 scale Gomphotherium model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Anthony comments:

“He is an addition to our prehistoric elephants.  He is a strange beast with his upper enamel-covered tusks recurving whilst the lower are thought to have been used for digging up roots or water plants.  The length of the trunk is unknown, so I have calculated what I believe would be a useful length.  I have given him a partial furring of hair.”

A number of species of Gomphotherium have been described since the genus name was first erected back in 1837.  The long, low skull of Gomphotherium is in sharp contrast to the domed skulls of the later Mammut (American Mastodon) and the Mammoths.  The design team have had to speculate on the length of the trunk, its length is not known, intriguingly the trunk length in the model is considerably longer than the trunk seen in an illustration of Gomphotherium in the “Princeton Field Guide to Prehistoric Mammals”, that Everything Dinosaur team members recently reviewed.  That said, the trunk as depicted in the model, seems perfectly proportioned and given the unique dentition of this Proboscidean it is not unreasonable to suggest a prehensile trunk length as shown in this 1.20 scale replica.

CollectA Model Measurements

Here is the tale of the tape, that we know dinosaur fans and model collectors are after:

CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Ceratosaurus – length just under 27 cm with a height of just over 12 cm

CollectA Dimetrodon (1:20 scale) – length 19 cm with a maximum height at the top of the sale of 11 cm

CollectA Gomphotherium (1:20 scale) – length 18.5 cm long with a height of just over 7 cm

These are a fantastic trio of models and we look forward to adding them to our model range in the near future.

To view the range of CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life models currently in stock at Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life

14 11, 2017

Evidence of Placental Mammals – Early Cretaceous Purbeck

By | November 14th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Durlstotherium newmani and Durlstodon ensomi

Finally got round to reading the paper on the discovery of evidence of Eutherian (placental) mammals in Early Cretaceous deposits on, ironically, “the Jurassic Coast”.  The two teeth found during sieving of material collected on the Dorset coast by University of Portsmouth undergraduate student Grant Smith, has led to the erection of two new mammal species.  These fossils represent the earliest, undisputed fossils of mammals that belong to that same group of mammals – the placentals, as we do.  It is wonderful to think that the Dorset coast can still provide amazing fossil discoveries and secondly, it is great that such an important discovery can be made by a relative newcomer to the science of palaeontology.  When done to all involved in the research and the writing of the academic paper, published in the journal “Acta Palaeontologica Polonica”.

It also gives us an excuse to include the amazing image created by Dr Mark Witton that illustrates the Purbeck palaeoenvironment around the beginning of the Cretaceous.

Dorset Around 145 Million Years Ago

Purbeck Lagoon 145 mya as darkness falls Durlstodon (top left) looks on whilst two Durlstotherium scurry through the undergrowth. In the centre a Durlstotherium has been caught by Nuthetes destructor.

Picture Credit: Mark Witton

The two teeth, found at Durlston Bay near Swanage, represent two rat-like Eutherian mammals.  These creatures have been named Durlstotherium newmani and Durlstodon ensomi.  In Dr Witton’s remarkable illustration (above), a scene at dusk is depicted.  It is most likely that these early placentals were nocturnal, even so, as darkness fell there were still plenty of dangers lurking.  The Sauropods in the background might not pose much of a threat to our distant ancestors but in the centre of the image, a Durlstotherium has been caught by a two-metre-long Theropod dinosaur Nuthetes destructor.  This dinosaur is mainly known from isolated teeth and based on such fragmentary evidence it is difficult to place Nuthetes within the dinosaur family tree, however, it has been suggested that it was a dromaeosaurid.  Thus, the Purbeck area of southern England during the Early Cretaceous was not only home to placental mammals but, potentially, also the residence of the earliest known member of the Dromaeosauridae.

One of the authors of the paper on the two new mammals, Dr Steve Sweetman (Research Fellow at the University of Portsmouth), concluded that the fossilised teeth and jaw fragment ascribed to N. destructor indicate a taxonomic affinity with the Velociraptor branch of the Dromaeosauridae family.

Various Views of the Two Fossil Teeth (Durlstotherium and Durlstodon)

Purbeck Mesozoic mammal teeth.

Two fossil teeth of the Purbeck Mesozoic mammals, Durlstotherium (A1-4) and Durlstodon (B1-4) , named after Durlston Bay in Dorset.

Picture Credit: Portsmouth University

Dr Sweetman, an expert in the dentition of small vertebrates explained how Grant Smith discovered the fossil teeth:

“Grant was sifting through small samples of earliest Cretaceous rocks collected on the coast of Dorset as part of his undergraduate dissertation project in the hope of finding some interesting remains.  Quite unexpectedly he found not one but two quite remarkable teeth of a type never before seen from rocks of this age.  I was asked to look at them and give an opinion and even at first glance my jaw dropped!”

With Mammal Fossils It’s All About the Teeth

While these Dorset fossils may seem a little underwhelming, comprising only two molar teeth with no roots, that measure just a few millimetres across, the unique specialisations of mammal teeth for processing food result in complex tooth shapes.  These shapes evolve in patterns that allow palaeontologists to identify what group a mammal belongs to, meaning that even a single tooth can permit palaeontologists to gather a great deal of information.

The wonderful thing about mammal teeth is that they are very distinctive.  Every type of mammal has a different set of teeth.  The teeth vary in shape from the back to the front of the jaw and you can tell from a single tooth fossil exactly where in the jaw it was located, whether it came from the upper or lower jaw, whether it was on the right side of the skull of the left side.  The pattern on the crowns of the teeth (molars and premolars) provides information on the type of diet the animal had.  These fossil teeth from the Early Cretaceous of Dorset, might be extremely small, but they can tell us a great deal about the animals which had the teeth and provide information on the evolutionary relationship between these animals and other members of the Mammalia.

Dr Sweetman added:

“The teeth are of a type so highly evolved that I realised straight away I was looking at remains of Early Cretaceous mammals that more closely resembled those that lived during the latest Cretaceous, some 60 million years later in geological history.  In the world of palaeontology, there has been a lot of debate around a specimen found in China*, which is approximately 160 million years old.  This was originally said to be of the same type as ours but recent studies have ruled this out.  That being the case, our 145 million year old teeth are undoubtedly the earliest yet known from the line of mammals that lead to our own species.”

* The fossil from China that Dr Sweetman is referring to Juramaia sinensis a tiny, shrew-like mammal, fossils of which come from 160 million-year-old deposits from the Tiaojishan Formation of Liaoning Province.  Juramaia was named in 2011, it has been controversially described as a basal Eutherian mammal and it suggests that the very earliest placentals were probably arboreal.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s article about this fossil discovery: The “Mother” of all Placental Mammals

If Juramaia is proved to be an Eutherian, then this indicates that placental mammals had their origins in Asia in the Jurassic and that they had spread across Asia to Europe (Laurasia) by the Early Cretaceous.

Scanning Electron Microscope Images of the Tiny Purbeck Teeth

Early Cretaceous mammal teeth from Swanage (Dorset).

Purbeck Mesozoic mammal teeth under the electron microscope.

Picture Credit: Portsmouth University

Very Worn Molars

The crowns of the teeth are very worn, this suggests that despite the threat of being eaten by predatory dinosaurs, both mammals lived a long time.

Professor David Martill, who supervised the research project and is a co-author of the scientific paper stated:

“What I’m most pleased about is that a student [David Grant] who is a complete beginner, was able to make a remarkable scientific discovery in palaeontology and see his discovery and his name published in a scientific paper.  The Jurassic Coast is always unveiling fresh secrets and I’d like to think that similar discoveries will continue to be made right on our doorstep.”

One of the new species has been named Durlstotherium newmani, honouring Charlie Newman, a keen, amateur fossil hunter and the landlord of the Square and Compass pub in the village of Worth Matravers, near to where the fossils were discovered.  The trivial name of the second species, Durlstodon ensomi honours Paul Ensom, a palaeontologist who did much to improve our understanding of the palaeoenvironments represented by the geology of Dorset.

13 11, 2017

“Thunderfoot” A Real “Ground Shaker”

By | November 13th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Palaeontological articles|0 Comments

Brontopodus plagnensis – New Ichnospecies Named for Giant Sauropod Tracks

A series of dinosaur footprints, made by a giant, long-necked, plant-eating dinosaur have been assigned an ichnospecies name.  The tracks from the Jura plateau of France, located near the village of Plagne not too far from the Swiss border are, at around 155 metres in length, the longest Sauropod trackways known to science.  The ichnospecies has been named Brontopodus plagnensis, this translates as “thunderfoot of Plagne”.  The ichnogenus Brontopodus has had a number of ichnospecies assigned to it already, including tracks from the southern United States and dinosaur footprints found in Early Cretaceous rocks in China.

A View of Part of the Sauropod Trackway

Sauropod Tracks (Brontopodus plagnensis).

A picture of the Sauropod trackway (Plagne, France).

Picture Credit: P. Dumas/Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique

To read an article about Sauropod tracks found on the Isle of Skye: Isle of Skye Sauropods and their Water World

Enormous Stride Length = Enormous Dinosaur

The stride length of this huge Sauropod has been measured at 2.7 metres, the dinosaur was walking at around 4 kilometres/hour, which means that the average human would have had no trouble keeping up with it, however, you might have had to jog alongside, as its huge strides would have meant that it covered a great deal of ground with every pace.  From the footprints, the scientists, which included French palaeontologist Jean-Michel Mazin, have calculated that this dinosaur might have been around 35 metres in length and weighed perhaps as much as forty tonnes.

Early Tithonian Trackways

The research team, writing in the journal “Geobios” have precisely dated the tracks to the Early Tithonian faunal stage of the Late Jurassic, the prints are approximately 150 million years old.  The footprints show varying degrees of preservation along the trackway, the palaeoenvironment has been described as a littoral mudflat, a flat area close to a shoreline.  During the Late Jurassic, much of western Europe was covered by a warm tropical sea, the presence of large dinosaurs indicates that there must have been enough food resources on the archipelago of islands in the area to sustain megaherbivores.   Perhaps, these tracks represent a dinosaur crossing mudflats at low tide walking between islands.  Numerous dinosaur tracks are known from this region, including a series of tridactyl (three-toed prints), assigned to the ichnogenus Megalosauripus.  The prefix ichno- is added when a taxon is described based solely on trace fossils of an animal, rather than on anatomical remains such as its bones and teeth.

An Illustration of Brontopodus plagnensis and an Estimation of Its Size

A drawing of Brontopodus plagnensis.

An illustration of Brontopodus plagnensis.

Picture Credit: A. Bénéteau, photography Dinojura

To read Everything Dinosaur’s 2009 article about the original discovery of the trackways: On the Trail of Big Foot – Giant Sauropod Trackways Discovered in France

The scientific paper: “The Dinosaur Tracksite of Plagne (Early Tithonian, Late Jurassic; Jura Mountains, France): The Longest Known Sauropod Trackway” by Jean-Michel Mazin, Pierre Hantzpergue and Nicolas Olivier published in the journal Geobios.

10 11, 2017

New CollectA Models 2018 (Part 2)

By | November 10th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

New CollectA Models 2018 (Part 2)

The next batch of new for 2018 CollectA prehistoric animal figures include a stunning 1:40 scale deluxe replica of the famous Ornithopod Iguanodon (I. bernissartensis).  Here is another CollectA dinosaur figure honouring Gideon Mantell (Mantell named Iguanodon), after the news about the introduction of Mantellisaurus, it is great to see an updated version of the iconic Iguanodon too.  Fossils of Mantellisaurus and I. bernissartensis have been found in the same horizon, namely the Wessex Formation (Early Cretaceous, Barremian faunal stage).  It is likely that these two herbivores were contemporaneous and therefore, diorama fans can place both Mantellisaurus and Iguanodon into the same prehistoric scenes.

The New for 2018 1:40 Scale Deluxe Iguanodon Dinosaur Model

CollectA Deluxe Iguanodon.

CollectA 1:40 scale Iguanodon model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Designer Anthony Beeson commented:

“It seemed about the right time to produce a new Iguanodon which had been one of our earliest models.  I had wanted to do a Mantellisaurus, so we decided to do a deluxe Iguanodon to bring the species up to date in our models.  As Mantellisaurus seems to have herded with Iguanodons, the two can go together in play or dioramas notwithstanding the differences in size.”

Spectacular Estemmenosuchus

The Dinocephalians (the name means “terrible heads”) are represented by this spectacular 1:20 scale replica of Estemmenosuchus and what a beautiful model of one of the most amazing therapsids to have ever lived.  It is great to see Permian giants like Estemmenosuchus (pronounced Est-ter-men-oh-sook-us), included in the CollectA Deluxe model range.  This wonderful replica has an articulated jaw and it is being produced in an approximate scale of 1:20, in line with other prehistoric animal models on the “mammalian line” of the tree of life, already represented in the CollectA model range.

The Estemmenosuchus 1:20 Scale Deluxe Model by CollectA

Estemmenosuchus model from CollectA.

A Deluxe 1:20 scale Estemmenosuchus model from CollectA.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Estemmenosuchus uralensis

Best on our calculations, this model represents the type species Estemmenosuchus uralensis.  We look forward to revealing our scale drawing of this amazing creature, that is distantly related to us.  As for those strange, bony growths on the head, their purpose remains unknown.  They could have used in intraspecific combat, perhaps over herd hierarchy or to win mates.  The design team at CollectA are to be congratulated for creating such a fantastic prehistoric animal model.  It is brilliant to see Permian reptiles represented in model ranges.

CollectA Deluxe 1:20 Scale Dunkleosteus

Another iconic prehistoric monster is being introduced as a 1:20 scale deluxe replica.  The Devonian giant Dunkleosteus is being included in the new for 2018 releases.  Like Estemmenosuchus, this model too, will have a moveable, articulated jaw.

A Dunkleosteus Model – New for 2018 from CollectA

CollectA Dunkleosteus.

CollectA 1:20 scale Deluxe Dunkleosteus model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Dunkleosteus: this was a terrifying armoured fish of the Late Devonian era that could grow up to 6m in length. The skull was armoured and although some models show this as exposed bone plates, the CollectA model correctly shows it covered with skin. It did not possess teeth but had bone shears instead. As only the bone skull survives in the fossil record as the rest of the body was made of cartilage therefore, the rest of the body is based on other smaller and related species. The new model adopts the idea that such a huge fish would have had to have had a heterocercal caudel fin rather like the shark in order to efficiently manoeuvre around. The CollectA replica comes with a movable jaw.

The introduction of this new scale model marks 145 years since the Dunkleosteus genus was erected (1873).  CollectA had introduced a mini Dunkleosteus figure in their very popular mini prehistoric marine animal set, this set which features ammonites, a trilobite, marine reptiles and prehistoric fish was introduced this year.  The mini Dunkleosteus could perhaps play the role of another species of Placoderm in a Devonian dioramas that get constructed.  We can’t wait to see how these models will be used together.

To view the CollectA mini prehistoric animal set and the other models in the CollectA Prehistoric Life series: CollectA Prehistoric Life

Commenting on the introduction of this apex Devonian predator, designer Anthony Beeson stated:

“I have never liked reconstructions where the plates appear like the fish is wearing a suit of armour, so they are covered with skin.  I have had second thoughts about the shape of the tail since producing the mini version and have now given him a heterocercal tail which would afford such a large animal a greater ability to manoeuvre in the water”.

CollectA Model Measurements

Here is the all-important measurement data for dinosaur fans and model collectors:

CollectA Deluxe 1:40 scale Iguanodon model – length 28 cm, height 11.5 cm – available from Everything Dinosaur early Spring

CollectA Deluxe 1:20 scale Estemmenosuchus – length 17.5 cm, height 10.5 cm – available from Everything Dinosaur mid 2018

CollectA Deluxe 1:2o scale Dunkleosteus – length 28 cm, height 6 cm – available from Everything Dinosaur early Spring

We look forward to posting up more news about 2018 CollectA releases, in the meantime, here is a link to our article on the first batch of CollectA models to be announced: New from CollectA 2018 (first batch)

To view the existing range of CollectA Deluxe models: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life

8 11, 2017

New CollectA Models 2018 (Part 1)

By | November 8th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur Products, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

New CollectA Models 2018 (Part 1)

It’s that time of year, when our chums at CollectA give us official permission to post up pictures and provide information on the new for 2018 CollectA prehistoric animal models.  There is so much going on at Everything Dinosaur that we have had a job to keep up, however, prior to publishing information about the second batch of models, here are our thoughts on the first of the new for 2018 CollectA introductions.

First up, representing the Iguanodontoids is this beautiful Mantellisaurus, a dinosaur formally re-named and scientifically described in 2007.  The genus name honours Gideon Mantell and it is great to see another model of a British dinosaur.  At Everything Dinosaur, we have been helping to support the campaign team behind a bid to mount a life-size statue of this dinosaur in Gideon Mantell’s home town of Lewes (West Sussex).  We sure the campaign team will be as equally excited about this new dinosaur model as we are.

CollectA Mantellisaurus Drinking

CollectA Mantellisaurus dinosaur model.

CollectA Mantellisaurus drinking.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Mantellisaurus Drinking

This wonderfully coloured dinosaur is depicted in a drinking posture.  Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis was more lightly built than Iguanodon bernissartensis and Dollodon bampingi.  In addition, the forelimbs were smaller, this suggests that this Early Cretaceous plant-eating dinosaur spent most of its time as a biped, moving about on its hind legs.  It may only have dropped down onto all fours to feed, or to drink, hence the drinking pose as shown in this well-designed model.

Designer Anthony Beeson remarked:

“I thought it about time that not only did someone do a Mantellisaurus but also had a dinosaur having a drink.  I thought it would be good for children of all ages doing dioramas as well as advertising another British dinosaur.”

A Mantellisaurus skeleton (NHMUK R5764) is on display in one of the “Wonder Bays”, in the Hintze Hall of the Natural History Museum, London.  This is one of the most complete dinosaur skeletons ever found in the British Isles and it is the only current dinosaur exhibit on display in the main hall of the museum.

NHMUK R5764 – Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis on Display at the London Natural History Museum

Mantellisaurus on display.

Mantellisaurus on display in the Hintze Hall.

Picture Credit: The Trustees of the Natural History Museum

To view the current CollectA Prehistoric Life range available from Everything Dinosaur: CollectA Prehistoric Life

Sciurumimus Takes Centre Stage

CollectA has a deserved reputation for producing unusual Theropod models and in early 2018 a Sciurumimus (S. albersdoerferi) is being introduced.  Known from a single, spectacular specimen found in a limestone quarry in Germany, this dinosaur was once thought to be a megalosaurid, but a more recent analysis has placed this meat-eater into the Coelurosauria clade.  The amazing fossil, which is 98% complete, represents a very young animal, the entire skeleton measures 72 centimetres long.  Just how big  Sciurumimus grew too, nobody knows.  Sciurumimus (pronounced Skear-roo-my-mus), may have been a giant, but one thing is for sure, as a baby, it was covered in “dino fuzz”.

The CollectA Sciurumimus Dinosaur Model

CollectA Sciurumimus.

CollectA Sciurumimus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Deluxe range: CollectA Deluxe Prehistoric Life

Model Measurements

CollectA Mantellisaurus = length around 15 cm, with a height over the hips of just over 5 cm.

CollectA Sciurumimus = length 13.3 cm, height 4.8 cm (it is going to be fun attempting to calculate a scale for this dinosaur model)!

 

Everything Dinosaur’s Commissioned Drawing of Sciurumimus albersdoerferi

Sciurumimus drawing.

Sciurumimus illustration.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The picture above shows the Sciurumimus illustration that we have prepared for our fact sheet so from the Jurassic, we now move on to something which is very much 21st Century.

CollectA Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality (AR) is one of the fastest growing areas of technology at the moment.  CollectA have made a connection between their prehistoric animal models and cutting-edge computer generated images and effects.  In early 2018, CollectA will introduce a range of blind bags.  Each one will contain a mini dinosaur model and a data card that can be scanned by smart devices to bring your very own prehistoric animal to life on the screen.

CollectA Unites the Prehistoric with Innovative Computer Generated Visual Effects

CollectA AR

CollectA augmented reality.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Have Pterosaurs fly under your nose, or see how a Brachiosaurus would walk!  Bring your own prehistoric animals to life via your smart device.  Dinosaurs and augmented reality, sounds like a very powerful combination indeed!  Dinosaur fans and model collectors will be able to go “walking with virtual dinosaurs”, or, as there is a Mosasaur in the twelve models chosen to launch this range, you can go “swimming with marine reptiles” if you prefer.

The mini prehistoric animals used in this exciting product extension are some of the models available in the CollectA Box of Mini Dinosaurs sets which have already proved to very popular.

We will post up more information and product news about new models from CollectA in a couple of days or so.

To read Everything Dinosaur’s article about the discovery of Sciurumimus: Megalosaurs Join the “Tufty” Club

Note: the above article was written when Sciurumimus was believed to be a member of the Megalosauridae.

For an article about fund raising attempts to honour Gideon Mantell with a Mantellisaurus statue: The Lewes Dinosaur Project

7 11, 2017

JurassicCollectables Reviews “Pete” from Rebor

By | November 7th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page|0 Comments

A Video Review of the Rebor “Pete” Velociraptor Replica

Earlier this week, those talented people at JurassicCollectables produced a video review of the new Rebor 1:18 scale Velociraptor figure called “Pete” and what a great opportunity this video provides for model collectors to get a really good look at this excellent figure.  The video narrator comments about how close to the “Jurassic Park” raptors these figures look and asks help from viewers in determining which of the raptor gang from “Jurassic Park/Jurassic World” the Rebor figure most closely resembles.

The “Winston” Velociraptor Unboxing Video Review by Jurassic Collectables

Video Credit: Jurassic Collectables

Velociraptor “Pete” 1:18 Scale Replica Reviewed

This is a very detailed video, (it lasts for nearly fifteen minutes), the narrator shows the classy packaging and unboxes the figure before discussing its merits and comparing it to other Rebor 1:18 scale replicas including “Winston” and “Alex Delarge”.  Just like the other Rebor Velociraptor offerings, the “Pete” replica stays true to the non-feathered principles of the first “Jurassic Park” dromaeosaurids and the viewer is given a guided tour around the dinosaur with a special focus on the beautifully crafted, skin texture.

“Pete” the Latest Rebor Velociraptor Model

Rebor Velociraptor "Pete"

The Rebor 1:18 scale Velociraptor replica “Pete”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Why is this Rebor Replica Called “Pete”?

In the very informative video review from JurassicCollectables, lots of aspects of this particular model are covered, the size, the paintwork, the details of the sculpt and so forth, but the question as to why this model is called “Pete” is not answered.  Let’s deal with that question to add a finishing touch to this very well-made video review.

Recent Rebor raptor models have been named after characters from the ground-breaking novel “A Clockwork Orange”, which was written by Anthony Burgess in 1962.  This book was later made into a famous (or rather infamous), film of the same name directed by Stanley Kubrick.  The plot deals with the violent lives of a gang of delinquents called the droogs, in a dystopian vision of the future.  The leader of the gang, played by Malcolm McDowell in the film, is called “Alex”, hence the recently introduced Rebor “Alex” figure.  One of the gang members is named “Pete” and that’s how this new figure got its name.  We could see more 1:18 scale Rebor Velociraptor replicas in the future, models named after the other droogs, namely Dim and Georgie.

Rebor “Pete” Named after a Gang Member from “A Clockwork Orange”

Rebor "Pete" Velociraptor Model

A cursorial (running Velociraptor) called “Pete from Rebor.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the Rebor Velociraptor “Pete” 1:18 scale figure and the rest of the Rebor range: Rebor Models and Figures

A Model of a Running “Cursorial” Raptor

It is great to see in the video direct comparisons being made between Rebor “Pete” and other Rebor Velociraptor replicas such as the leaping “Alex”.  The viewer can get a really good idea of how the Rebor pack of Velociraptors is coming together.  The narrator takes care to discuss the dynamic, running pose of this figure, it certainly gives the impression that this dinosaur is moving at speed.

JurassicCollectables have an amazing YouTube channel packed with wonderful dinosaur model reviews and other very informative videos.  Look out for all the super Rebor model reviews that are posted up on this channel.

Visit the YouTube channel of Jurassic Collectables here: JurassicCollectables on YouTube , to prevent you missing out on future videos, don’t forget to subscribe to the JurassicCollectables channel.

We look forward to seeing more JurassicCollectables video reviews of the Rebor range in the future.

6 11, 2017

T. rex Tiny Arms Built for Slashing Prey

By | November 6th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

New Paper Challenges the Idea of T. rex and Tiny, Useless Arms

Evolution is a very efficient process, either adapt and survive or fail to adapt and face extinction.  That seems to be the general premise when it comes to “survival of the fittest”.  However, one anatomical feature of the enormous Theropod Tyrannosaurus rex seems to fly in the face of the theory of evolution, T. rex is famous for having tiny and puny arms.  Are the tyrannosaurids sticking two figures up when it comes to natural selection?  Not so, according to a new paper presented at the annual conference of the Geological Society of America (Seattle, Washington, USA).

Tyrannosaurus rex – Famous for its Disproportionately Small Arms

T. rex model with prey.

The “prey” is an unfortunate Struthiomimus, but look at those tiny arms.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Vestigial Limbs?

Ever since the first partial skeletons of T. rex were discovered and as more fossils of this Late Cretaceous carnivore came to light, palaeontologists have puzzled over those “puny” arms.  At the turn of the Century, during the period of the Barnum Brown fossil discoveries that led to the formal scientific description of the “tyrant lizard king”, no arm bones were found in association with the dinosaur, so it was assumed, that like Allosaurus more than 80 million years before, T. rex had three-fingered hands.  Our fascination with the forelimbs of Tyrannosaurus rex had begun.  It was as recently as 1989, when arm bones of Tyrannosaurus rex were finally found and the didactyl hands seen in other, closely related tyrannosaurids such as Albertosaurus and Gorgosaurus were confirmed.

An Early Reconstruction of the Skeleton of Tyrannosaurus rex

Osborn's second reconstruction of T. rex.

T. rex the second reconstruction by Osborn.

Picture Credit: Lindahall.org

Palaeontologist Steven Stanley (University of Hawaii at Manoa), challenges the perception that this dinosaur’s arms were almost useless.  He suggests that earlier tyrannosaurids gradually evolved smaller forelimbs as their skulls and jaws became more massive, a hypothesis with lots of consensus amongst palaeontologists, but those tiny arms were actually very effective slashing weapons, ideal for close quarter combat.

Debunking the Idea of “Tiny, Puny” Arms

The arms of the Tyrannosauridae were certainly disproportionately small when compared to their massive bodies, however, Professor Stanley contends that at around 1 metre in length, the arms may have been relatively small, but they were exceptionally strong and with their two-fingered claws, with talons measuring up to ten centimetres long, they would have been capable of inflicting deep wounds in any dinosaur that got close.  Whether the arms had a role in subduing prey or whether they were used in intraspecific combat, remains contentious.

Many palaeontologists believe that the reduced arms of tyrannosaurids were a consequence of natural selection favouring the evolution of giant skulls and super-strong jaws.  The heads of Tyrannosaurs, took over the role of grasping prey from the forelimbs and as the skulls and jaws became increasingly robust, the arms gradually got smaller and smaller as natural selection solved the issue of trying to counterbalance an increasingly heavy front end for the animal.

Six Traits Indicate That the Arms were Slashing Weapons

In the scientific paper, Professor Stanley identifies six derived traits that demonstrate that the arms of T. rex were not vestigial and that they could have served as slashing weapons.

  1. The short arms would have been ideal for close combat slashing, just as a small knife can be a very effective weapon in hand-to-hand combat.
  2. A large and broad coracoid bone suggests the arms were very powerful.  The arms of T. rex were slightly longer than the legs of a six-foot-tall man and of similar girth.
  3. The arm bones themselves, particularly the humeri in a number of specimens are very thick and robust and the bones in the arm would have easily withstood the forces involved in slashing attacks.
  4. Tyrannosaurs are famous for having just two-fingered hands, the loss of the third finger allowed 50% more pressure to be applied to each claw.
  5. The humoral head articulating with the shoulder provided considerable mobility in the joint, all helpful when it comes to performing a slashing action.
  6. The sharp, keratinous-tipped claws measured between 8-10 centimetres long in the largest specimens, these would have inflicted metre-long, parallel slashes into the hide of any dinosaur that got too close.

Scientists have proposed several theories as to how T. rex used its short hands.  They may have played a role in helping to grasp a mate during reproduction, or perhaps they helped this 7 Tonne dinosaur to stand upright after lying on the ground.  Those much-maligned appendages could have had other uses, as Professor Stanley contends.  The muddy waters surrounding the use to which T. rex put its hands have been made even murkier somewhat by more recent fossil discoveries.  In 2009, Everything Dinosaur reported on the discovery of Raptorex kriegsteini, a 3-metre-long Tyrannosaur that had the same body proportions of its more massive (and later), relative.  Find the Raptorex article here: Raptorex Upsets the Tyrannosaur Apple Cart.

More recently, (2016), the discovery of the Late Cretaceous Theropod Gualicho (G. shinyae) from Argentina, added more confusion to this puzzle.  Although, Gualicho was not closely related to T. rex and its kin, it also had substantially reduced limbs and two-fingered hands.  Perhaps, if Steven Stanley is onto something, then Gualicho too, could have utilised its reduced limbs as slashing weapons.

To read an article about Gualicho shinyaeGualicho Sticks Two Fingers Up At T. rex

Those Claws and Fingers were Evolved for Slashing

CollectA Feathered T. rex model.

1:40 scale model of a feathered T. rex.

Professor Stanley states in the paper:

“Its short, strong forelimbs and large claws would have permitted T. rex, whether mounted on a victim’s back or grasping it with its jaws, to inflict four gashes a metre or more long and several centimetres deep within a few seconds and it could have repeated this multiple times in rapid succession.  Infliction of damage by slashing was widespread among other Theropod taxa, so in light of its formidable weaponry, why should T. rex not have engaged in this activity?”

“Stanley Knives” on a T. rex

In summary, Steven Stanley suggests that the most famous of all dinosaurs was an even more formidable and dangerous dinosaur than previously thought.  It possessed four, razor sharp claws (“Stanley knives” as a colleague referred to them as), these were perfectly adapted for helping this predator subdue prey.  Rather than being “puny” and “relatively useless”, these didactyl hands had evolved into effective close-quarter weapons, just as like the skull and jaws.  Several palaeontologists have commented on the paper, suggesting that in close proximity, the massive jaws of this hypercarnivore would have been much more deadly,  however, the slashing claws could have provided additional weapons for juveniles which had yet to mature and develop those immensely powerful skulls.

Tiny But Formidable Arms?

T. rex specimen (cast)

A Tyrannosaurus rex museum exhibit.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The scientific paper: “Evidence that the Arms of Tyrannosaurus rex were not functionless but Adapted for Vicious Slashing” by Steven Stanley and published as a paper at the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America.

5 11, 2017

Chicxulub Impact – A Really Bad Place to Hit

By | November 5th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Geology, Main Page|0 Comments

Chicxulub Impact – The Big Freeze

For life on Earth, the impact event that marked the end of the Mesozoic Era was made many times worse as the extra-terrestrial object caused the release of climate-active gases.  As if the devastation was not bad enough, the high-velocity impact caused the release of huge quantities of sulphur and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere triggering a dramatic world-wide cooling and exacerbating the effect of this event.  No wonder then, that around 70% of all terrestrial life died out.  Two scientific papers report on the consequences of this catastrophe.  In the first, the effect of gases released into the atmosphere from the sedimentary rocks that were hit are modelled and in the second paper, scientists look at just how unfortunate the dinosaurs were.  If the extra-terrestrial object had hit virtually anywhere else on Earth, the consequences for Cretaceous life would not have been so severe.

In simple terms, the dinosaurs were very unlucky, there was only a 13% chance of a mass extinction event occurring 66 million years ago when the object from space hit.

An Extra-terrestrial Object Hurtles Towards Earth 66 Million Years Ago

Asteroid strikes the Earth.

An extra-terrestrial impact event.   The dinosaurs were very unlucky.

Picture Credit: Deposit photos/Paul Paladin

A Global Effect

Writing in the journal “Geophysical Research Letters”, the authors of the first scientific paper report that the impact in the shallow sea of the Gulf of Mexico may have resulted in the expulsion of more than 300 billion tonnes of sulphur into the atmosphere.  In addition, the rocks that the object hit also released vast quantities of carbon dioxide, somewhere around 400 billion tonnes of CO2.   Some of the sulphur may have combined with water vapour to form sulphuric acid, this would have fallen back to Earth in the form of acid rain, further damaging plant life and upsetting food chains.  However, much of the gas would have remained high up in the atmosphere and behaved like aerosols, changing the amount of solar irradiation reaching the ground which led to surface temperatures plummeting.

The global effect was freezing temperatures for several years, a nuclear winter.  The research team which includes scientists from the Imperial College London and Potsdam University, conclude that ocean temperatures could have been affected for hundreds of years.  The abrupt climate change may explain why so many species become extinct.  The end-Cretaceous mass extinction event saw entire groups of animals and plants die out including the non-avian dinosaurs, the Pterosauria, several types of marine reptiles, as well as cephalopods such as the ammonites.  In addition, there were major losses amongst brachiopods, bivalves, sea urchins and many different types of marine plankton also perished.  Although, in comparison, groups such as the flowering plants (Angiosperms), amphibians, mammals and fishes were less affected, there were still extinctions.

Hitting the Earth in a Very Bad Place

Plummeting temperatures and a sustained period of intense cold would have made survival for the likes of the Dinosauria, extremely difficult.  Such a dramatic climate downturn would have devastated ecosystems, leaving animals like the non-avian dinosaurs and flying reptiles doomed.  However, in a second paper published in the journal “Scientific Reports”, scientists from Tohoku University and the Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba (both in Japan), state that life on Earth 66 million years ago, was just unlucky.  According to the calculations of these scientists, there was only a thirteen percent chance of the mass extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs.  If the extra-terrestrial object had hit almost anywhere else, the consequences would not have been so severe and the Dinosauria et al might just have survived to the present day.

Examining the Consequences of the Yucatan Peninsula Impact

Unlucky dinosaurs - asteroid impact in the wrong place.

A devastating mass extinction could only occur if an asteroid struck a hydrocarbon-rich area (those marked in orange).

Picture Credit: Kunio Kaiho (Tohoku University)

The Japan-based researchers postulated that the severity of the climate change would vary depending on where the extra-terrestrial body hit.  Areas with higher levels of sedimentary organic material would throw more soot into the upper parts of the atmosphere.  More hydrocarbons present would result in greater releases of CO2.  Those areas with sulphur-rich rocks would have released more sulphur.  The team conclude that the effects of the impact were much more dramatic because the impact was in the Gulf of Mexico.  To test their hypothesis, a series of impact scenarios were run using global climate models to assess changes in temperature.

When the Yucatan Peninsula Cretaceous geology was examined, the team concluded that the hydro-carbon rich strata would have thrown debris into the upper atmosphere that resulted in a drop of global temperature by an average of 8 to 11 degrees Celsius.  On land, the temperature drop could have been as excessive as a fall of 17 degrees Celsius.  The oceans did not fare much better, with average temperature drops of between 5 and 7 degrees Celsius at depths of up to fifty metres.  Putting this into context, our world is faced with global climate warming.  The Paris Agreement, now ratified by 169 countries, has a central aim to keep the global temperature rise this century to below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase even further to 1.5 degrees Celsius.

Very Unlucky Dinosaurs

The extinction of the dinosaurs.

Had the impact event taken place anywhere else on the planet, its consequences for life on Earth might not have been so severe.

Picture Credit:

The researchers looked at how widespread the sort of rocks found in the Yucatan Peninsula in the Cretaceous, were.  They found that these types of rocks were mostly associated with marine coastal margins.  The shallow seas permitted the concentration of algae which could deposit more organic matter into the sediments.  These areas covered just thirteen percent of the Earth’s surface.

Had the asteroid struck somewhere in the other eighty-seven percent of the planet, then, although the impact event would have been catastrophic, it might not have been as bad as it was.  The researchers even go as far as to state that some species of dinosaurs may have persisted beyond the Cretaceous.  The Mammalia would not have had the chance to radiate and therefore the primates, including humans, might not have evolved at all.

Changes in Fauna over the Phanerozoic Based on Extinction Events

The probability of dinosaur extinction.

Looking at the probability of a mass extinction event (Chicxulub impact).

The graph above shows Phanerozoic faunal changes with approximately 13% probability following the Chicxulub asteroid impact.  Changes in fauna are based on extinction rates.   A consequence of the end Cretaceous extinction event was the demise of the Dinosauria and the rise of mammals.

Sometimes it can come down to serendipity.

4 11, 2017

Everything Dinosaur Reaches 4,000 “Likes” on Facebook

By | November 4th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur News and Updates, Press Releases|0 Comments

Everything Dinosaur Reaches 4,000 “Likes” on Facebook

Over the last few days, Everything Dinosaur’s Facebook page has reached the landmark of 4,000 “likes”.  Team members would like to thank all our fans and followers by honouring us in this way.

Everything Dinosaur’s Facebook Page Reaches 4,000 “Likes”

4,000 "likes" on Everything Dinosaur's Facebook Page

Everything Dinosaur’s Facebook page has 4,000 “likes”.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

It was on June 22nd 2015, that our Facebook page reached 2,000 “likes”, twenty-eight months later or thereabouts, we have doubled this figure and we now have a total of 4,035.  Every single one of these “likes” are genuine and we are truly flattered to have received so many.

To read an article about reaching 2,000 Facebook “likes”: Everything Dinosaur Reaches 2,000 “Likes” on Facebook

Enabling Customers, Followers and Fans to Interact with Everything Dinosaur

The “like” button on Facebook enables users to easily interact with Everything Dinosaur and status updates, photos, links and comments.  Gaining legitimate likes on Facebook gives an organisation validity and provides reassurance to other Facebook visitors.  This helps to build up a community around the company or brand and helps to reinforce customer loyalty.

A spokesperson for the Cheshire-based dinosaur company stated:

“We are very pleased to have reached this landmark.  Getting 4,000 “likes” is real achievement and we would like to express our gratitude to everyone who has taken the trouble to “like” Everything Dinosaur.  We are all very humbled and flattered.”

We believe customer service is the key to getting "likes".

“Like” our Facebook page.

Everything Dinosaur looks forward to writing about 5,000 Facebook “likes”.

1 11, 2017

“Big Foot” from the Early Jurassic of Africa

By | November 1st, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Kayentapus ambrokholohali – Taking Giant Dinosaurs in our Stride

A team of international scientists, including researchers from Manchester University, have published a paper in the academic journal PLOS One that reports on the discovery of giant, three-toed dinosaur tracks in the Maseru district of Lesotho, southern Africa.  These tracks, some of which measure 57 centimetres long, are the first evidence of the existence of huge, apex Theropods in the Early Jurassic of southern Gondwana.  The prints have been assigned to the ichnogenus Kayentapus and a new species – Kayentapus ambrokholohali has been erected.

University of Manchester Senior Research Fellow Dr Fabien Knoll Reclines Next to the Giant Dinosaur Tracks

Dr Fabien Knoll provides a scale for the dinosaur footprints.

Dr Fabien Knoll (Manchester University) poses next to the dinosaur trace fossils.

Picture Credit: Manchester University

The Largest Known Theropod Tracks in Africa

The tracks were found in fine-grained sandstone, that was laid down some 200 million years ago, the surface (palaeosurface), shows current-ripple marks and desiccation marks indicating that the surface represents an environment close to a river or lake (fluvio-lacustrine environment).  The tracks indicate that a large, three-toed dinosaur with a pace length in excess of 1.3 metres walked across the wet sand, perhaps it had come to the area to get a drink or perhaps to find prey.  The scientists which include Dr Fabien Knoll (Manchester University) and Dr Lara Sciscio, (postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Cape Town), state that the trace fossils come from deposits representing the Upper Elliot Formation, a formation that is synonymous with abundant vertebrate trackways but very few body fossils.  The tracks are the largest Theropod dinosaur footprints to have been described from African rocks to date.

An Apex Predator

The tracks suggest an apex predator (Megatheropod), a dinosaur which would have been around 8-9 metres in length, much larger than many of the contemporary Theropods known from the Early Jurassic.  The prints don’t give any idea of the dinosaur’s age, unlike histological analysis of fossil bone, this giant, might not have been fully grown!  The dinosaur has been named Kayentapus ambrokholohali as the long-toed prints resemble those from the ichnogenus Kayentapus, a widely distributed ichnogenus with a substantial chronological and geological time span.

A Scale Drawing of the Theropod Dinosaur (Track Maker)

A scale drawing showing the estimated size of the Lesotho dinosaur.

A scale drawing based on the Lesotho tridactyl dinosaur prints.

Picture Credit: University of Manchester/Press Association

Dr Sciscio commented:

“This discovery marks the first occurrence of very large carnivorous dinosaurs in the Early Jurassic of Gondwana, the prehistoric continent which would later break up and become Africa and other landmasses.  This makes it a significant find.  Globally, these large tracks are very rare.  There is only one other known site similar in age and sized tracks, which is in Poland”.

Comparative Line Drawings of Lower Jurassic Track D1 from Lesotho and Other Large Theropod Tracks from the Jurassic and Cretaceous

Analysing Dinosaur Footprints.

Comparative dinosaur tracks (line drawings).

Picture Credit: PLOS One

A comparative analysis of three-toed dinosaur tracks from various locations (Jurassic and Cretaceous trackways).

The line drawings above show (A) Kayentapus hopii, Kayenta Formation (Early Jurassic), (B) a 35 cm long Eubrontes isp.  (C) a 39 cm long Kayentapus minor print, whilst (D–E) represent Megalosauripus and a large Polish Theropod track from the Sołtyków site, Poland.  Drawings (F–G) represent Eubrontes cf., from the Middle Jurassic of Australia and (H) has been tentatively assigned to the ichnogenus Eubrontes glenrosensis, from the Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation (United States). (I) represents Irenesauripus whilst (J) is a line drawing of  Irenesauripus mclearni.  Drawing (K)  is Irenesauripus acutus, I, J and K are all from within the Albian Gething Formation of Canada.  Track (L) in red, is print reference D1 (Kayentapus ambrokholohali) from the newly described Lesotho tracks.  All images have been redrawn and scaled to 15 cm.

Dr Knoll added:

“In South Africa, Lesotho, Zimbabwe and Namibia, there is good record of Theropod footprints from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic epochs.  In fact, there are numerous palaeosurfaces where footprints and even tail and body impressions of these, and other animals, can be found.  But now we have evidence this region of Africa was also home to a mega-carnivore.”

The scientific paper: “The First Megatheropod Tracks from the Lower Jurassic Upper Elliot Formation, Karoo Basin, Lesotho” by L. Sciscio , E. M. Bordy, M. Abrahams, F. Knoll, B. W. McPhee and published in the journal PLOS One.

Everything Dinosaur acknowledges the help of a press release from Manchester University in the compilation of this article.

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