All about dinosaurs, fossils and prehistoric animals by Everything Dinosaur team members.
/2017
26 04, 2017

Headless Duck-Billed Dinosaur Reunited with Skull

By | April 26th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Corythosaurus Fossil Gets its Head Back

Scientists from the University of Alberta have been able to reunite the fossilised body of a Corythosaurus to its head, nearly one hundred years after the skull fossil was removed from the dig site.

Researchers have matched the headless skeleton to a Corythosaurus skull (C. excavatus) from the university’s Palaeontology Museum that had been collected in 1920 by the eminent George Sternberg during field work in what is now called the Dinosaur Provincial Park (southern Alberta).

Graduate Katherine Bramble, a co-author of the scientific paper that appears in the latest issue of “Cretaceous Research” commented:

“Based on our results, we believed there was potential that the skull and this specimen belonged together.”

The Corythosaurus (C. excavatus) Skull Collected by George Sternberg in 1920

Corythosaurus fossil skull.

The Corythosaurus skull collected by George Sternberg in 1920.

Picture Credit: The University of Alberta

Trophy Hunting When It Came to Dinosaur Fossils

The Corythosaurus skull shown in lateral view (above) was collected in 1920 and designated the holotype fossil for a new hadrosaurid (Corythosaurus excavatus) by C. W. Gilmore in 1923.  The skull, (UALVP 13) became part of the University’s vertebrate fossil collection.  In 1992, a previously uncovered, weathered, Corythosaurus skeleton was found.  A field team from the University of Alberta collected the specimen in 2012 and research undertaken by Darren Tanke (a technician at the Royal Tyrrell Museum), a co-author of the paper indicated that the body remains could be associated with the already known skull material.

In the 19th and early 20th Century, palaeontologists in North America were almost faced with an embarrassment of riches when it came to dinosaur fossils.  The extensive fossil deposits in Utah, Montana and southern Alberta led to many field teams simply “cherry picking” and only collecting the most spectacular of fossils, items such as claws, skulls, dermal armour, horns and teeth.  It is relatively common for a field team working in the Dinosaur Provincial Park to come across specimens missing skull material.

A Close-Up View of a Corythosaurus Dinosaur Model

CollectA Corythosaurus dinosaur model.

A close-up of the head of Corythosaurus.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Lower Jaw (Dentary) Found

In addition, an isolated Hadrosaur dentary (lower jaw bone), found in 1992, close to the articulated, postcranial skeleton may be one of the missing jaw fossils from the holotype skull.  The idea that this postcranial material be the skeleton of the holotype of Corythosaurus excavatus was tested using anatomical information and statistical analyses.  Statistical comparisons suggest that it is possible that the skull and dentary belong to the same individual.  Furthermore, the researchers postulate that the postcranial material could belong to the UALVP 13 skull.

Katherine Bramble explained:

“Using anatomical measurements of the skull and the skeleton, we conducted a statistical analysis.  Based on these results, we believed there was potential that the skull and this specimen belonged together.”

Matching Disparate Fossils to Individual Dinosaurs

This discovery highlights a growing field of study in palaeontology, wherein, scientists try to develop new ways of determining whether various parts of a skeleton, often located in different museum collections, belong to the same individual.  For this paper, the team used anatomical measurements, but there are several other ways of matching up fossil bones, such as conducting a chemical analysis on the surrounding matrix to identify the rocks from which the fossils were found.

The scientific paper, “Reuniting the ‘head hunted’ Corythosaurus excavatus (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae) holotype skull with its dentary and postcranium,” published in the journal of “Cretaceous Research.”

25 04, 2017

Fossil Fungus Discovery Rocks Geology and Biology

By | April 25th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Geology, Main Page|0 Comments

Fungus-Like Forms Found in 2.4 Billion-Year-Old Rocks

An international team of researchers, including scientists from the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm University and the University of California, have identified microscopic structures found in tiny bubbles and pores in ancient basalt that resemble fungi.  If these fungi-like structures are indeed Palaeoproterozoic remnants of members of the Kingdom Fungi, then this discovery could push back the date for the oldest fungi by between 1,000 and 2,000 million years.

Thin Sections of the Ongeluk Basalt Showing Evidence of Mycelium

Ancient fungi in ancient marine rocks.

Views of treated micro-slides showing potential mycelium.

Picture Credit: Nature, Ecology and Evolution (Swedish Museum of Natural History)

Over the last few decades, cores drilled deep into the seabed and other exploration techniques utilised to build knowledge of the biota present in oceanic sediments and crustal rocks have revealed that many different types of fungi thrive in these environments.  The fossil record of fungi is extremely intermittent and the identification of possible fungal remnants in the fossil record is controversial to say the least, (look up the Devonian Prototaxites for further details).  However, many geologists and palaeontologists have proposed that the fossil record for such extremophiles does date back to at least the Early Devonian, a time when primitive plants and fungi were beginning to diversify and radiate in terrestrial environments.  Drill cores taken from the Ongeluk Formation in South Africa show microscopic signs of filamentous fossils in vesicles and fractures.  The filaments form mycelium-like structures growing from a basal film attached to the internal rock surfaces and they look very similar to the structures attributed to fungi found in rocks which are hundreds of millions of years younger.

The Ongeluk fossils, are two to three times older than current age estimates of the Kingdom Fungi. Unless they represent an unknown branch of fungus-like organisms, which are new to science, the fossils imply that the fungal clade is considerably older than previously thought, and that fungal origin and early evolution may lie in the deep ocean rather than in terrestrial environments.

The Ongeluk discovery suggests that life has inhabited deep sea oceanic rocks for more than 2.4 billion years.

The Impact on Eukaryotes

The jumbles of tangled threads, which are only a few microns across, if they are fungi, belong to the Eukaryote Domain (Eukarya), a diverse group containing at least four Phyla and some 6,000 species, (fungi include the familiar mushrooms and toadstools plus yeasts and moulds).  Eukaryotes have cells that are complex with a distinct nucleus protected by a membrane.  Animals and plants are also Eukaryotes and the discovery of such ancient life forms, preserved in ocean rocks has implications for the early history of the whole of the Eukarya, as well as potentially, pushing back the date for the evolution of the first fungi to around 2.4 billion-years-ago.

Commenting on the significance of this research, lead author of the scientific paper, Stefan Bengtson (Department of Palaeobiology and Nordic Center for Earth Evolution, Swedish Museum of Natural History), stated:

“The deep biosphere [where the fossils were found] represents a large portion of the Earth, but we know very little about its biology and even less about its evolutionary history.”

The Professor added, that there was a clear possibility that these fossils represent the world’s oldest fossil fungi, much older than anything else known to the scientific community.

He went onto state:

“If they are not fungi, they are probably an extinct branch of Eukaryotes or even giant Prokaryotes.”

The Impact on the Hunt for Extraterrestrial Life

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented that if these fossils represent fungi occupying gas bubbles in lava that form rocks in the seabed, it demonstrates how organisms can survive in extreme habitats.  Tests have indicated that the rocks where the structures were found could have been as hot as 250 degrees Celsius and these lifeforms would have had to survive without sunlight and cope with immense pressure.  If the fossil record for such fungi is extended by billions of years on our own planet, then it raises the intriguing possibility that such life forms may well have evolved and if they did, they probably still exist in extreme environments elsewhere in our solar system.  The watery environment trapped under the ice of Saturn’s moon Enceladus could harbour the sort of conditions where organisms such as these could still thrive.

Saturn’s Icy Moon Enceladus – Perhaps Home to Marine Crustal Fungi?

Saturn's icy moon Enceladus.

A view of the moon Enceladus – could this icy world harbour fungi?

Picture Credit: NASA

24 04, 2017

Lucky Dinosaur Fossil Egg Find in China

By | April 24th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans|0 Comments

Five Dinosaur Fossil Eggs Found by Chance

Construction workers have unearthed five dinosaur eggs in the city of Foshan (Guangdong Province, south-eastern China).  The eggs, preserved in red sandstone, were laid by a herbivore, but scientists are unable to identify the genera.  The eggs are quite rounded in shape and measure approximately 13-14 centimetres in diameter.  The strata dates from around 70 million years ago (Late Cretaceous) and the fossils have been taken to a local museum for safekeeping and further study.

The Dinosaur Eggs were Briefly Put on Display Before Being Removed for Further Analysis

Dinosaur eggs from Guangdong Province.

Plant-eating dinosaur fossil eggs from China.

The two blocks containing the fossils were found at a depth of eight metres and Qiu Licheng from Guangdong’s Archaeological Institute in China commented:

“We found five eggs, three were destroyed, but they are still visible.  The other two have their imprints on the stone.”

The discovery was made last Monday and video footage has been taken showing the construction site and the fossils that were found.  Dinosaur eggs have been found in the Foshan area before, although to find a clutch is quite significant.  Local palaeontologists are hopeful that these fossils will help to provide a clearer picture of what life was like in this part of China during the Maastrichtian faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous.

The “Red Beds” of sandstone have produced a number of dinosaur fossils, including Theropods.  At least three different types of dinosaur egg fossil have been described and in some parts of southern and south-eastern China, they act almost like index fossils helping to date the relative ages of sediments.  A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented that Titanosaurs are known to have lived in this part of China around 70 million years ago, but the eggs are too small to be ascribed to a type of Titanosaur with any confidence.  The eggs may have come from a hadrosaurid.

23 04, 2017

Happy St George’s Day

By | April 23rd, 2017|Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Dinosaur Names Related to Dragons – St George’s Day

Today, April 23rd, is St George’s Day, the national day for England (St George is the patron saint of England, a saint incidentally celebrated and revered by a number of other countries too).  The story about brave St George slaying a dragon might be a myth, but we thought just for fun we might try and list as many dinosaurs associated with dragons as we could.  This is harder than it seems, for example, St George is honoured in both western and eastern cultures and in China, the origin of the dragon legends could have originated from the discovery of fossils of dinosaurs.  Which dinosaurs?  We don’t think anyone can be sure.

The White Horse Prehistoric Chalk Figure at Uffington (Oxfordshire) Has Been Described as Dragon

The Uffington chalk figure.

Children draw the Uffington prehistoric chalk figure.

Picture Credit: Great Wood Primary School

Chinese Dragon Dinosaurs

The word “long” translated from the Chinese means “dragon” so we could have the Theropods Guanlong, Shaochilong, Zhenyuanlong, Dilong and Zuolong for starters.  To this list, we could add the basal Ceratopsian Yinlong (Y. downsi) and we must not forget the beautiful “sleeping dragon” fossil, representing a troodontid, named as Mei long.

An Illustration of the Sleeping Dragon (M. long)

Mei long illustration.

The sleeping dragon Mei long.

Dinosaurs and Dragons

As well as those dinosaurs from Asia with names that reference dragons, there are a number of genera named after the Latin for dragon “draco”. How many can we name?

Firstly, we have Dracoraptor hanigani, a very early Jurassic dinosaur from Wales, a country with its own dragon culture and stories.

An Illustration of the Welsh Theropod Dracoraptor (D. hanigani)

Dracoraptor hanigani.

An illustration of the Theropod dinosaur from Wales Dracoraptor hanigani.

Picture Credit: Bob Nicholls (National Museum of Wales)

In addition, we can add Pantydraco (P. caducus), a Late Triassic member of the Sauropodomorpha from the Vale of Glamorgan.  What other dinosaur dragons can we think of?

Here’s our list:

  • Dracovenator (D. regenti) – from the Early Jurassic of South Africa, believed to be a dilophosaurid.
  • Dracorex (D. hogwartsia) – A member of the bone-headed Pachycephalosauridae named and described in 2006
  • Draconyx (D. loureiroi) – from Portugal a possible iguanodontid.
  • Dracopelta (D. zbyszewskii) – from Portugal, fragmentary fossils indicate a Thyreophoran (armoured dinosaur affinity)
  • Dracoraptor (D. hanigani) – from Wales (see notes above)
  • Pantydraco (P. caducus) – (see above)

A Mounted Skeleton of Dracorex (D. hogwartsia)

Reconstruction of Dracorex.

Dracorex fossil skeleton.

Picture Credit: Indianapolis Children’s Museum

How many dragon inspired dinosaurs can you name?

22 04, 2017

The Tactile Nature of a Schleich Brachiosaurus

By | April 22nd, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Educational Activities, Main Page, Teaching|0 Comments

The Schleich Brachiosaurus and Creative Play

The recently introduced Schleich Brachiosaurus dinosaur model is proving to be a big hit amongst teachers and teaching assistants who work with Foundation Stage children and those children in Year 1.  The model, which measures around thirty-two centimetres in length and stands a fraction under twenty centimetres high is an ideal size for little hands to handle and the dinosaur is sturdy enough to withstand the attentions of even the most enthusiastic, budding palaeontologist during creative play.

The Schleich Brachiosaurus Dinosaur Model

Schleich Brachiosaurus dinosaur model.

The Schleich Brachiosaurus dinosaur model (2017).

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Suitable Dinosaur Models for Early Years Foundation Stage 

Children in Foundation Stage (Nursery and Reception) will be mostly learning through games and creative play activities, although in Reception classes (Foundation Stage 2), by the beginning of the summer term, many schools will be introducing more structured learning routines to help prepare the children for the greater emphasis on cognitive abilities which comes with Year 1.  One of the key areas of learning is to help children to develop language and communication skills, as well as learning about the properties of materials (understanding the world).  The Schleich Brachiosaurus model has a roughened texture over part of the dinosaur’s body.  Other areas are smooth, as a result, the figure is ideal for exploring how different objects feel.

The Beautiful Texture on the Schleich Brachiosaurus

The texture on the neck and shoulders of the Schleich Brachiosaurus dinosaur model.

The beautiful texture of the Schleich Brachiosaurus is ideal for creative play.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Looking at the Properties of Different Materials

Dinosaur toys and models are a source of fascination for both young boys and girls.  Team members at Everything Dinosaur use an assortment of dinosaur models and figures in their outreach work with children, particularly those children in Year 1 and Foundation Stage.  The tactile, kinaesthetic quality of the Schleich Brachiosaurus dinosaur makes it ideal, as the children feel the model’s rough scales and smooth skin.  We also use this Schleich dinosaur model to help children learn and remember the names for different parts of the body and to compare our bodies to that of a dinosaur.

Can You See His Eyes?  How Many Eyes Does the Dinosaur Have?

The Schleich Brachiosaurus dinosaur model.

The tactile quality of a Schleich Brachiosaurus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

The Schleich model is ideal for exploring parts of the body with young children at Foundation Stage and Year 1.  Can they point to the teeth?  Where’s the dinosaur’s tongue?  Can you count the dinosaur’s toes?

To view the range of Schleich prehistoric animal models including the robust, sturdy Schleich Brachiosaurus figure: Schleich Dinosaurs and Prehistoric Animal Models

The Schleich Brachiosaurus dinosaur model has a very tactile nature, a result of the carefully moulded scales on various parts of the body.  It is a robust and sturdy dinosaur model, ideal for use when working with EYFS (Early Years Foundation Stage).

21 04, 2017

New Species of Hyaenodont from Egypt Described

By | April 21st, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

Masrasector nananubis – From the Late Eocene of Egypt

If people are asked to name a meat-eating mammal, you can expect to get answers such as tiger, bear or lion.  Those of us with more of a domestic outlook on life might mention cats and dogs, but for a significant portion of the Cenozoic, sometimes referred to as the “Age of Mammals”, the Carnivora, the Order to which bears, cats and dogs belong, did not get a look in.  Prior to the evolution of many types of recognisable carnivorous mammal alive today, other types of mammals filled the role of hypercarnivores*.

One such group was the Hyaenodonta.  A diverse clade of carnivorous mammals that filled a variety of roles in terrestrial ecosystems in both the New and the Old World.  Writing in the on-line academic journal PLOS One, scientists from Ohio University and the University of Southern California have published details of a new species of Yorkshire terrier-sized hyaenodont, the beautifully preserved skull and jaws are helping palaeontologists to understand more about the evolution and phylogeny of this extinct group, a group that has no close relatives alive today.

The Skull and Jaws of a Newly Identified Species of Hyaenodont

Skull and jaws of Masrasector nananubis.

Computer generated image showing the skull and jaws of Masrasector nananubis (right lateral view).

Picture Credit: PLOS One

Masrasector nananubis – Named after a God of Ancient Egypt

The Late Eocene deposits of the Fayum Depression (Egypt), have provided scientists with a substantial number of mammal fossils, including a number of hyaenodonts, the latest to be added to this list is Masrasector nananubis.  It has been classified as member of the Hyaenodontidae, specifically part of the Teratodontine clade, a poorly known group which are distinguished from other hyaenodonts by subtle differences in the shape of their skulls, jaws and teeth.  Masrasector translates as “the Egyptian slicer”, a reference to the large molars (carnassials).  The species or trivial name honours Anubis, the jackal-faced Egyptian god of mummification.  The premolars and molars of Masrasector have larger grinding surfaces when compared to other hyaenodonts.  The researchers have speculated that Masrasector nananubis may have supplemented its diet of small mammals, amphibians, reptiles and insects by feeding on fruit and nuts.  This suggests that, like other members of the Teratodontinae clade, it may not have relied on meat consumption as much as other hyaenodonts that were hypercarnivorous.  It has been suggested that M. nananubis may have been mesocarnivorous*.

Views of the Skull of Masrasector nananubis

Cranium material of Masrasector.

Views of the skull of Masrasector (Hyaenodont).

Picture Credit: PLOS One

It may be true that hyaenodont fossils are known from Africa, North America, Asia and Europe and that the genus Hyaenodon survived for around twenty-six million years, the longest temporal spam known for a fossil mammal, but the discovery of these Masrasector fossils is still very significant.  The fossils comprise largely complete skulls, jaws, and parts of the skeleton, making them one of the most complete known African hyaenodonts from the Paleogene found to date.  Previously, researchers only had isolated bones and teeth fragments to work with, frustrating palaeontologists as they attempt to piece together the family tree representing the Hyaenodontidae.

The fossils come from a dig site (locality 41) in the Fayum Depression, the well-consolidated clays have been dated to the Late Priabonian of the Eocene (approximately 34 million years ago).  The Masrasector material represents some of the oldest fossils known for this type of hyaenodont.

Commenting on the importance of the fossils, corresponding author for the study, Matthew R. Borths (Department of Biomedical Sciences, Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University), stated:

“These fossils might be the oldest and most complete ever discovered, but there is still much that remains to be discovered as the fossils of other members of this group are fragmentary.  Masrasector can be used as a cornerstone of character development for exploring the evolution and diversity of other hyaenodontids.”

 

An Illustration of the Giant Hyaenodont (H. gigas)

Hyaenodon gigas scale drawing.

A scale drawing of the giant Hyaenodon gigas.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Matthew went onto add:

“Hyaenodonts were the top predators in Africa after the extinction of the dinosaurs.  This new species is associated with a dozen specimens, including skulls and arm bones, which means we can explore what it ate, how it moved, and consider why these carnivorous mammals died off as the relatives of dogs, cats, and hyenas moved into Africa.”

Hypercarnivore* an animal which has at least 70% of its diet made up of meat.

Mesocarnivore* an animal which has around 50% to 70% of its diet made up of meat.

The scientific paper: “Craniodental and Humeral Morphology of a New Species of Masrasector (Teratodontinae, Hyaenodonta, Placentalia) from the Late Eocene of Egypt and Locomotor Diversity in Hyaenodonts” by Matthew R. Borths and Erik R Seiffert published in PLOS One.

20 04, 2017

SpinoDude Reviews Polacanthus

By | April 20th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Everything Dinosaur videos, Main Page, Photos of Everything Dinosaur Products|0 Comments

Papo Polacanthus Video Review

SpinoDude has produced a very informative review of the new for 2017 Papo Polacanthus dinosaur model.  Papo’s promotional images of this plant-eating dinosaur did not do it justice and SpinoDude addresses this by showcasing some of the exquisite details that can be found on this replica, one of six dinosaur figures (including two repaints), to be added to Papo’s “Les Dinosaures” range this year.

The Video Review of Polacanthus

Video Credit: SpinoDude Reviews

In this short, seven-minute video review, SpinoDude shows the model in close-up and highlights some of the features of this replica, such as the carefully painted eye and the subtle detailing around and inside the mouth.  One of the great things about SpinoDude dinosaur model reviews is that the narrator starts by providing some scientific information about the dinosaur in question.  For example, the sacral shield is commented upon and the video contains images of the sacral shield and pelvis elements collected from the Lower Cretaceous of Barnes High, (Isle of Wight), what are in fact, the pelvis fossils of the Polacanthus holotype (NHMUK R175).

The SpinoDude YouTube channel has nearly 1,000 subscribers and the channel contains dozens of skilfully made prehistoric animal model reviews.

To see the channel and to subscribe to SpinoDude: SpinoDude Reviews YouTube Channel

 An Eagerly Anticipated Dinosaur Model

The narrator describes the Papo Polacanthus as one of the most eagerly anticipated figures to be introduced by Papo this year.  The spectacular Acrocanthosaurus and Papo Ceratosaurus may have stolen a lot of the limelight, but discerning collectors will appreciate the quality of this armoured dinosaur.  On our travels, we have had the pleasure of studying North American Cretaceous polacanthids as well as writing about the discovery of “the Horsham specimen” from Rudgwick, Surrey.  The disarticulated fossil material recovered from a brickworks quarry, representing strata deposited in the Early Cretaceous (Barremian faunal stage), has led to the establishment of a new member of the armoured dinosaurs, within the Polacanthinae clade but not that closely related to Polacanthus foxii.  This new dinosaur has been named Horshamosaurus. (H. rudgwickensis).

Everything Dinosaur’s Picture of the Papo Polacanthus

Papo Polacanthus replica.

Papo Polacanthus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

To view the range of Papo prehistoric animal figures available from Everything Dinosaur: Papo Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal Models

The Papo Polacanthus Dinosaur Model

Papo Polacanthus model.

Papo Polacanthus dinosaur model.

Picture Credit: Everything Dinosaur

Dr William Blows (the scientist responsible for describing and naming Horshamosaurus), recently published an excellent book which comprehensively reviewed the research undertaken into British polacanthids and their North American cousins.

“British Polacanthid Dinosaurs” by William T. Blows

"British polacanthid Dinosaurs".

Written by William T. Blows.

Picture Credit: Siri Scientific Press

For further details: Visit the Website of Siri Scientific Press

Our thanks to SpinoDude for his super Papo Polacanthus video review.

19 04, 2017

Prehistoric Seagull from the Outback

By | April 19th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Dinosaur Fans, Main Page|0 Comments

Nanantius eos and the Eromanga Sea

The Queensland town of Richmond may be several hundred miles from the Coral Sea that laps against the coast of north-eastern Australia, but back in the Cretaceous this part of world, famous for its droughts and arid outback, was covered for millions of years by a shallow, tropical sea (the Eromanga Sea), that teemed with prehistoric life.  Thanks to the efforts of volunteers and the dedicated researchers at Richmond’s Kronosaurus Korner a new ancient resident has been identified, not a sea monster, or an ancient fish but a primitive bird that probably filled an ecological niche similar to today’s seagulls.

Swooping into view comes Nanantius eos, the name translates as dawn dwarf-enantiornithine*.  Slighter smaller than a Common Tern (Sterna hirundo), perhaps weighing no more than a couple of hundred grammes, the fossils come from marine sandstone deposits that were laid down more than 100 million years ago, (Aptian to Albian faunal stage of the Cretaceous).  Fossils of Nanantius have been found in Winton sandstone exposures around three-hundred miles to the south-west of Richmond, but these consist of only a few isolated bones.  Working at a site just eight miles from the centre of Richmond, Dr Patrick Smith (Curator at the Kronosaurus Korner Fossil Museum), is confident that the number of bird bones found so far indicates that there might be complete skeletons present in the deposit.

Pictures of the Fossil Material Ascribed to Nanantius eos from the Richmond Site

Nanantius fossils from the Richmond site.

Nanantius eos fossils including a partial humerus (left).

Picture Credit: Dr Patrick Smith

Dr Smith commented:

“It’s very, very rare to find dinosaurs out here, there’s only been about a handful known, so finding these dinosaur birds is amazing.  We haven’t had any of these sorts of primitive birds found in Richmond.”

The “Richmond Raptor”

Volunteer Mike D’Arcy found the first evidence of a fossil bird some five years ago.  Ever since his first discovery, he has been busy recruiting volunteers to help him find more fossil evidence.  As, for much of the Early Cretaceous, Richmond was underwater and many miles from land, it is surprising to find evidence of an enantiornithine bird in marine sandstone deposits.  Scientists are unsure how the bird fossils came to be deposited.  Do they represent an accumulation of carcases of birds washed out to sea?  Or perhaps flocks of Nanantius eos (which was probably a capable flyer), may have flown out far to sea in order to feed.  Mike has nick-named the bird the “Richmond Raptor”.  It did have small, sharp teeth in its jaws and claws on its wings but small fish and insects were probably its choice of prey.

Volunteer Mike D’Arcy Working at the Fossil Site

Volunteer Mike D'Arcy working at the dig site.

Mike D’Arcy at the fossil dig site.

Picture Credit: Mike D’Arcy

A spokesperson from Everything Dinosaur commented:

“Local residents can play an important role in helping palaeontologists to collect fossils from sites, that the palaeontologists themselves may not have time to visit and explore themselves.  Thanks to these volunteers, many fossils that would otherwise have been eroded away can be saved, permitting scientists the opportunity to study them.”

Likely member of the Enantiornithine Clade*

Although described as a member of the Enantiornithes clade, a group of abundant, primitive birds of the Cretaceous, it is hoped that the Richmond fossils will be able to confirm this assessment.  Previously, fossils found near the small town of Boulia, (Queensland), included a partial tibiotarsus (ankle and lower leg bone), were attributed to Nanantius.  The shape of this bone was once thought to be diagnostic of the Enantiornithines but more recent Mesozoic bird discoveries have cast doubt on the morphology of the tibiotarsus being suitably diagnostic of a Enantiornithine affinity.  With more fossil bones found, including limb elements (humerus and unguals), palaeontologists may be able to confirm the taxonomic position of N. eos.

Examining a Pedal Ungual (Nanantius eos)

Viewing a claw fossil of Nanantius eos (Cretaceous bird).

Mike D’Arcy examining one of the fossil toe claws.

Picture Credit: Mike D’Arcy

Mike D’Arcy added:

“The first half a dozen pieces I got, we couldn’t really assign what it was and it wasn’t until we got the humerus that we could say it was definitely a bird.”

The fossils are currently on display at the Kronosaurus Korner Fossil Museum. Nanantius is regarded as seabird as fossils have been found in association with marine deposits.  In addition, in 2003, a paper was published in the “Proceedings of the Royal Society – Biology” that described the stomach contents discovered in association with a gravid female Ichthyosaur (Platypterygius longmani).  Amongst the fossilised remains of baby turtles and fish, the scientists discovered limb bones from an Enantiornithine bird, probably from the Nanantius genus.  How the bones came to be in the body cavity of an Ichthyosaur is unknown, perhaps the marine reptile grabbed the bird as it rested on the water, or maybe the Ichthyosaur had fed on a corpse that had been washed out to sea.

18 04, 2017

New Species of Arowana Fish from the Eocene of China

By | April 18th, 2017|Dinosaur and Prehistoric Animal News Stories, Main Page, Photos/Pictures of Fossils|0 Comments

The Origins of the Dragon Fish (Scleropages)

Scientists from the Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Palaeoanthropology (IVPP) have published details of the discovery of beautifully preserved fish fossils from China that have helped map the origins of one of the most valuable and sought after aquarium fishes in the world.  Scleropages formosus, the Asian Arowana, otherwise known as the Dragon Fish from south-eastern Asia, quite rare in the wild these days, but it is highly regarded amongst freshwater aquarium owners, who can splash out thousands of dollars to acquire particularly colourful specimens.

In a scientific paper published in the journal “Vertebrata PalAsiatica”, Dr Zhang Jiangyong (IVPP) in collaboration with Dr Mark Wilson (University of Alberta), report on the discovery of a new species of osteoglossid fish from the Early Eocene Xiwanpu Formation in Hunan and the Yangxi Formation in Hubei, (China).  The prehistoric fish is remarkable similar to the extant species and it has been named Scleropages sinensis (the name translates as “hard scaled leaves from China”, a reference to the robust tough body scales that characterises these fish).

The Holotype Fossil Material of Scleropages sinensis

The holotype fossil material of S. sinensis.

Holotype of Scleropages sinensis.

Picture Credit: Zhang Jiangyong (IVPP)

The picture above shows the beautifully preserved holotype specimen of S. sinensis.  The fins are labelled (df) = dorsal fin, (cf) = caudal fin, (af) = anal fin, (pf and pec f) = pectoral fins, scale bar 1 centimetre.

This is the first time a nearly complete body fossil of this genus has been described.  Previously, the fossil record only consisted of individual scales, otoliths (calcified structures from the inner ear) and isolated fragmentary bones.  The discovery of Scleropages sinensis dates the divergence of Scleropages from the closely related Osteoglossum to at least as far back as the Early Eocene.  The fish fossils represent a number of different ontogenetic (growth stages). The largest specimens are 17.5 centimetres in length, the smallest under 8 centimetres long.

Fossil Scleropages are known from the Maastrichtian of India, the Maastrichtian/Late Palaeocene of Africa, the Palaeocene of Europe, the Eocene of Sumatra, and the Oligocene of Australia.   All of these earlier records are scales, otoliths and isolated bone fragments. Therefore, these newly described Chinese fossils are the first skeletons of fossil Scleropages ever unearthed in the world.

Views of the Scleropages Fossil Material

Views of Scleropages sinensis fossil material.

Scleropages sinensis fossil material (various views).

Picture Credit: Zhang Jiangyong (IVPP)

Dr Zhang stated:

“This new fish resembles Scleropages in skull bones, caudal skeleton, the shape and position of fins, and reticulate scales.  Therefore, it must belong to the genus.”

The extant species of Scleropages inhabits lakes, swamps and flooded forests as well as slowly meandering rivers. It is a carnivorous fish preying on insects, worms, small amphibians, other fish, small mammals and even birds.  The fish is renowned for its jumping, the researchers propose that Scleropages sinensis may have filled a similar niche in the Eocene ecosystem, but being smaller it probably had a more restricted diet than its extant relative.  Analysis of the fossil material suggests that sexual dimorphism may have existed in S. sinensis.

Comparing the Extinct Species with Living Species

Living species of Scleropages compared to the fossil material.

Comparison between Scleropages sinensis (A) and the living species S. formosus (B), S. leichardti.

Picture Credit: Zhang Jiangyong (IVPP)

17 04, 2017

Prehistoric Times Magazine (Spring 2017) Reviewed

By | April 17th, 2017|Dinosaur Fans, Magazine Reviews, Main Page|1 Comment

A Review of Prehistoric Times Magazine (Spring 2017)

Issue 121 (Spring 2017), of the quarterly magazine “Prehistoric Times” has just arrived and this edition of the popular journal for dinosaur fans and prehistoric animal model enthusiasts has a distinctly “English” feel to it.  Yes, we know the front cover features the amazing artwork of the highly influential Zdeněk Burian, an artist and palaeo illustrator from Czechoslovakia.  This issue contains details of Burian’s commissioned artwork used to help illustrate fiction, one of a series of articles all about the great man written by John Lavas.  However, also included is a feature on London-born, Alice Bolingbroke Woodward, who like Burian, was a pioneer of prehistoric animal illustration, plus look out for Phil Hore’s informative piece on a very enigmatic English Theropod Metriacanthosaurus and the John Sibbick Reader Art.

The Front Cover of Prehistoric Times Issue 121

The front cover of Prehistoric Times magazine (Spring 2017).

The front cover of prehistoric times magazine (Spring 2017).

Picture Credit: Prehistoric Times

The front cover of “Prehistoric Times” features artwork by Zdeněk Burian.

To learn more about “Prehistoric Times” and to subscribe visit the website: Prehistoric Times Magazine

Pliosaurs and the Bristol Museum and Art Gallery

The “English theme” continues with our chum Anthony Beeson’s contribution, a short article highlighting the extensive marine reptile collection associated with the Bristol City Museum.  Anthony discusses the historical significance of the specimens, many of which were originally collected by Mary Anning. He then brings us right up to date with details about a forthcoming marine reptile exhibition that runs from June 17th until early January 2018.

Phil Hore’s second contribution in the magazine, is an article on the bizarre Therapsid Estemmenosuchus, fossils of which come from the Urals, however, Phil’s article begins with comments made by the 19th Century English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley.  It turns out that “Darwin’s Bulldog” got these cow-sized beasties completely wrong.  Look out for some fantastic reader artwork that accompanies this article.

The Sound of the Mesozoic

Robert Telleria continues to put the spotlight on the artwork associated with sound recordings that feature prehistoric animals and on the subject of artwork, check out “What color were dinosaurs?”  Mike Fredericks and Tracy Lee Ford have collaborated on a new dinosaur themed colouring book.  It is reviewed in the “Mesozoic Media” section of the magazine.  Lots of palaeontology news including the discovery of new species of horned dinosaur (Yehuecauhceratops mudei) from Mexico is discussed and check out the wonderful Siats meekerorum illustration by Fabio Pastori.

Yehuecauhceratops mudei – A New Mexican Horned Dinosaur

Yehuecauhceratops Museum Replica

Scientists have constructed a model of the Mexican dinosaur called Yehuecauhceratops.

Picture Credit: Museo del Desierto, Mexico (The Coahuila Desert Museum)

Paying Tribute to Aurora Prehistoric Scenes

Our favourite article in the Spring edition of “Prehistoric Times”, comes from Steve Kelley, who takes readers on a very personal journey as he discusses his love of the Aurora Prehistoric Scenes model series.  What a fantastic collection Steve has been able to amass!  Ironically, this, very informative article does not include any pictures of the “Jungle Swamp” set, which was voted amongst Everything Dinosaur team members as our favourite.  Perhaps it will feature in part two, which is promised for issue 122.

Our Favourite Aurora Prehistoric Scenes Model Set – “The Jungle Swamp”

Aurora Prehistoric Scenes "Jungle Swamp".

Super Aurora Model Kit from childhood.

To subscribe to Prehistoric Times Magazine: Prehistoric Times Magazine

Load More Posts